Solomon B Margolin

University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States

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Publications (37)126.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To characterize effects of IV administration of pirfenidone on clinical, biochemical, and hematologic variables and circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha concentrations in horses after infusion of a low dose of endotoxin. 18 healthy adult horses. Horses were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 6 horses/group) and administered an IV infusion of 30 ng of endotoxin/kg or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution during a 30-minute period. Lipopolysaccharide-pirfenidone horses received endotoxin followed by pirfenidone (loading dose of 11.6 mg/kg and then constant rate infusion [CRI] at 9.9 mg/kg/h for 3 hours). Lipopolysaccharide-saline horses received endotoxin followed by infusion (loading dose and CRI for 3 hours) of saline solution. Saline-pirfenidone horses received saline solution followed by pirfenidone (loading dose and then CRI for 3 hours). Physical examination variables were recorded and blood samples collected at predetermined intervals throughout the 24-hour study period. Blood samples were used for CBCs, biochemical analyses, and determinations of TNF-alpha concentrations. IV infusion of pirfenidone after administration of a low dose of endotoxin failed to attenuate the clinical, clinicopathologic, or cytokine alterations that developed secondary to endotoxin exposure. Intravenous infusion of pirfenidone after administration of saline solution induced mild transient clinical signs, but associated clinicopathologic changes were not detected. IV administration of pirfenidone was tolerated with only mild transient clinical adverse effects during infusion. However, administration of pirfenidone did not protect horses from the systemic effects of experimentally induced endotoxemia. Further studies of related, but more potent, drugs may be warranted.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 09/2009; 70(8):1031-42. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.70.8.1031 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung fibrosis (ILF) is a life-threatening disease which has no known drug for prevention and cure. In the present study, we evaluated the antifibrotic potential of pirfenidone (PD) (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-(1H)-pyridone) in a three-dose bleomycin (BL)-hamster model of lung fibrosis. Hamsters were intratracheally (IT) instilled with three consecutive doses of bleomycin sulfate (2.5 U/kg/5mL, 2.0 U/kg/5mL, 1.5 U/kg/3.75 mL) or an equivalent volume of saline at weekly intervals. Hamsters were fed a diet after the second dose of BL containing 0.5% PD and hamsters in the control groups were fed the same diet without the drug. The four groups were saline-instilled fed control diet (SCD); saline-instilled fed the same diet containing PD (SPD); BL-instilled fed control diet (BCD); and BL-instilled fed the diet containing PD (BPD). Hamsters were sacrificed at 28 days after IT instillation of last dose of saline or BL and their lungs processed for various assays. Lung hydroxyproline, an index of fibrosis, in SCD, SPD, BCD and BPD were 830, 804, 1609, 1235 micrograms/lung, respectively. Lung prolyl hydroxylase activities in the SPD, BCD and BPD groups were 103%, 313%, 157% of the control SCD group (5.99 x 10(4) dpm/lung/30 min) respectively. Malondialdehyde equivalent levels and superoxide dismutase activity in the corresponding groups were 99, 79, 240 and 145 nmoles/lung and 412, 433, 538 and 410 units/lung respectively. Lung myeloperoxidase activities in the corresponding groups were 56%, 179%, and 116% of the control group (0.44 units/lung). It is concluded that PD is a novel antifibrotic drug that has therapeutic potential in arresting the progression of an ongoing fibrotic process in the lung.
    Experimental Lung Research 07/2009; 24(1):119-32. DOI:10.3109/01902149809046058 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrosis leads to chronic impairment of cardiac and renal function and thus reversal of existing fibrosis may improve function and survival. This project has determined whether pirfenidone, a new antifibrotic compound, and spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist, reverse both deposition of the major extracellular matrix proteins, collagen and fibronectin, and functional changes in the streptozotocin(STZ)-diabetic rat.Streptozotocin (65 mg kg−1 i.v.)-treated rats given pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[1H]-pyridone; approximately 200 mg kg−1 day−1 as 0.2–2g 1−1 drinking water) or spironolactone (50 mg kg−1 day−1 s.c.) for 4 weeks starting 4 weeks after STZ showed no attenuation of the increased blood glucose concentrations and increased food and water intakes which characterize diabetes in this model.STZ-treatment increased perivascular and interstitial collagen deposition in the left ventricle and kidney, and surrounding the aorta. Cardiac, renal and plasma fibronectin concentrations increased in STZ-diabetic rats. Passive diastolic stiffness increased in isolated hearts from STZ-diabetic rats. Both pirfenidone and spironolactone treatment attenuated these increases without normalizing the decreased +dP/dtmax of STZ-diabetic hearts.Left ventricular papillary muscles from STZ-treated rats showed decreased maximal positive inotropic responses to noradrenaline, EMD 57033 (calcium sensitizer) and calcium chloride; this was not reversed by pirfenidone or spironolactone treatment. STZ-treatment transiently decreased GFR and urine flow rates in isolated perfused kidneys; pirfenidone but not spironolactone prevented the return to control values.Thus, short-term pirfenidone and spironolactone treatment reversed cardiac and renal fibrosis and attenuated the increased diastolic stiffness without normalizing cardiac contractility or renal function in STZ-diabetic rats.British Journal of Pharmacology (2001) 133, 687–694; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704131
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2009; 133(5):687 - 694. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704131 · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a vital component of the inflammatory process and its aberrant over-expression has been linked to numerous disease states. New treatment strategies have sought to reduce circulating TNF-alpha, either with neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha binding proteins such as etanercept or via drugs that inhibit de novo TNF-alpha synthesis like pirfenidone. In the present study, we examined the effects of both classes of drugs on secreted and cell-associated TNF-alpha produced by THP-1 cells. All of the tested drugs significantly reduced secreted levels of bioactive TNF-alpha following stimulation with LPS as measured by bioassay. However, etanercept-treated cells had approximately six-fold higher levels of cell-associated TNF-alpha compared with that of the LPS-alone treatment group. Surprisingly, LPS+infliximab treated cells did not increase cell-associated TNF-alpha relative to the LPS-alone treatment. Pirfenidone significantly reduced both secreted and cell-associated TNF-alpha levels. These drug-related differences in cell-associated TNF-alpha may have broad implications in the future for the therapeutic uses of anti-TNF-alpha drugs in the management of TNF-alpha diseases.
    International Immunopharmacology 06/2008; 8(5):679-87. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.01.013 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pirfenidone, a promising antifibrotic agent, was administered intravenously to six female sheep at 30 mg/kg. Four sheep received 14C-pirfenidone simultaneously. Plasma and urine were obtained for assay of pirfenidone and its metabolites over two days, and tissues were obtained via necropsy. Samples were analysed for pirfenidone and metabolites using HPLC-MS and flow scintillation spectrometry. Plasma pirfenidone disappeared with first order kinetics with a clearance of 1.2 l/kg/h, half-life of 24 min, and distribution volume of 0.71 l/kg. After 48 h, the organs containing the largest quantity of 14C were lungs, liver and intestinal wall. Tissues with the highest concentration of 14C were lung, kidney, brain, liver, lymph node and adipose. Metabolites found in plasma and urine were hydroxypirfenidone (half-life of 44 min) and carboxypirfenidone. Additional metabolites found in urine were hydroxypirfenidone glucuronide and acetoxypirfenidone. Approximately, 80% of the tracer eventually appeared in the urine, and approximately 50% of it was in the form of identifiable metabolites. Less than 1% of the dose appeared in the urine in the form of the parent drug. Quantitatively, most of the metabolites appeared in the urine within 2 h. Thus, the drug is rapidly and completely metabolized.
    Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 01/2008; 29(2):119-26. DOI:10.1002/bdd.595 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pirfenidone (PFD) is a new drug which has been shown to prevent or even reverse the extracellular matrix accumulation in several organs. to examine the effect of PFD on the progressive glomerulosclerosis, we treated model rats with irreversible chronic renal disease per orally with 500 mg/kg bodyweight of PFD per day. the model rats were made by intravenous injection of anti-Thy-1 monoclonal antibody 1-22-3 at 1 h following unilateral nephrectomy, which results in chronic progressive glomerulosclerosis. Twenty-four hours later, 32 female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and were fed standard chow with (PFD group: P) or without PFD (control group: C). All rats were sacrificed on day 42. No significant difference in the bodyweight or the amount of chow intake was observed between the two groups. the remnant kidney was significantly (P<0.05) heavier in C (2.11 ± 0.15 g) than in P (1.70 ± 0.13 g). This finding, together with light microscopic findings, showed that PFD administration resulted in the prevention of renal hypertrophy. On day 42, proteinuria in P (124.3 ± 31.9 mg/day) was significantly lower than in C (214.6 ± 8.1 mg/day), and P maintained significantly better renal function than C as judged by serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Mean matrix score was less in P (178 ± 17) than in C (225 ± 22). Crescent formation was observed in 17% of glomeruli in P and in 35% in C. Tubulointerstitial lesions were also less severe in P. Furthermore, inflammation and sclerosis indices detected by immunohistochemistry (e.g. ED-1, OX8, TGF-beta α-smooth muscle actin, collagen type I, were less in P). These data suggest that PFD may be a promising agent for the prevention of progressive and irreversible glomerulosclerosis.
    Nephrology 04/2007; 3(5):315 - 322. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1797.1997.tb00249.x · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pirfenidone was administered to sensitized Brown Norway rats prior to a series of ovalbumin challenges. Airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammatory cell infiltration, mucin and collagen content, and the degree of epithelium and smooth muscle staining for TGF-beta were examined in control, sensitized, and sensitized/challenged rats fed a normal diet or pirfenidone diet. Pirfenidone had no effect on airway hyperresponsiveness, but reduced distal bronchiolar cell infiltration and proximal and distal mucin content. Statistical analysis showed that the control group and sensitized/challenged pirfenidone diet group TGF-beta staining intensity scores were not significantly different from isotype controls, but that the staining intensity scores for the sensitized/challenged normal diet group was significantly different from isotype controls. These results suggest that pirfenidone treatment is effective in reducing some of the components of acute inflammation induced by allergen challenge.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 02/2007; 20(6):660-8. DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2006.07.005 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the histologic correlate of chronic airway rejection, which remains the most significant cause of death in long-term survivors of lung transplantation. Using an established murine heterotopic tracheal transplant model of chronic airway rejection, the effects of the oral anti-fibrotic agent pirfenidone on development of the OB-like lesion were evaluated. Tracheas from BALB/c mice were implanted into the sub-cutaneous tissue of C57BL/6 mice, and the allografts were evaluated morphologically for airway rejection changes and immunohistochemically for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta at 16 or 28 days after transplantation. In addition, the potential additive effects of pirfenidone in combination with 2 immunosuppressive agents, cyclosporine or rapamycin, was evaluated. Compared with untreated controls, pirfenidone-fed mice showed less epithelial cell injury and luminal granulation tissue and fibrosis. Plasma TGF-beta levels and local TGF-beta expression based on immunohistochemistry were decreased in the pirfenidone-treated animals. Pirfenidone given on Day 9 or 16 post-transplant through Day 28 resulted in no significant improvement compared with controls. There was no significant additive effect of pirfenidone in combination with cyclosporine, whereas pirfenidone plus rapamycin demonstrated additive protection against the development of the obstructive airway lesion. In aggregate, these results show that the anti-fibrotic agent pirfenidone inhibits the development of the OB-like lesion in this mouse model of human chronic airway rejection, and that these effects may be mediated by TGF-beta. The results also suggest that pirfenidone may be worthy of investigation in human lung transplant recipients at high risk of developing OB.
    The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 11/2005; 24(10):1577-85. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2004.11.002 · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    Jonathan E Walker, Shri N Giri, Solomon B Margolin
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, there are no approved treatments for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) that stabilize or reverse the neurological disabilities associated with this disease. Oral pirfenidone was found to stabilize and overcome the disabilities in two published independent open-label studies in secondary progressive MS. This led us to study pirfenidone in a phase II double-blind, randomized and controlled, clinical trial in patients with advanced secondary progressive MS for 12 months. Forty-three patients met the eligibility criteria approved by the IRB and accepted by the FDA. Of these patients, 18 were randomly assigned to placebo and 25 patients to oral pirfenidone groups. All eligible patients were included in the statistical analysis of the data according to intention-to-treat principles. Some patients on oral pirfenidone manifested mild drug-related adverse effects, but it was well tolerated overall. By one month, pirfenidone significantly (P < 0.05) improved the Scripps Neurological Rating Scale (SNRS) scores, and scores remained significantly improved for 3, 6 and 12 months when compared to the baseline SNRS scores. In contrast, the SNRS scores of patients on oral placebo were not significantly improved at 1, 3, 6 or 12 months of the study, when compared with baseline scores. Oral pirfenidone significantly (P <0.04) reduced the incidence of relapses (27.8% on placebo versus 8.0% on pirfenidone). Furthermore, oral pirfenidone treatment was associated with a marked improvement in bladder dysfunction (40.0% on pirfenidone versus 16.7% on placebo). Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and MRI lesion count were not significantly different in the placebo and pirfenidone groups. These findings indicate a significant effect of pirfenidone on clinical disability and bladder function for secondary progressive MS patients. A major multicentre, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial is justified.
    Multiple Sclerosis 04/2005; 11(2):149-58. DOI:10.1191/1352458505ms1134oa · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Shri N Giri, Solomon B Margolin
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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of pirfenidone ointment against thermoplasty-induced acute foreleg lameness in a double-blind study, and against acute and chronic lameness of musculoskeletal origin in an open multi-centered field trial was evaluated in this study. Thermoplasty was performed on both inner forelegs at designated locations of each horse under anesthetics. A 10% pirfenidone or placebo ointment was topically applied starting 24 hours after the thermoplasty three times daily for 7 days. For acute and chronic lameness of musculoskeletal origin, pirfenidone ointment was also applied one to three times daily for 7 to 10 days and continued for an additional 20 to 30 days. A marked swelling around the locations occurred in 24 hours post-thermoplasty. The topical application of pirfenidone ointment not only caused a significant reduction in the circumference measurements at 5, 6 and 7 days, but it also decreased the changes in the circumferences from pre-thermoplasty as an index of edema, at 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days when compared to the placebo ointment at the corresponding times. Although treatment for 7 days of acute leg lameness of musculoskeletal origin with topical pirfenidone ointment caused significant decreases in swelling, heat, and pain, and improved the degree of flexion when compared with the pretreatment, it had little effect on chronic lameness except that it improved the flexion at the second-exam interval. It was concluded that topical application of pirfenidone is effective for treatment of acute lameness resulting from thermoplasty or from various types of musculoskeletal disorders, suggesting that pirfenidone offers a promising therapeutic potential to manage acute inflammation, an important component of lameness.
    Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology 02/2005; 117-118:47-63.
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    ABSTRACT: The antifibrotic substance pirfenidone and the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist candesartan cilexetil, given alone and in combination, were tested in rats with chronic anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN). Male Wistar rats with anti-GBM GN were treated for 8 weeks with candesartan (4 mg/kg body weight/day), pirfenidone (500 mg/kg body weight/day) or a combination of both drugs. One GN group received no treatment and untreated non-GN-rats were used as controls. Blood pressure and urinary protein excretion were measured after 3 and 7 weeks. Kidney histology was complemented by ultrastructural investigation and by quantification of collagen Ialpha mRNA. The percentage of glomeruli with adsorption droplets in podocytes correlated well with the amount of proteinuria (r = 0.873, P<0.01) and was significantly lowered in rats treated with candesartan (8.3 vs GN 24.6%), pirfenidone (9.8%) and combined treatment (2.6%, P<0.05 vs candesartan alone). A comparable lowering was seen for segmental sclerosis (GN 11%, candesartan 0.7%, P<0.05 vs GN, pirfenidone 1.8%, P = 0.09 vs GN, candesartan/pirfenidone 0.1%, P>0.5 vs candesartan alone). Cortical collagen Ialpha mRNA expression was significantly decreased in all treatment groups. Ultrastructural investigation showed an amelioration of basement membrane alterations and podocyte damage in the treatment groups. Candesartan caused significant blood pressure reduction and the effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy after 3 weeks. Rats treated with pirfenidone showed blood pressure values similar to control rats. Pirfenidone has a beneficial effect on morphological changes in anti-GBM GN comparable with candesartan although with a trend to slightly better results with candesartan treatment. Moreover, our results suggest an additive effect of combination treatment.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 01/2005; 20(1):71-82. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfh562 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • M L Bruss, S B Margolin, S N Giri
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    ABSTRACT: Pirfenidone, a promising antifibrotic agent, was administered orally to dogs at 0, 40, 140, and 400 mg/kg/day. Serum was collected for pirfenidone assay at 0, 26 and 39 weeks of treatment. From the pirfenidone concentrations, pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for each dog at each treatment interval. The only significant differences because of gender were for concentration maxima. Unsurprisingly, there were many significant differences because of dose in concentration maximum and area under curve (AUC), and significant, positive linear correlations of both parameters with dose. There were few significant differences in time of maximal concentration and no correlation with dose. The mean +/- SE clearances were 1.99 +/- 0.13, 1.64 +/- 0.13 and 1.78 +/- 0.14 L/h/kg for doses of 40, 140, and 400 mg/kg, respectively, with no significant differences attributable to dose. There was an unexplained pattern in maximal concentration and AUC with regard to duration of treatment, with the parameters being highest at week 0, lowest at week 26, and intermediate at week 39. Clearance had the reverse pattern; time of maximal concentration had no pattern.
    Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 11/2004; 27(5):361-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2885.2004.00612.x · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic lung allograft rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and its histopathologic correlate, obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), are a major source of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Murine heterotopic tracheal transplants into fully allogeneic mismatched recipients develop obliterative airway disease (OAD), which is a suitable model of OB. Using this murine heterotopic tracheal allograft model, we evaluated the effect of pirfenidone, a novel antifibrotic agent, on the development of OAD. Mice transplanted with complete MHC-mismatched tracheal allografts received pirfenidone (0.5%) in pulverized food according to different schedules: daily for the first 14 days after transplantation or daily for the duration of the study beginning on posttransplantation days 0, 5, or 10. Mice on a continuous daily regimen of pirfenidone failed to develop evidence of chronic allograft rejection at the termination of the study (60 days). Mice receiving pirfenidone limited to the early posttransplantation period had delayed onset of OAD to 60 days. Forty percent (2/5) of mice receiving a continuous regimen of pirfenidone beginning on day 5 after transplantation had no evidence of OAD at 28 days. However, when the drug was started on day 10, all mice developed OAD by 28 days. Our results demonstrate a delay of onset or abrogation of OAD when pirfenidone is administered in the early posttransplantation period. These findings suggest that pirfenidone is a candidate drug to be evaluated for prevention of the fibrotic changes seen in OB in human recipients of lung transplants.
    Transplantation 04/2004; 77(5):664-9. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Doxorubicin (DXR) is an anthracycline glycoside with a broad spectrum of therapeutic activity against various tumors. However, the clinical use of DXR has been limited by its undesirable systemic toxicity, especially in the heart and kidney. This study was designed to test the effectiveness of dietary intake of pirfenidone (PD) against DXR-induced cardiac and renal toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were placed into four treatment groups: saline injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) plus regular diet (SA+RD); DXR i.p. plus regular diet (DXR+RD); saline i.p. plus the same diet mixed with 0.6% PD (SA+PD); and DXR i.p. plus the same diet mixed with 0.6% PD (DXR+PD). The animals were fed regular or regular plus PD diets 3 days prior to i.p. injections of either saline or DXR and continuing throughout the study. A total dose of DXR (16.25 mg/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline was administered in seven injections (2.32 mg/kg per injection) three times per week with an additional dose on the 12th day. At 25 days following the last DXR or saline injection, some animals were anesthetized for the measurement of cardiac and pulmonary function, and others were killed by an overdose of pentobarbital. At the time the animals were killed, abdominal fluid was collected. Kidney and heart were removed, weighed, fixed with 10% formalin or frozen in liquid nitrogen. The fixed tissues were used for histological examination and the frozen tissues were used for biochemical studies. The average volumes of abdominal fluid in the DXR+RD and DXR+PD groups were 9.42 ml and 3.42 ml and the protein contents of abdominal fluid in the DXR+RD and DXR+PD groups were 218 mg and 70 mg, respectively. A 12.5% mortality occurred in the DXR+RD group as compared to 0% in DXR+PD group. There were no changes in any of the cardiac or pulmonary physiological parameters in any of the four groups. The changes in the heart and kidney of the DXR+RD group included reduction in organ weight, increase in hydroxyproline content of heart, increase in hydroxyproline, and lipid peroxidation in the kidney and plasma, and increase in protein concentration in urine as compared to rats in the control, SA+RD and SA+PD groups. Treatment with PD abrogated the DXR-induced increases in hydroxyproline content in the heart and kidney, lipid peroxidation of the kidney and plasma, and protein content of the urine in the DXR+PD group. DXR treatment alone caused disorganization of cardiac myofibrils, vacuolization of the myofibers, and renal tubular dilation with protein casts in both the cortical and medullary regions. Treatment with PD minimized the DXR-induced histopathological changes of heart and kidney in the DXR+PD group. Treatment with PD reduced the severity of DXR-induced toxicity as assessed by reduced mortality, diminished volume of recovered fluid in the abdominal cavity, and severity of cardiac and renal lesions at both the biochemical and morphological levels. These results indicate that PD has the potential to prevent DXR-induced cardiac and renal damage in humans on DXR therapy.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2004; 53(2):141-50. DOI:10.1007/s00280-003-0703-z · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • E Pesce, E Struma, S N Giri, S B Margolin
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    ABSTRACT: The antirheumatic effect of pirfenidone was compared with a positive control drug, oxyphenbutazone which is used in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, in a double blind clinical trial in humans. The data collected in this pilot project revealed that pirfenidone was more effective (p < 0.025) than oxyphenbutazone in providing relief from arthritic pain. In addition, a greater number (p < 0.025) of patients reported favorable response to oral pirfenidone than oral oxyphenbutazone. However, there were no significant differences in the number of patients who dropped out from the trial and the number of patients who tolerated the drugs for 21 days of the trial between the pirfenidone and oxyphenbutazone groups. It was concluded from this pilot study that pirfenidone potentially offers a novel therapeutic modality for the management of rheumatoid arthritis with little or no adverse effects unlike steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which are frequently used for this chronic debilitating disease.
    Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology 01/2004; 115-116:39-48.
  • Transplantation 01/2004; 77(5):664-669. DOI:10.1097/01.TP.0000113162.48048.AA · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary toxicity, including fibrosis, is a serious adverse effect associated with the antidysrhythmic drug amiodarone (AM). We tested the potential usefulness of pirfenidone against AM-induced pulmonary toxicity in the hamster model. Intratracheal AM administration resulted in pulmonary fibrosis 21 days posttreatment, as evidenced by an increased hydroxyproline content and histological damage. Dietary pirfenidone administration (0.5% w/w in chow), for 3 days prior to and continuously after AM, prevented fibrosis and suppressed elevation of pulmonary transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 mRNA content at 7 and 21 days post-AM. Protection against AM-induced lung damage was not observed when supplementation with pirfenidone was delayed until 7 days following AM administration, suggesting that alteration of early events in AM lung toxicity is necessary for the protective effect of pirfenidone. Both AM and bleomycin, another pulmonary fibrogen, caused inflammation 24 h after intratracheal dosing, measured as increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, protein content, and cellular alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, with the response to AM markedly greater than that to bleomycin. Administration of AM, but not bleomycin, also caused whole lung mitochondrial dysfunction, alveolar macrophage death, and an influx of eosinophils into the lung, of which pirfenidone was able to decrease only the latter. We conclude that: (1) AM induces alveolar macrophage death and severe, acute pulmonary inflammation with associated eosinophilia following intratracheal administration; (2) mitochondrial dysfunction may play an early role in AM pulmonary injury; and (3) pirfenidone decreases AM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in the hamster, probably through suppression of TGF-beta1 gene expression.
    Toxicological Sciences 10/2003; 75(1):169-80. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfg167 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pirfenidone (PFD) is a newly developed anti-fibrotic agent. We evaluated the effect of PFD for the prevention of renal fibrosis using a spontaneous progressive glomerulosclerosis animal model, FGS/Kist mice. Male and female FGS/Kist mice were fed a diet containing 0.5% PFD or the same control diet (CD) without PFD, for 1, 2, or 3-month periods. Body weight was monitored for the general effect of PFD on the mice. Proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were evaluated for renal function. The sclerosis index was examined for the morphological changes. There were no significant changes in body weight between the PFD and control groups in both sexes. Proteinuria levels were low in all the PFD groups compared to the corresponding CD groups. The sclerosis scores were also reduced in both sexes of the 3-month PFD groups (p<0.05), and glomerular filtration rates were increased in both sexes of the 3-month PFD groups compared to the CD groups. The treatment of PFD for 1 or 2-month periods did not have statistic significances but the treatment for 3 months had statistic significances in sclerosis and GFR compared to CD groups. These results suggested that long-term administration of PFD suppressed the progression of glomerulosclerosis and improved renal function of the FGS/Kist mice.
    Journal of Korean Medical Science 08/2003; 18(4):527-33. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    James D Bowen, Kenneth Maravilla, Solomon B Margolin
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    ABSTRACT: Pirfenidone is an oral medication with a number of actions affecting the immune system. It has been proposed as a possible treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). An early-phase study of progressive forms of MS was conducted. Pirfenidone was slowly titrated to 2400 mg/day. Safety, clinical, quality-of-life, and magnetic resonance image (MRI) outcomes were measured. Twenty people were enrolled (13 with secondary progressive and seven with primary progressive MS). The mean age was 47.7 years; the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was 5.15; 75% were female. Eighteen patients achieved the full dose, although five additional patients eventually had to decrease the dose, primarily because of nausea. The Neurologic Rating Scale showed a slight worsening, from 69.8+/-8.4 at baseline to 71.8+/-8.9 at one year (P = 0.03). Other clinical outcomes remained stable, including the EDSS, ambulation index, and nine-hole peg test. The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) quality-of-life measure remained unchanged. Comparisons of MRI scans at baseline and one year found that 715 plaques were unchanged, six were better, and 10 were worse. Three patients had plaques that improved and two patients had plaques that were worse. There were eight gadolinium-enhancing lesions on the baseline scans and 14 on the one-year scans. Pirfenidone was well tolerated in patients with MS. Patients with primary progressive or secondary progressive MS tolerated the medication and remained clinically stable during the one year of follow up. Placebo-controlled blinded studies are needed to determine clinical effectiveness.
    Multiple Sclerosis 07/2003; 9(3):280-3. DOI:10.1191/1352458503ms907oa · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our group has been involved in searching for different strategies to ameliorate hepatic cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Pirfenidone in the reversion or prevention of cirrhosis experimentally induced in rats by chronic administration of CCl(4) and bile-duct ligation (BDL). Male cirrhotic Wistar rats (8 weeks of intoxication and then hepatotoxin was discontinued) received either oral saline or Pirfenidone at 500 mg/kg per day. High levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly (P<0.001) in animals treated with Pirfenidone (n=11) with regard to saline-administrated animals (n=9). Prothrombin activity and bilirubins were also reduced. Computerized fibrosis index demonstrated a 70% decrease (P<0.001) along with less hydroxyproline content, reduction in activated HSC and higher active cell regeneration. A rearrangement of the parenchyma was also noted and gene expression of collagens I, III and IV, transforming growth factor beta-1, Smad-7, TIMP-1 and PAI-1 decreased considerably in treated animals. Cirrhotic rats in which CCl(4) was not discontinued displayed 40% liver fibrosis reduction. In a different cirrhosis model, 4-week BDL rats treated with the drug showed a significant 50% reduction in hepatic fibrosis (P<0.01). This new drug might be useful in healing human disease.
    Journal of Hepatology 01/2003; 37(6):797-805. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(02)00272-6 · 10.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
126.54 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2009
    • University of California, Davis
      • • School of Veterinary Medicine
      • • Department of Molecular Biosciences (VM)
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Texas at Dallas
      Richardson, Texas, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Neurology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Queensland 
      • School of Biomedical Sciences
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 1999
    • Texas Tech University
      Lubbock, Texas, United States