[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The early branching Giardia lamblia has highly polarized vacuoles, located underneath the plasma membrane, which have at least some of the characteristics of endosomes and of lysosomes. These peripheral vacuoles (PVs) are necessary for nutrient uptake and the maintenance of plasma membrane composition, but whether they carry out sorting and segregation of receptors and ligands is a matter of debate. Here, we showed that the internalization of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to the PVs is highly dynamic in trophozoites with a rate similar to the internalization of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1. Moreover, by analyzing receptor-mediated and fluid-phase endocytosis in living cells, we showed that after endocytosis LDL but not dextran moved laterally between the PVs. We speculate on PV functional heterogeneity and maturation in this parasite.
Parasitology Research 01/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microtubules are dynamic structures that present the peculiar characteristic to be ice-cold labile in vitro. In vivo, microtubules are protected from ice-cold induced depolymerization by the widely expressed MAP6/STOP family of proteins. However, the mechanism by which MAP6 stabilizes microtubules at 4 °C has not been identified. Moreover, the microtubule cold sensitivity and therefore the needs for microtubule stabilization in the wide range of temperatures between 4 and 37 °C are unknown. This is of importance as body temperatures of animals can drop during hibernation or torpor covering a large range of temperatures. Here, we show that in the absence of MAP6, microtubules in cells below 20 °C rapidly depolymerize in a temperature-dependent manner whereas they are stabilized in the presence of MAP6. We further show that in cells, MAP6-F binding to and stabilization of microtubules is temperature- dependent and very dynamic, suggesting a direct effect of the temperature on the formation of microtubule/MAP6 complex. We also demonstrate using purified proteins that MAP6-F binds directly to microtubules through its Mc domain. This binding is temperature-dependent and coincides with progressive conformational changes of the Mc domain as revealed by circular dichroism. Thus, MAP6 might serve as a temperature sensor adapting its conformation according to the temperature to maintain the cellular microtubule network in organisms exposed to temperature decrease.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(42):35127-38. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An approach is developped to gain control over the polarity of neuronal networks at the cellular level by physically constraining cell development by the use of micropatterns. It is demonstrated that the position and path of individual axons, the cell extension that propagates the neuron output signal, can be chosen with a success rate higher than 85%. This allows the design of small living computational blocks above silicon nanowires.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal differentiation is under the tight control of both biochemical and physical information arising from neighboring cells and micro-environment. Here we wished to assay how external geometrical constraints applied to the cell body and/or the neurites of hippocampal neurons may modulate axonal polarization in vitro. Through the use of a panel of non-specific poly-L-lysine micropatterns, we manipulated the neuronal shape. By applying geometrical constraints on the cell body we provided evidence that centrosome location was not predictive of axonal polarization but rather follows axonal fate. When the geometrical constraints were applied to the neurites trajectories we demonstrated that axonal specification was inhibited by curved lines. Altogether these results indicated that intrinsic mechanical tensions occur during neuritic growth and that maximal tension was developed by the axon and expressed on straight trajectories. The strong inhibitory effect of curved lines on axon specification was further demonstrated by their ability to prevent formation of multiple axons normally induced by cytochalasin or taxol treatments. Finally we provided evidence that microtubules were involved in the tension-mediated axonal polarization, acting as curvature sensors during neuronal differentiation. Thus, biomechanics coupled to physical constraints might be the first level of regulation during neuronal development, primary to biochemical and guidance regulations.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33623. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultured neurons obtained from MAP1B-deficient mice have a delay in axon outgrowth and a reduced rate of axonal elongation compared with neurons from wild-type mice. Here we show that MAP1B deficiency results in a significant decrease in Rac1 and cdc42 activity and a significant increase in Rho activity. We found that MAP1B interacted with Tiam1, a guanosine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1. The decrease in Rac1/cdc42 activity was paralleled by decreases in the phosphorylation of the downstream effectors of these proteins, such as LIMK-1 and cofilin. The expression of a constitutively active form of Rac1, cdc42, or Tiam1 rescued the axon growth defect of MAP1B-deficient neurons. Taken together, these observations define a new and crucial function of MAP1B that we show to be required for efficient cross-talk between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton during neuronal polarization.
Molecular biology of the cell 10/2010; 21(20):3518-28. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The parasite Giardia lamblia possesses PVs (peripheral vacuoles) that function as both endosomes and lysosomes and are implicated in the adaptation, differentiation and survival of the parasite in different environments. The mechanisms by which Giardia traffics essential proteins to these organelles and regulates their secretion have important implications in the control of parasite dissemination. In the present study, we describe the participation of the heterotetrameric clathrin-adaptor protein gAP2 (Giardia adaptor protein 2) complex in lysosomal protein trafficking. A specific monoclonal antibody against the medium subunit (gmu2) of gAP2 showed localization of this complex to the PVs, cytoplasm and plasma membrane in the growing trophozoites. gAP2 also co-localized with clathrin in the PVs, suggesting its involvement in endocytosis. Uptake experiments using standard molecules for the study of endocytosis revealed that gAP2 specifically participated in the endocytosis of LDL (low-density lipoprotein). Targeted down-regulation of the gene encoding gmu2 in growing and encysting trophozoites resulted in a large decrease in the amount of cell growth and cyst wall formation, suggesting a distinct mechanism in which gAP2 is directly involved in both endocytosis and vesicular trafficking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Axonal elongation is one of the hallmarks of neuronal polarization. This phenomenon requires axonal membrane growth by exocytosis of plasmalemmal precursor vesicles (PPVs) at the nerve growth cone, a process regulated by IGF-1 activation of the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase) pathway. Few details are known, however, about the targeting mechanisms for PPVs. Here, we show, in cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons and growth cones isolated from fetal rat brain, that IGF-1 activates the GTP-binding protein TC10, which triggers translocation to the plasma membrane of the exocyst component exo70 in the distal axon and growth cone. We also show that TC10 and exo70 function are necessary for addition of new membrane and, thus, axon elongation stimulated by IGF-1. Moreover, expression silencing of either TC10 or exo70 inhibit the establishment of neuronal polarity by hindering the insertion of IGF-1 receptor in one of the undifferentiated neurites. We conclude that, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons in culture, (1) membrane expansion at the axonal growth cone is regulated by IGF-1 via a cascade involving TC10 and the exocyst complex, (2) TC10 and exo70 are essential for the polarized externalization of IGF-1 receptor, and (3) this process is necessary for axon specification.
Journal of Neuroscience 10/2009; 29(42):13292-301. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we have used a combination of biochemical and molecular biology techniques to demonstrate that the C-terminal tail domain of KIF4 directly interacts with P0, a major protein component of ribosomes. Besides, in dorsal root ganglion neurons, KIF4 and P0, as well as other ribosomal constituents, colocalize in clusters distributed along axons and neuritic tips. RNA interference suppression of KIF4 or expression of KIF4 variants lacking the tail domain or mutations of the ATP-binding site result in accumulation of P0 and other ribosomal proteins at the cell body and in their disappearance from axons. Our results also show one additional function for KIF4 involving an Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin-like domain in the second coiled-coiled region of KIF4. Expression of a KIF4 mutant lacking this domain abolishes the clustering of ribosomal constituents and prevents the anterograde translocation of the cell adhesion molecule L1. Taken together, the present results suggest that by binding to P0 through its tail domain and by using its motor activity, KIF4 is involved in the anterograde trafficking of ribosomal constituents to axons and that by means of its Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin-like domain interacts and transports L1.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2009; 284(14):9489-97. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In non-neuronal cells, inactivation of protein kinase D (PKD) blocks fission of trans-Golgi network (TGN) transport carriers, inducing the appearance of long tubules filled with cargo. We now report on the function of PKD1 in neuronal protein trafficking. In cultured hippocampal pyramidal cells, the transferrin receptor (TfR) and the low-density receptor-related protein (LRP) are predominantly transported to dendrites and excluded from axons. Expression of kinase-inactive PKD1 or its depletion by RNA interference treatment dramatically and selectively alter the intracellular trafficking and membrane delivery of TfR- and LRP-containing vesicles, without inhibiting exit from the TGN or inducing Golgi tubulation. After PKD1 suppression, dendritic membrane proteins are mispackaged into carriers that transport VAMP2; these vesicles are distributed to both axons and dendrites, but are rapidly endocytosed from dendrites and preferentially delivered to the axonal membrane. A kinase-defective mutant of PKD1 lacking the ability to bind diacylglycerol and hence its Golgi localization does not cause missorting of TfR or LRP. These results suggest that in neurons PKD1 regulates TGN-derived sorting of dendritic proteins and hence has a role in neuronal polarity.
Journal of Neuroscience 10/2008; 28(37):9297-308. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: How a neuron becomes polarized remains largely unknown. Results obtained with a function-blocking antibody and an siRNA targeting the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor suggest that an essential step in the establishment of hippocampal neuronal polarity and the initiation of axonal outgrowth is the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k)-Cdc42 pathway by the IGF-1 receptor, but not by the TrkA or TrkB receptors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activity-prompted dendritic remodeling leads to calcium-influx-dependent activation of signaling pathways within minutes and gene transcription within hours. However, dendrite growth continues for days and requires extension and stabilization of the cytoskeleton in nascent processes. In addition to binding microtubules, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) associate with the actin cytoskeleton, anchor ion channels and signaling complexes, and modulate synaptic growth. MAP2 is predominantly dendritic. MAP1B is at postsynaptic densities (PSD) and modulates ion channel activity, in addition to affecting axon growth. Less is known about MAP1A, but it is also enriched in dendrites at input locations, including PSDs where MAP1A associates with channel complexes and the calcium sensor caldendrin. MAP1A rescued hearing loss in tubby mice. Here we show that MAP1A becomes enriched in dendrites concurrently with dendritic branching and synapse formation in the developing brain; that synaptic activity is required for establishing mature MAP1A expression levels; and that MAP1A expression is required for activity-dependent growth, branching, and stabilization of the dendritic arbor.
Current Biology 11/2005; 15(20):1820-6. · 9.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the subcellular distribution and functions of LIMK1 in developing neurons. Confocal microscopy, subcellular fractionation, and expression of several epitope-tagged LIMK1 constructs revealed that LIMK1 is enriched in the Golgi apparatus and growth cones, with the LIM domain required for Golgi localization and the PDZ domain for its presence at neuritic tips. Overexpression of wild-type LIMK1 suppresses the formation of trans-Golgi derived tubules, and prevents cytochalasin D-induced Golgi fragmentation, whereas that of a kinase-defective mutant has the opposite effect. Transfection of wild-type LIMK1 accelerates axon formation and enhances the accumulation of Par3/Par6, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)1 receptors, and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) at growth cones, while inhibiting the Golgi export of synaptophysin-containing vesicles. These effects were dependent on the Golgi localization of LIMK1, paralleled by an increase in cofilin phosphorylation and phalloidin staining in the region of the Golgi apparatus, and prevented by coexpression of constitutive active cofilin. The long-term overexpression of LIMK1 produces growth cone collapse and axon retraction, an effect that is dependent on its growth cone localization. Together, our results suggest an important role for LIMK1 in axon formation that is related with its ability to regulate Golgi dynamics, membrane traffic, and actin cytoskeletal organization.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 08/2004; 15(7):3433-49. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal differentiation is under the tight control of biochemical and physical information arising from micro-environment. Here, through a panel of poly-L-lysine micropatterns, we wished to assay how external geometrical constraints of neurons may modulate axonal polarization. Constraints applied to either the cell body or to the neurite directions revealed the existence of a differential mechanical tension between the nascent axon and other neurites. Also, we show that centrosome location is not predictive of axonal polarization but responds to the force exerted by the nascent axon. Using curved trajectories for neurite growth inhibited axonal differentiation and prevented formation of multiple axons normally induced by cytochalasin or taxol treatments. Finally we provide evidence that microtubules act as curvature sensors during neuronal differentiation. Thus, biomechanics coupled to physical constraints might be the first level of regulation during neuronal development, primary to biochemical and guidance regulations.