[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bean cells habituated to grow in the presence of dichlobenil exhibited reduced cellulose and hemicellulose content and an increase in pectic polysaccharides. Furthermore, following the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses, a large amount of neutral sugars was released. These sugars were found to be part of a soluble β-1,4-glucan in a preliminary characterization, as reported by Encina et al. (Physiol Plant 114:182-191, 2002). When habituated cells were subcultured in the absence of the herbicide (dehabituated cells), the release of neutral sugars after the extraction of pectins and hemicelluloses was maintained. In this study, we have isolated a soluble β-1,4-glucan from dehabituated cells by sonication of the wall residue (cellulose fraction) remaining after fractionation. Gel filtration chromatography revealed that its average molecular size was 14 kDa. Digestion of the sample with endocellulase revealed the presence of cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose. Methylation analysis showed that 4-linked glucose was the most abundant sugar residue, but 4,6-linked glucose, terminal arabinose and 4-linked galactose for xyloglucan, and arabinogalactan were also identified. NMR analysis showed that this 1,4-glucan may be composed of various kinds of substitutions along the glucan backbone together with acetyl groups linked to the OH group of sugar residues. Thus, despite its relatively high molecular mass, the β-glucan remains soluble because of its unique configuration. This is the first time that a glucan with such characteristics has been isolated and described. The discovery of new molecules, as this β-glucan with unique features, may help understand the composition and arrangement of the polymers within plant cell walls, contributing to a better understanding of this complex structure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The variety of bioassays developed to evaluate different inhibition responses for cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors makes it difficult to compare the results obtained. This work aims (i) to test a single inhibitory assay for comparing active concentrations of a set of putative cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors and (ii) to characterize their effect on cell wall polysaccharides biosynthesis following a short-term exposure. For the first aim, dose-response curves for inhibition of dry-weight increase following a 30 days exposure of bean callus-cultured cells to these inhibitors were obtained. The compound concentration capable of inhibiting dry weight increase by 50% compared to control (I(50)) ranged from subnanomolar (CGA 325'615) to nanomolar (AE F150944, flupoxam, triazofenamide and oxaziclomefone) and micromolar (dichlobenil, quinclorac and compound 1) concentrations. In order to gain a better understanding of the effect of the putative inhibitors on cell wall polysaccharides biosynthesis, the [(14)C]glucose incorporation into cell wall fractions was determined after a 20 h exposure of cell suspensions to each inhibitor at their I(50) value. All the inhibitors tested decreased glucose incorporation into cellulose with the exception of quinclorac, which increased it. In some herbicide treatments, reduction in the incorporation into cellulose was accompanied by an increase in the incorporation into other fractions. In order to appreciate the effect of the inhibitors on cell wall partitioning, a cluster and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on the relative contribution of [(14)C]glucose incorporation into the different cell wall fractions were performed, and three groups of compounds were identified. The first group included quinclorac, which increased glucose incorporation into cellulose; the second group consisted of compound 1, CGA 325'615, oxaziclomefone and AE F150944, which decreased the relative glucose incorporation into cellulose but increased it into tightly-bound cellulose fractions; and the third group, comprising flupoxam, triazofenamide and dichlobenil, decreased the relative glucose incorporation into cellulose and increased it into a pectin rich fraction.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(3):3685-702. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful and rapid technique for analysing cell wall components and putative cross-links, which is able to non-destructively recognize polymers and functional groups and provide abundant information about their in muro organization. FTIR spectroscopy has been reported to be a useful tool for monitoring cell wall changes occurring in muro as a result of various factors, such as growth and development processes, mutations or biotic and abiotic stresses. This mini-review examines the use of FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate analyses to monitor cell wall changes related to (1) the exposure of diverse plant materials to cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors (CBIs), and (2) the habituation/dehabituation of plant cell cultures to this kind of herbicides. The spectra analyses show differences not only regarding the inhibitor, but also regarding how long cells have been growing in its presence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultured maize cells habituated to grow in the presence of the cellulose synthesis inhibitor dichlobenil (DCB) have a modified cell wall in which the amounts of cellulose are reduced and the amounts of arabinoxylan increased. This paper examines the contribution of cell wall-esterified hydroxycinnamates to the mechanism of DCB habituation. For this purpose, differences in the phenolic composition of DCB-habituated and non-habituated cell walls, throughout the cell culture cycle and the habituation process were characterized by HPLC. DCB habituation was accompanied by a net enrichment in cell wall phenolics irrespective of the cell culture phase. The amount of monomeric phenolics was 2-fold higher in habituated cell walls. Moreover, habituated cell walls were notably enriched in p-coumaric acid. Dehydrodimers were 5-6-fold enhanced as a result of DCB habituation and the steep increase in 8,5'-diferulic acid in habituated cell walls would suggest that this dehydrodimer plays a role in DCB habituation. In summary, the results obtained indicate that cell wall phenolics increased as a consequence of DCB habituation, and suggest that they would play a role in maintaining the functionality of a cellulose impoverished cell wall.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bean cells that have been habituated to grow in a lethal concentration (12 μM) of 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil or DCB, a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor) are known to have decreased cellulose content in their cell walls. Xyloglucan, which is bound to cellulose and together with it forms the main loading network of plant cell walls, has also been described to decrease in habituated cells, but whether the change on cellulose affects the xyloglucan structure besides its abundance has not been analyzed. Fragmentation analysis with xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase (XEG) and endocellulase revealed that habituation to DCB caused a change in the fine structure of xyloglucan, namely a decrease in fucosyl residues attached to the galactosyl-xylosyl residues along the glucan backbone. After the removal of herbicide from the medium (dehabituated cells), xyloglucan recovered its fucosyl residues. In addition, some cello-oligosaccharides could be detected only in habituated cells' xyloglucan digested by XEG and endocellulase, corresponding to a glucan covalently bound or co-precipitated with the hemicelluloses. These results show that structural flexibility of cell walls relies in part on the plasticity of xyloglucan composition and opens up new perspectives to further research in this field.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The habituation of cell cultures to cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors constitutes a valuable method for learning more about the plasticity of plant cell wall composition and structure. The subculture of habituated cells in the absence of an inhibitor (dehabituation) offers complementary information: some habituation-associated modifications revert, whereas others remain, even after long-term (3-5 years) dehabituation processes. However, is dehabituation simply the opposite to the process of habituation, in the same way that the cloth woven by Penélope during the day was unwoven during the night? Principal Component Analysis applied to Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectra of cell walls from dichlobenil-habituated and dehabituated bean cell lines has shown that dehabituation follows a different pathway to that of habituation. Principal component loadings show that dehabituated cells have more pectins, but that these display a lower degree of methyl-esterification, than those of habituated ones. Further analysis of cell walls focusing on the first steps of habituation would serve to identify which specific modifications in pectins are responsible to the fine modulation of cell wall architecture observed during the habituation/dehabituation process.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genome of Brachypodium distachyon, also known as purple false brome, was fully sequenced in 2008 largely in response to the demand for a model plant for temperate grasses. A comparative study of the primary cell walls of seedlings of B. distachyon, Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum was carried out. The cell walls of the three species were characterized by similar relative levels of, and developmental changes in, hemicelluloses. The occurrence of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans was correlated with phases of growth involving cell elongation. Expression profiling of the genes involved in (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthesis (cellulose synthase-like F family (CSLF), CSLH and a putative synthase gene CSLJ) did not show a transcriptional regulation that corresponded to the abundance of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans. CSLF6 transcripts were similarly highly expressed in all three grasses, and were much more abundant than any of the other transcripts. The CSLH transcript was relatively abundant in B. distachyon but almost undetectable in the other species. The deposition of arabinoxylans increased steadily during seedling growth in all three grasses, but they became less substituted and more cross-linked into the wall matrix during cell maturation. Moreover, arabinoxylans in B. distachyon differed from the two other grasses in having a lower degree of arabinose substitution, a higher percentage of ferulic acid in form of dimers and a larger proportion of ester-linked p-coumaric acid.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lignocellulosic plant material is potentially a sustainable source of fermentable sugars for bioethanol production. However, a barrier to this is the high resistance or recalcitrance of plant cell walls to be hydrolyzed. Therefore, a detailed knowledge of the structural features of plant cell walls that contribute to recalcitrance is important for improving the efficiency of bioethanol production. In this work we have used a technique known as Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) to analyze wheat straw before and after being subjected to hydrothermal pre-treatments at four different temperatures. The CoMPP technique combines the specificity of monoclonal antibodies with the high-throughput capacity of microarrays. Changes in the relative abundance of cell wall polysaccharides could be tracked during processing, and a reduction in xylan, arabinoxylans, xyloglucan, and mixed-linked glucan epitopes was detected at the two highest temperatures of pre-treatment used. This work demonstrates the potential of CoMPP as a complementally technique to conventional methods for analyzing biomass composition.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 09/2009; 105(3):509-14. · 3.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suspension-cultured bean cells habituated to growth in a lethal concentration of dichlobenil were cultured for 3-5 years in a medium lacking the inhibitor in order to obtain long-term dehabituated cell lines. The growth parameters, cell morphology and ultrastructure of cells in the absence of dichlobenil reverted to that of non-habituated cells. The cellulose content and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of crude cell walls from long-term dehabituated cells were also similar to those of non-habituated cells. However, long-term dehabituated cells showed three times more tolerance to dichlobenil than non-habituated cells. The incorporation of [(14)C]Glc into cellulose was reduced by 40% in dehabituated cells when compared with non-habituated cells. However, the addition of dichlobenil to dehabituated cells increased the incorporation of [(14)C]Glc into cellulose 3.3-fold with respect to that of non-habituated cells. Dehabituated cells showed a constitutively increased peroxidase activity when compared with non-habituated cells. Results reported here indicate that the habituation of bean cultured cells to dichlobenil relied partially on a stable change in the cellulose biosynthesis complex and is associated with high guaiacol peroxidase activity.
Journal of plant physiology 05/2009; 166(12):1229-40. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growth of maize (Zea mays L.) callus-culture cells was inhibited using dichlobenil (2,6 dichlorobenzonitrile, DCB) concentrations > or =1 microM; I (50) value for the effect on inhibited fresh weight gain was 1.5 microM. By increasing the DCB concentration in the culture medium, DCB-habituated cells became 13 times more tolerant of the inhibitor (I (50): 20 microM). In comparison with non-habituated calluses, DCB-habituated calluses grew slower, were less friable and were formed by irregularly shaped cells surrounded by a thicker cell wall. By using an extensive array of techniques, changes in type II cell wall composition and structure associated with DCB habituation were studied. Walls from DCB-habituated cells showed a reduction of up to 75% in cellulose content, which was compensated for by a net increase in arabinoxylan content. Arabinoxylans also showed a reduction in their extractability and a marked increase in their relative molecular mass. DCB habituation also involved a shift from ferulate to coumarate-rich cells walls, and enrichment in cell wall esterified hydroxycinnamates and dehydroferulates. The content of polymers such as mixed-glucan, xyloglucan, mannans, pectins or proteins did not vary or was reduced. These results prove that the architecture of type II cell walls is able to compensate for deficiencies in cellulose content with a more extensive and phenolic cross-linked network of arabinoxylans, without necessitating beta-glucan or other polymer enhancement. As a consequence of this modified architecture, walls from DCB-habituated cells showed a reduction in their swelling capacity and an increase both in pore size and in resistance to polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The herbicide quinclorac has been reported to inhibit incorporation of glucose both into cellulose and other cell wall polysaccharides. However, further work has failed to detect any apparent effect of this herbicide on the synthesis of the wall. In order to elucidate whether quinclorac elicits the inhibition of cellulose biosynthesis directly, in this study bean cell calli were habituated to grow on lethal concentrations of the herbicide and the modifications in cell wall composition due to the habituation process were analysed.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis, cell wall fractionation techniques, biochemical analyses and the immunolocation of different cell wall components with specific monoclonal antibodies were used to characterize the cell walls of quinclorac-habituated cells.
Quinclorac-habituated cells were more irregularly shaped than non-habituated cells and they accumulated an extracellular material, which was more abundant as the level of habituation rose. Habituated cells did not show any decrease in cellulose content, but cell wall fractionation revealed that changes occurred in the distribution and post-depositional modifications of homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I during the habituation process. Therefore, since the action of quinclorac on the cell wall does not seem to be due to a direct inhibition of any cell wall component, it is suggested that the effect of quinclorac on the cell wall could be due to a side-effect of the herbicide.
Long-term modifications of the cell wall caused by the habituation of bean cell cultures to quinclorac did not resemble those of bean cells habituated to the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. Quinclorac does not seem to act primarily as an inhibitor of cellulose biosynthesis.
Annals of Botany 07/2008; 101(9):1329-39. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cells have been habituated to grow in lethal concentrations of dichlobenil (DCB), a specific inhibitor of cellulose biosynthesis. Bean callus cells were successively cultured in increasing DCB concentrations up to 2 microM. The 2-microM DCB habituated cells were impoverished in cellulose and xyloglucan, had an increased xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET; EC 22.214.171.124) activity, together with an increased growth rate and a decreased molecular size of xyloglucan. However, the application of lethal concentrations of two different cellulose-biosynthesis inhibitors (DCB and isoxaben) for a short period of time produced little effect on XET activity and xyloglucan molecular size. We propose that the weakening of plant cell wall provoked by decrease in cellulose content might promote the xyloglucan tethers and increase the ability of xyloglucan to bind to cellulose in order to give rigidity to the wall.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of the cellulose inhibitor dichlobenil on the cell wall composition and structure during the habituation/dehabituation process of suspension-cultured bean cells were assessed. A range of techniques were used including cell wall fractionation, sugar analysis, immunofluorescence and fluorochrome labelling of resin-embedded sections, and immunodot assays (IDAs) of cell wall fractions. The cell walls from bean cell suspensions with initial levels of habituation to dichlobenil had decreased levels of cellulose, but this effect lessened with increasing numbers of subcultures. All cell walls analysed showed calcofluor-stained appositions. However, in habituated and dehabituated cells, appositions were not recognized by an anticallose antibody. This finding suggested the accumulation of an extracellular polysaccharide different to callose, probably a 1,4-β-glucan in these cell lines. Appositions in habituated cells also contained homogalacturonan (HG) with a high degree of methyl esterification (DE), rhamnogalacturonan (RG) and xyloglucan. Habituated cell walls were also enriched in pectins, particularly HG, with a low DE, and RG. The levels of extensin epitope that colocalized with RG in habituated cells also diminished with the increasing number of subcultures. Habituated cells also liberated less extensin into the medium. In habituated cells, a decrease in the cell wall arabinogalactan protein (AGP) labelling was observed both in cell walls and in the culture medium. The increase in the number of subcultures in 0.3 µM dichlobenil was accompanied by an increment in some pectic epitopes (JIM5 and LM5) and a decrease in other pectic and in protein epitopes (JIM7, PAM1, LM6, LM2 and MAC207), indicating a re-structuring of cell walls throughout the habituation procedure. Dehabituated cells showed an overall composition similar to that of non-habituated cells, with exception of an increase in glucose in hemicellulosic fractions tightly bound to cellulose. However, these cells also showed reduced levels of extensin and AGP labelling. These differences could be related to the high tolerance to dichlobenil observed in dehabituated cells.
Physiologia Plantarum 04/2006; 127(1):87 - 99. · 3.66 Impact Factor