[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the effects of insulin, on production of NO-related substances (nitrites and nitrates, NOx) following 15N-arginine iv infusion, and on ADMA and SDMA concentrations, in conditions reportedly associated with altered NO availability, i.e. ageing, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and Type-2 Diabetes (T2DM). A total of 26 male subjects (age: 23-71 yrs, BMI: 23-33 kg/m2), some of them affected by mixed pathologic features, were enrolled. NOx fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was lower in elderly (p<0.015) and T2DM subjects p<0.03), than in matched controls. Hyperinsulinemia generally increased both NOx FSR and ASR (Absolute Synthesis Rate), and reduced NOx, ADMA and SDMA concentrations. Insulin-sensitivity was impaired only in T2DM. Using simple linear regression analysis across all subjects, age was inversely correlated with both NOx FSR (R2 = 0.23, p<0.015) and ASR (R2 = 0.21, p<0.02). NOx FSR inversely correlated with both ADMA and SDMA. Using multiple regression analysis and various models, NOx FSR remained inversely associated with age and ADMA, whereas ASR was inversely associated with age and diabetes. No association with insulin sensitivity was found. We conclude that whole-body NOx production is decreased in ageing and T2DM. Age, ADMA concentration and T2DM, but not insulin-resistance, appear as negative regulators of whole-body NOx production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a key metabolic and vascular regulator. Its production is stimulated by insulin. A reduced urinary excretion of NO products (NOx) is frequently found in type 2 diabetes, particularly in association with nephropathy. However, whether the decreased NOx excretion in type 2 diabetes is caused by a defective NOx production from arginine in response to hyperinsulinemia has never been studied.
We measured NOx fractional (FSR) and absolute (ASR) synthesis rates in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and in control subjects, after l-[(15)N(2)-guanidino]-arginine infusion, and use of precursor-product relationships. The study was conducted both before and after an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic ( approximately 1,000-1,200 pmol/l) clamp.
In type 2 diabetes, NOx FSR was reduced both under basal (19.3 +/- 3.9% per day, vs. 22.9 +/- 4.5% per day in control subjects) and hyperinsulinemic states (24.0 +/- 5.6% per day, vs. 37.9 +/- 6.4% per day in control subjects; P < 0.03 by ANOVA). Similarly, in type 2 diabetes, NOx ASR was lower than in control subjects under both conditions (basal, 0.32 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.89 +/- 0.34 mol per day; hyperinsulinemia, 0.35 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.15 +/- 0.38 mol per day; P = 0.01 by ANOVA). In type 2 diabetes, the ability of insulin to stimulate both the FSR (4.7 +/- 3.2% per day) and the ASR (0.03 +/- 0.04 mol per day) of NOx was several-fold lower than that in control subjects (15.0 +/- 2.9% per day and 0.25 +/- 0.07 mol per day, P < 0.03 and P < 0.02, respectively). Also the fraction of arginine flux converted to NOx (basal, 0.22 +/- 0.05% vs. 0.65 +/- 0.25%; hyperinsulinemia, 0.32 +/- 0.06% vs. 1.03 +/- 0.33%) was sharply reduced in the patients (P < 0.01 by ANOVA).
In type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy, intravascular NOx synthesis from arginine is decreased under both basal and hyperinsulinemic states. This defect extends the concept of insulin resistance to NO metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although metabolic acidosis stimulates protein catabolism, its effects on splanchnic protein turnover and energy expenditure have not been measured in human beings. We investigated the effects of chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on splanchnic protein dynamics and oxygen consumption in human beings by using a leucine tracer and mass-balance techniques.
Five subjects were studied after 6 days of HCl-, CaCl(2)-, and NH(4)Cl-induced acidosis; 8 subjects served as controls. Blood samples were collected from the radial artery and the hepatic veins. Measurements were performed on plasma and whole-blood samples.
Based on plasma measurements, subjects who had undergone CMA had lower rates of splanchnic proteolysis (-35%) and protein synthesis (-50%; P < .05) than controls, as well as a negative leucine kinetic balance (-6.81 +/- 2.48 micromol/kg/min/1.73 m(2) body surface [BS](-1)), compared with the neutral balance in control plasma samples (0.76 +/- 2.11 micromol/kg/min/1.73; P < .05 between groups). Based on measurements from whole blood, splanchnic proteolysis and protein synthesis did not differ significantly between CMA and control samples, and the net leucine kinetic balance was neutral in both groups (CMA, -0.69 +/- 1.57; controls, -0.74 +/- 3.45 micromol/kg/min/1.73). In CMA whole-blood measurements, splanchnic oxygen consumption (44.8 +/- 4.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) BS) was slightly lower than in controls (57.5 +/- 8.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) BS; P = NS). Splanchnic protein synthesis correlated with oxygen consumption (r = 0.82; P < .001).
CMA reduces splanchnic protein turnover and results in a negative leucine balance--an effect that apparently is offset by the contribution of blood cells to organ leucine (and protein) dynamics. Protein synthesis is a major contributor (about 67%) to energy expenditure in splanchnic organs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hyperfibrinogenemia and insulin resistance are common in obesity and diabetes mellitus, the impact of obesity per se on fibrinogen turnover and the insulin effects on fibrinogen and protein kinetics is unknown.
We measured fibrinogen and albumin fractional (FSR) and absolute (ASR) synthesis rates, as well as protein turnover, in non-diabetic, obese and in control male subjects both before and following an euglycemic, euaminoacidemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp, using L-[(2)H(3)]-Leucine isotope infusion.
In the obese, basal fibrinogen concentrations was approximately 25% greater (p < 0.035), and fibrinogen pool approximately 45% greater (p < 0.005), than in controls. Both FSR and ASR of fibrinogen were similar to control values. With hyperinsulinemia, although fibrinogen FSR and ASR were not significantly modified with respect to baseline in either group, fibrinogen ASR resulted to be approximately 50% greater in the obese than in controls (p < 0.015). Hyperinsulinemia equally stimulated albumin synthesis and suppressed leucine appearance from endogenous proteolysis in both groups. Amino acid clearance was also similar. In the obese, the insulin-mediated glucose disposal was approximately 50% lower (p < 0.03) than in controls, and it was inversely correlated with fibrinogen ASR during the clamp in both groups (r = - 0.58).
In obese, non-diabetic males, post absorptive fibrinogen production is normal. Whole-body amino acid disposal, basal and insulin-responsive protein degradation, and albumin synthesis are also normal. However, the greater fibrinogen ASR in the obese with hyperinsulinemia, and the inverse relationship between insulin sensitivity and clamp fibrinogen production, suggest a role for hyperinsulinemia and/or insulin resistance on fibrinogen production in obesity.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 11/2009; 26(1):50-8. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenylalanine conversion to tyrosine (i.e., 'hydroxylation') is the first irreversible step in phenylalanine catabolism and a source of circulating tyrosine. The purpose of the present review is both to examine hydroxylation from a biochemical standpoint and to report data measured in vivo under physiological conditions, as well as in liver and kidney disease.
The simultaneous infusion of phenylalanine and tyrosine tracers in humans allows us to determine the hydroxylation rate in vivo. Hydroxylation accounts for a minor ( approximately 10-20%) although significant portion of tyrosine flux. The liver and the kidney are the key organs accounting for virtually the whole-body hydroxylation rates. It is regulated by substrate availability, being acutely stimulated by mixed meal ingestion and by dietary adaptation to high phenylalanine intakes. Theoretically, it may be impaired in advanced liver and kidney disease. Nevertheless, in compensated liver cirrhosis, hydroxylation as well as tyrosine flux are not decreased but rather increased. Only in end stage liver disease hydroxylation may be impaired and is corrected by transplantation. Hydroxylation is also reduced in end stage renal disease.
Phenylalanine hydroxylation in vivo appears to represent a regulatory step of phenylalanine disposal and tyrosine production under acute and/or extreme conditions.
Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 11/2009; 13(1):81-6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homocysteinylation is a post-translational protein modification which involves homocysteine-thiolactone and may be responsible for many pathophysiological changes secondary to hyperhomocysteinemia. Therefore, methods to measure protein homocysteinylation in intact biological samples are required. We tested whether matrix assisted-laser/desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) can detect time- and dose-dependent changes in in vitro homocysteine-thiolactone binding to human serum albumin. We have compared this method with a 35S-thiolactone radioactive binding assay. Incubations with and without dithiothreitol allowed measurement of the amide-linked and disulfide-linked thiolactone-protein adducts, respectively. A good correspondence in time- and dose-dependent protein-thiolactone formation was observed between the two methods. A maximum of 9 to 12 thiolactone residues were bound to each albumin molecule. The 35S-thiolactone bound albumin tightly, particularly at the lowest concentrations, with approximately 70% of the binding amide-linked. Although the results of the two methods were rather similar, the radioactive method appears to be more sensitive than the MALDI-MS technique.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 11/2009; 23(23):3837-42. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether ageing is associated with increased fibrinogen concentration and production remains unclear. We measured fibrinogen fractional (FSR) and absolute synthesis (ASR) rates in male volunteers, of either young (mean age: 28 years, range: 22-34) or middle age (mean age: 57 years, range: 38-72), using a leucine-tracer isotope dilution technique. In the middle-age group, neither fibrinogen FSR (20.8 +/- 1.6%/day) nor ASR (1.8 +/- 0.1 g/day), or concentration (274 +/- 15 mg/dl), were different from those of the younger group (FSR: 20.2 +/- 1.4; ASR: 1.7 +/- 0.2; concentration: 265 +/- 8, respectively). Leucine Ra, an index of endogenous proteolysis, was approximately 20% lower in the older than in the younger group (P < 0.02). Thus, middle age in males is not associated with increased fibrinogen concentration and turnover, whereas endogenous protein breakdown in decreased. Factor(s) different from age per se are likely to be involved in the dysfibrinogenemia possibly occurring with ageing. Protein turnover is already reduced in middle-age males.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New effort has been made to develop closed-loop glucose control, using subcutaneous (SC) glucose sensing and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) from a pump, and a control algorithm. An approach based on a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm has been utilized during closed-loop control in type 1 diabetes patients. Here we describe the preliminary clinical experience with this approach. Six type 1 diabetes patients (three in each of two clinical investigation centers in Padova and Montpellier), using CSII, aged 36 +/- 8 and 48 +/- 6 years, duration of diabetes 12 +/- 8 and 29 +/- 4 years, hemoglobin A1c 7.4% +/- 0.1% and 7.3% +/- 0.3%, body mass index 23.2 +/- 0.3 and 28.4 +/- 2.2 kg/m(2), respectively, were studied on two occasions during 22 h overnight hospital admissions 2-4 weeks apart. A Freestyle Navigator(R) continuous glucose monitor and an OmniPod insulin pump were applied in each trial. Admission 1 used open-loop control, while admission 2 employed closed-loop control using our MPC algorithm. In Padova, two out of three subjects showed better performance with the closed-loop system compared to open loop. Altogether, mean overnight plasma glucose (PG) levels were 134 versus 111 mg/dl during open loop versus closed loop, respectively. The percentage of time spent at PG > 140 mg/dl was 45% versus 12%, while postbreakfast mean PG was 165 versus 156 mg/dl during open loop versus closed loop, respectively. Also, in Montpellier, two patients out of three showed a better glucose control during closed-loop trials. Avoidance of nocturnal hypoglycemic excursions was a clear benefit during algorithm-guided insulin delivery in all cases. This preliminary set of studies demonstrates that closed-loop control based entirely on SC glucose sensing and insulin delivery is feasible and can be applied to improve glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes, although the algorithm needs to be further improved to achieve better glycemic control.
Journal of diabetes science and technology 09/2009; 3(5):1014-21.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperfibrinogenemia, a cardiovascular risk factor, is frequent in hypertension and largely unexplained. In this study, we measured fibrinogen production and whole-body protein turnover under both basal and hyperinsulinemic states, in hypertensive [H] and control [C] subjects, using a leucine stable isotope tracer and precursor-product relationships.
Since hypertension is often a feature of the "metabolic", insulin resistance syndrome, which in turn affects both fibrinogen kinetics and whole-body protein turnover, we selected hypertensive subjects without the metabolic syndrome. Following basal measurements, an euglycemic, approximately euaminoacidemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed, with plasma insulin raised to 700-900 pmol/L. In H, rates of the fractional and absolute synthesis (FSR and ASR, respectively) of fibrinogen were 30%-40% greater (p<0.05 or less) than in C in both states, whereas leucine turnover was normal. Hyperinsulinemia did not modify fibrinogen synthesis in either group with respect to baseline, whereas it suppressed leucine appearance from endogenous proteolysis by approximately 40% to same extent in both groups. Amino acid clearance was similar in both the H and C subjects. In H, the insulin-mediated glucose disposal (M) was approximately 25% lower, (although insignificantly) than in controls, showing no overall insulin resistance. There was an inverse correlation between M and fibrinogen FSR during the clamp.
In essential hypertension fibrinogen production is increased, is not further stimulated by insulin, and is inversely related to insulin sensitivity at high-physiological insulin concentrations. Amino acid disposal and basal as well as insulin-responsive protein degradation rates are instead normal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the mechanism(s) of increased aromatic amino acids concentrations in liver cirrhosis using phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) isotope infusions in male patients with compensated cirrhosis (five in Child Class A, three in B) and in eight matched healthy controls, in both postabsorptive and fed states. After a baseline period, a standard liquid mixed meal was fed continuously over 4 h. Both a "plasma" and an intracellular model were employed. In the patients, steady-state Phe and Tyr concentrations were approximately 30-50% greater, and rates of Phe appearance (Ra) (plasma model), Tyr Ra, and Phe hydroxylation (Hy; both models) were approximately 25 to >100% greater than in controls in both states. Meal ingestion increased (P<0.05 or less vs. basal) Phe and Tyr concentrations, Phe and Tyr Ra, Phe Hy, and % Tyr Ra not deriving from Hy in both groups. Hy and Tyr Ra remained>50% greater (P<0.04 to P<0.01) in patients, whereas Phe Ra was more modestly increased. Phe utilization for protein synthesis increased similarly in both groups. Tyr clearance was normal, whereas Phe clearance tended to be lower (P=0.09, intracellular model) in the patients. In summary, in compensated liver cirrhosis studied under fasted and fed states, 1) Tyr Ra is increased; 2) Phe Hy and Phe Ra (plasma model) are increased; 3) Tyr clearance is normal; and 4) Phe clearance is slightly decreased. In conclusion, in cirrhosis increased total tyrosine Ra and hydroxylation contribute to fasting and postmeal hypertyrosinemia, whereas the mechanism(s) responsible for the hyperphenylalaninemia may include both increased production and decreased disposal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulatory molecule with wide vascular, cellular, and metabolic effects. Insulin affects NO synthesis in vitro. No data exist on the acute effect of insulin on NO kinetics in vivo. By employing a precursor-product tracer method in humans, we have directly estimated the acute effect of insulin on intravascular NO(x) (i.e., the NO oxidation products) fractional (FSR) and absolute (ASR) synthesis rates in vivo. Nine healthy male volunteers were infused iv with L-[(15)N(2)-guanidino]arginine ([(15)N(2)]arginine) for 6 h. Timed measurements of (15)NO(x) and [(15)N(2)]arginine enrichments in whole blood were performed in the first 3 h in the fasting state and then following a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (with plasma insulin raised to approximately 1,000 pmol/l). In the last 60 min of each experimental period, at approximately steady-state arginine enrichment, a linear increase of (15)NO(x) enrichment (mean r = 0.9) was detected in both experimental periods. In the fasting state, NO(x) FSR was 27.4 +/- 4.3%/day, whereas ASR was 0.97 +/- 0.36 mmol/day, accounting for 0.69 +/- 0.27% of arginine flux. Following hyperinsulinemia, both FSR and ASR of NO(x) increased (FSR by approximately 50%, to 42.4 +/- 6.7%/day, P < 0.005; ASR by approximately 25%, to 1.22 +/- 0.41 mmol/day, P = 0.002), despite a approximately 20-30% decrease of arginine flux and concentration. The fraction of arginine flux used for NO(x) synthesis was doubled, to 1.13 +/- 0.35% (P < 0.003). In conclusion, whole body NO(x) synthesis can be directly measured over a short observation time with stable isotope methods in humans. Insulin acutely stimulates NO(x) synthesis from arginine.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2007; 293(3):E776-82. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperfibrinogenaemia and albuminuria are cardiovascular risk factors, often coexisting in diabetic and non-diabetic people. Albuminuria in turn is associated with a compensatory albumin overproduction in non-diabetic patients. It is not known whether the presence of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with greater albumin and fibrinogen production rates than in normoalbuminuric patients. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: Using leucine isotope methods, we measured fractional and absolute synthesis rates (FSR, ASR) of albumin and fibrinogen in post-absorptive type 2 diabetic patients with either normal (n=11) or increased (n=10) urinary albumin excretion.
In albuminuric patients, albumin FSR (16.2+/-1.5%/day) and ASR (20.5+/-1.9 g/day) were greater (p<0.02 and p<0.05, respectively) than in normoalbuminuric patients (FSR=11.5+/-1.1%/day; ASR=15.7+/-1.2 g/day). Fibrinogen FSR was similar between patients with normal and increased albumin excretion, but concentration, the circulating pool and ASR of fibrinogen were 40 to 50% greater (p<0.035) in patients with albuminuria. Albuminuria was positively correlated with albumin ASR, with fibrinogen concentration, the fibrinogen pool and ASR, whereas albumin synthesis was inversely correlated with calculated oncotic pressure.
Synthesis of albumin and fibrinogen is upregulated in type 2 diabetic patients with increased urinary albumin excretion. Albuminuria is associated with enhanced fibrinogen and albumin synthesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin stimulates albumin synthesis but inhibits that of fibrinogen in both type 1 diabetic and healthy subjects. In type 2 diabetes, fibrinogen production is increased both in the postabsorptive state and in response to hyperinsulinemia. No data exist on the rate of albumin synthesis and its response to insulin in type 2 diabetes.
We measured fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) and absolute synthesis rates (ASRs) of both albumin and fibrinogen in postabsorptive normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients at their spontaneous glucose levels (study A), as well as albumin FSR and ASR before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic euaminoacidemic clamp (study B), using leucine isotope methods.
In postabsorptive type 2 diabetes (study A), albumin FSR (11.2 +/- 0.9%/day) and albumin ASR (15.4 +/- 1.2 g/day) were not different from control values (albumin FSR: 9.4 +/- 0.7%/day; albumin ASR: 13.8 +/- 1.2 g/day, P > 0.1 for both). In contrast, in the type 2 diabetic subjects, both fibrinogen FSR (24.9 +/- 2.1%/day) and ASR (2.4 +/- 0.2 g/day) were greater (P < 0.025 and P < 0.007, respectively) compared with the control subjects (FSR: 18.6 +/- 1.51%/day; ASR: 1.6 +/- 0.2 g/day). Worse metabolic control in the type 2 diabetic patients was associated with hyperfibrinogenemia and increased leucine rate of appearance, whereas neither the (increased) fibrinogen ASR nor the (normal) albumin production was affected. In study B, after hyperinsulinemia (raised to approximately 860 nmol/l), albumin FSR and ASR increased by approximately 25% versus basal (P < 0.04) and to the same extent in both type 2 diabetic and control subjects.
In normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients, postabsorptive albumin synthesis and its response to insulin were normal, whereas fibrinogen synthesis was increased, irrespective of metabolic control. Furthermore, in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients, a normal insulin sensitivity with respect to albumin production but a selective hepatic dysregulation of fibrinogen metabolism were present.
Diabetes Care 02/2006; 29(2):323-8. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent cardiovascular risk factor, is common in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy, the mechanism(s) of this alteration is not known. In healthy humans, hyperinsulinemia increases methionine transmethylation, homocysteine transsulfuration, and clearance. No such data exist in type 2 diabetes either in the fasting state or in response to hyperinsulinemia. To this purpose, seven male type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria (1.2 +/- 0.4 g/day, three with mild to moderate renal insufficiency) and seven matched control subjects were infused for 6 h with L-[methyl-(2)H(3), 1-(13)C]methionine. Methionine flux, transmethylation, and disposal into proteins as well as homocysteine remethylation, transsulfuration, and clearance were determined before and after euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (approximately 1,000 pmol/l). In type 2 diabetic subjects, homocysteine concentration was twofold greater (P < 0.01) and methionine transmethylation and homocysteine clearance lower (from approximately 15 to >50% and from approximately 40 to >100%, respectively; P < 0.05) than in control subjects. The insulin-induced increments of methionine transmethylation, homocysteine transsulfuration, and clearance were markedly reduced in type 2 diabetic subjects (by more than threefold, P < 0.05 or less vs. control subjects). In contrast, methionine methyl and carbon flux were not increased in the patients. In conclusion, pathways of homocysteine disposal are impaired in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy, both in postabsorptive and insulin-stimulated states, possibly accounting for the hyperhomocysteinemia of this condition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methionine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is reversibly converted into homocysteine. Homocysteine is an independent cardiovascular risk factor frequently associated with the insulin resistance syndrome. The effects of insulin on methionine and homocysteine kinetics in vivo are not known. Six middle-aged male volunteers were infused with L-[methyl-2H3,1-13C]methionine before (for 3 h) and after (for 3 additional hours) an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (150 mU/l) clamp. Steady-state methionine and homocysteine kinetics were determined using either plasma (i.e., those of methionine) or intracellular (i.e., those of plasma homocysteine) enrichments. By use of plasma enrichments, insulin decreased methionine rate of appearance (Ra; both methyl- and carbon Ra) by 25% (P < 0.003 vs. basal) and methionine disposal into proteins by 50% (P < 0.0005), whereas it increased homocysteine clearance by approximately 70% (P < 0.025). With intracellular enrichments, insulin increased all kinetic rates, mainly because homocysteine enrichment decreased by approximately 40% (P < 0.001). In particular, transmethylation increased sixfold (P < 0.02), transsulfuration fourfold (P = 0.01), remethylation eightfold (P < 0.025), and clearance eightfold (P < 0.004). In summary, 1) physiological hyperinsulinemia stimulated homocysteine metabolic clearance irrespective of the model used; and 2) divergent changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine enrichments were observed after hyperinsulinemia, resulting in different changes in methionine and homocysteine kinetics. In conclusion, insulin increases homocysteine clearance in vivo and may thus prevent homocysteine accumulation in body fluids. Use of plasma homocysteine as a surrogate of intracellular methionine enrichment, after acute perturbations such as insulin infusion, needs to be critically reassessed.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 06/2005; 288(6):E1270-6. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of chronic metabolic acidosis on protein dynamics and amino acid oxidation in the human kidney, a combination of organ isotopic ((14)C-leucine) and mass-balance techniques in 11 subjects with normal renal function undergoing venous catheterizations was used. Five of 11 studies were performed in the presence of metabolic acidosis. In subjects with normal acid-base balance, kidney protein degradation was 35% to 130% higher than protein synthesis, so net protein leucine balance was markedly negative. In acidemic subjects, kidney protein degradation was no different from protein synthesis and was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in controls. Kidney leucine oxidation was similar in both groups. Urinary ammonia excretion and total ammonia production were 186% and 110% higher, respectively, and more of the ammonia that was produced was shifted into urine (82% versus 65% in acidemic subjects versus controls). In all studies, protein degradation and net protein balance across the kidney were inversely related to urinary ammonia excretion and to the partition of ammonia into urine, but not to total ammonia production, arterial pH, [HCO(-)(3)], urinary flow, the uptake of glutamine by the kidney, or the ammonia released into the renal veins. The data show that response of the human kidney to metabolic acidosis includes both changes in amino acid uptake and suppression of protein degradation. The latter effect, which is likely induced by the increase in ammonia excretion and partition into the urine, is potentially responsible for kidney hypertrophy.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 07/2004; 15(6):1606-15. · 8.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrinogen is an acute-phase reactant and an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Insulin without amino acid replacement acutely suppressed fibrinogen production in nondiabetic and type 1 diabetic individuals. Fibrinogen production and plasma concentration increase in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. It is not known whether altered response to insulin contributes to hyperfibrinogenemia in type 2 diabetes. Fibrinogen fractional (FSR) and absolute (ASR) synthesis rates were measured using a leucine isotopic model in type 2 diabetic men (n = 7; age = 51 +/- 3 years; BMI = 26.7 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) compared with matched nondiabetic subjects under basal conditions and following a 4-h euglycemic-, euaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Basal fibrinogen concentration (+35%, P < 0.05) and ASR (+35%, P < 0.05) were greater in the diabetic subjects. Following clamp, fibrinogen FSR and ASR were unchanged in the control subjects. In contrast, fibrinogen FSR and ASR increased by 41 and 43%, respectively (P < 0.05), in the diabetic subjects. Thus, fibrinogen production is acutely increased by insulin when euglycemia and euaminoacidemia are maintained in type 2 diabetic individuals but not in nondiabetic individuals. Enhanced fibrinogen production by insulin is likely to be a key alteration contributing to hyperfibrinogenemia and therefore cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes. Unchanged fibrinogen production in nondiabetic individuals suggests a role of plasma amino acids in regulating fibrinogen production in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of blood cells in interorgan amino acid transport and in the estimates of regional protein turnover, we studied the effects of plasma vs. whole blood sampling on regional leucine kinetics in postabsorptive humans. Studies were carried out by combining the arteriovenous difference technique with the measurement of [14C]- and [15N]leucine isotope exchange across the human kidney, the splanchnic area, and the leg. In the kidney, whole blood-derived rates of leucine-carbon appearance, disappearance, and net balance (NB) were greater (by 3-15 times; P < 0.035) than those calculated in plasma. In addition, the net leucine-carbon (i.e., protein) balance across the kidney was negative in whole blood (-5.6 +/- 1.3 micromol/min x 1.73 m2, P < 0.01 vs. 0) but neutral in plasma [-0.24 +/- 1.33, P = not significant from 0; P < 0.01 vs. whole blood]. A net leucine transport out of renal cells was shown in blood but not in plasma. In contrast, rates of leucine-carbon appearance, disappearance, NB, and net transport, in both the splanchnic area and the leg, were similar in whole blood and plasma. These data suggest that blood cells play a key role in leucine transport out of the kidney and, consequently, in the leucine-derived estimates of renal protein degradation and NB, which is at variance with what is observed across the splanchnic organs or the leg. These data also emphasize the need for complete whole blood arteriovenous measurements to accurately estimate protein turnover across the kidney.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 12/2002; 283(6):F1430-7. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol may impair protein turnover and insulin sensitivity in vivo.
The acute effects of moderate wine intake on amino acid kinetics and on the fractional synthetic rate (FSR) of albumin and fibrinogen in patients with type 1 diabetes were studied.
Six patients with type 1 diabetes ingested an elementary mixed meal (46 kJ/kg) over 4 h, first without and 3 mo later with approximately 300 mL red wine. Postprandial glucose concentrations were maintained at <10 mmol/L.
Postprandially, the FSR of fibrinogen was approximately 30% greater (21.5 +/- 6.6% compared with 14.1 +/- 3.6% of pool/d; P < 0.01) and glucagon concentrations were approximately 40% greater (103 +/- 20 compared with 61 +/- 13 ng/L; P < 0.015) with wine than without wine. However, the FSR of albumin and the rates of appearance of total and endogenous phenylalanine and leucine were not significantly different between treatments. First-pass splanchnic uptake (in micromol*kg(-1)*min(-1)) of dietary phenylalanine (0.22 +/- 0.02 compared with 0.19 +/- 0.02) and leucine (0.25 +/- 0.04 compared with 0.14 +/- 0.02) were greater with wine (P < 0.05), whereas dietary phenylalanine oxidation was lower with wine, by approximately 25% (0.10 +/- 0.02 compared with 0.14 +/- 0.01 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1); P < 0.05). Selected amino acid concentrations were significantly lower but glutamate concentrations were significantly higher with wine.
In insulin-infused patients with type 1 diabetes, moderate wine intake with a meal resulted in 1) a higher fibrinogen FSR, glucagon concentration, and first-pass splanchnic uptake of leucine and phenylalanine; 2) lower dietary phenylalanine oxidation; 3) selective changes in plasma amino acid concentrations; 4) and no impairment in endogenous proteolysis and albumin synthesis.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 05/2002; 75(5):856-66. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the anabolic effects of feeding in cirrhosis, we measured albumin fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and whole body protein synthesis in six nondiabetic patients with stable liver cirrhosis (three in the Child-Pugh classification Class A, three in Class B) and in seven normal control subjects, before and after administration of a 4-h mixed meal. Leucine tracer precursor-product relationships and whole body kinetics were employed at steady state. Basal levels of postabsorptive albumin concentration and FSR, whole body leucine rate of appearance, oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD, approximately equal to protein synthesis) were similar in the two groups. However, after the meal, in the patients neither albumin FSR (from 8.5 +/- 1.5 to 8.8 +/- 1.8 %/day) nor NOLD (from 1.69 +/- 0.22 to 1.55 +/- 0.26 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) changed (P = nonsignificant vs. basal), whereas they increased in control subjects (albumin FSR: from 10.9 +/- 1.5 to 15.9 +/- 1.9 %/day, P < 0.002; NOLD: from 1.80 +/- 0.14 to 2.10 +/- 0.19 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.032). Thus mixed meal ingestion did not stimulate either albumin FSR or whole body protein synthesis in compensated liver cirrhosis. The mechanism(s) maintaining normoalbuminemia at this disease stage need to be further investigated.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 02/2002; 282(2):E304-11. · 4.51 Impact Factor