Won Hee Lee

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States

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Publications (96)228.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are attractive candidates for therapeutic use, with the potential to replace deficient cells and to improve functional recovery in injury or disease settings. Here, we test the hypothesis that human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) can secrete cytokines as a molecular basis to attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. Human iPSCs were generated from skin fibroblasts and differentiated in vitro with a small molecule-based protocol. Troponin(+) iPSC-CMs were confirmed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and electrophysiological measurements. Afterward, 2×10(6) iPSC-CMs derived from a cell line transduced with a vector expressing firefly luciferase and green fluorescent protein were transplanted into adult NOD/SCID mice with acute left anterior descending artery ligation. Control animals received PBS injection. Bioluminescence imaging showed limited engraftment on transplantation into ischemic myocardium. However, magnetic resonance imaging of animals transplanted with iPSC-CMs showed significant functional improvement and attenuated cardiac remodeling compared with PBS-treated control animals. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism, microfluidic single-cell profiling of harvested iPSC-CMs, laser capture microdissection of host myocardium, and in vitro ischemia stimulation were used to demonstrate that the iPSC-CMs could release significant levels of proangiogenic and antiapoptotic factors in the ischemic microenvironment. Transplantation of human iPSC-CMs into an acute mouse myocardial infarction model can improve left ventricular function and attenuate cardiac remodeling. Because of limited engraftment, most of the effects are possibly explained by paracrine activity of these cells. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation 08/2015; 132(8):762-71. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.015231 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insufficient mechanical properties are one of the major obstacles for the commercialization of ultrahigh permeability thermally rearranged (TR) membranes in large-scale gas separation applications. The incorporation of preformed benzoxazole/benzimidazole units into o-hydroxy copolyimide precursors, which themselves subsequently thermally rearrange to form additional benzoxazole units, were prepared for the first time. Using commercially available monomers, mechanically tough membranes prepared from random and block TR poly(benzoxazole-co-imide) copolymers (TR-PBOI) were investigated for gas separation. The effects of the chemical structures, copolymerization modes, and thermal holding time of o-hydroxy copolyimides on the molecular packing and properties, including gas transport, for the resulting TR-PBOI membranes have been examined in detail. After treatment at 400 °C, tough TR-PBOI membranes exhibited tensile strengths of 71.4−113.9 MPa and elongation at break of 5.1−16.1%. Moreover, they presented higher or comparable gas transport performance as compared to those tough/robust TR membranes reported previously. Reported for the first time is a comparative investigation of the copolymerization mode (random or block) on membrane properties. The novel polymer architecture and systematic property studies promote a better understanding of the materials and process development of commercial TR membranes for gas separation applications.
    Macromolecules 07/2015; 48(15). DOI:10.1021/acs.macromol.5b00930 · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether radiation exposure from cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is associated with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and whether damage leads to programmed cell death and activation of genes involved in apoptosis and DNA repair. Exposure to radiation from medical imaging has become a public health concern, but whether it causes significant cell damage remains unclear. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 67 patients undergoing cardiac CTA between January 2012 and December 2013 in 2 U.S. medical centers. Median blood radiation exposure was estimated using phantom dosimetry. Biomarkers of DNA damage and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry, whole genome sequencing, and single cell polymerase chain reaction. The median dose length product was 1,535.3 mGy•cm (969.7 to 2,674.0 mGy•cm). The median radiation dose to the blood was 29.8 mSv (18.8 to 48.8 mSv). Median DNA damage increased 3.39% (1.29% to 8.04%, p < 0.0001) and median apoptosis increased 3.1-fold (1.4- to 5.1-fold, p < 0.0001) post-radiation. Whole genome sequencing revealed changes in the expression of 39 transcription factors involved in the regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, and DNA repair. Genes involved in mediating apoptosis and DNA repair were significantly changed post-radiation, including DDB2 (1.9-fold [1.5- to 3.0-fold], p < 0.001), XRCC4 (3.0-fold [1.1- to 5.4-fold], p = 0.005), and BAX (1.6-fold [0.9- to 2.6-fold], p < 0.001). Exposure to radiation was associated with DNA damage (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8 [1.2 to 2.6], p = 0.003). DNA damage was associated with apoptosis (OR: 1.9 [1.2 to 5.1], p < 0.0001) and gene activation (OR: 2.8 [1.2 to 6.2], p = 0.002). Patients exposed to >7.5 mSv of radiation from cardiac CTA had evidence of DNA damage, which was associated with programmed cell death and activation of genes involved in apoptosis and DNA repair. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    JACC. Cardiovascular imaging 07/2015; 8(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jcmg.2015.04.016 · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA at each anode for 20minutes) or active sham tDCS (2mA for 40seconds), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA for 20minutes). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Behavioural brain research 04/2015; 290. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.04.031 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a pipeline for realistic head models of nonhuman primates (NHPs) for simulations of noninvasive brain stimulation, and use these models together with empirical threshold measurements to demonstrate that the models capture individual anatomical variability. Based on structural MRI data, we created models of the electric field (E-field) induced by right unilateral (RUL) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in four rhesus macaques. Individual motor threshold (MT) was measured with transcranial electric stimulation (TES) administered through the RUL electrodes in the same subjects. The interindividual anatomical differences resulted in 57% variation in median E-field strength in the brain at fixed stimulus current amplitude. Individualization of the stimulus current by MT reduced the E-field variation in the target motor area by 27%. There was significant correlation between the measured MT and the ratio of simulated electrode current and E-field strength (r2 = 0.95, p = 0.026). Exploratory analysis revealed significant correlations of this ratio with anatomical parameters including of the superior electrode-to-cortex distance, vertex-to-cortex distance, and brain volume (r2 > 0.96, p < 0.02). The neural activation threshold was estimated to be 0.45 ± 0.07 V/cm for 0.2 ms stimulus pulse width. These results suggest that our individual-specific NHP E-field models appropriately capture individual anatomical variability relevant to the dosing of TES/ECT. These findings are exploratory due to the small number of subjects. This work can contribute insight in NHP studies of ECT and other brain stimulation interventions, help link the results to clinical studies, and ultimately lead to more rational brain stimulation dosing paradigms.
    IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 04/2015; 62(9). DOI:10.1109/TBME.2015.2425406 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gas sorption behavior of polyimides (PIs) incorporating Tro¨ger׳s base (TB) units was investigated for five representative small gases (H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2) by barometric pressure decay methods at 35 °C. Methanol treatment of the PI-TB membranes increased the sorption, diffusion, and permeation of the small gas molecules because of increased interactions between the polymer and gas molecules as well as an increase of the FFV due to dilation of the polymers. Two different solubility determination methods, pressure-decay based and time-lag based methods, were introduced and compared. The gas solubilities of relatively condensable gases such as CO2 and CH4 showed good agreement between the two solubility measurements. Two different dianhydrides (6FDA and BTDA) in the PI-TBs were also introduced to determine their structural contributions to the gas sorption and transport properties. The two PI-TBs showed similar behavior in Henry׳s mode sorption. However, their Langmuir mode sorption demonstrated distinctive behavior, resulting in different gas transport phenomena. Methanol-treated PI-TB membranes exhibited plasticization resistance for CO2 permeation under high CO2 content feed in CO2/CH4 mixture. Incorporating TB units in the PI backbones achieved comparable microporosity and gas permeability results especially for CO2 separation in highly permeable polymer membranes.
    Journal of Membrane Science 04/2015; 480. DOI:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.01.022 · 5.06 Impact Factor
  • Sang-Ging Ong · Won Hee Lee · Kazuki Kodo · Joseph C. Wu ·
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key components of a broadly conserved post-transcriptional mechanism that controls gene expression by targeting mRNAs. miRNAs regulate diverse biological processes, including the growth and differentiation of stem cells as well as the regulation of both endogenous tissue repair that has critical implications in the development of regenerative medicine approaches. In this review, we first describe key features of miRNA biogenesis and their role in regulating self-renewal, and then discuss the involvement of miRNAs in the determination of cell fate decisions. We highlight the role of miRNAs in the emergent field of reprogramming and trans-differentiation of somatic cells that could further our understanding of miRNA biology and regenerative medicine applications. Finally, we describe potential techniques for proper delivery of miRNAs in target cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Advanced drug delivery reviews 04/2015; 88. DOI:10.1016/j.addr.2015.04.004 · 15.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to visualize the subjective symptoms before and after the treatment of whiplash injury using infrared (IR) thermography. IR thermography was performed for 42 patients who were diagnosed with whiplash injury. There were 19 male and 23 female patients. The mean age was 43.12 years. Thermal differences (ΔT) in the neck and shoulder and changes in the thermal differences (ΔdT) before and after treatment were analyzed. Pain after injury was evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after treatment (ΔVAS). The correlations between ΔdT and ΔVAS results before and after the treatment were examined. We used Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging equipment of Dorex company for IR thermography. The skin temperature of the neck and shoulder immediately after injury showed 1-2℃ hyperthermia than normal. After two weeks, the skin temperature was normal range. ΔT after immediately injuy was higher than normal value, but it was gradually near the normal value after two weeks. ΔdT before and after treatment were statistically significant (p<0.05). VAS of the neck and shoulder significantly reduced after 2 week (p=0.001). Also, there was significant correlation between ΔdT and reduced ΔVAS (the neck; r=0.412, p<0.007) (the shoulder; r=0.648, p<0.000). The skin temperature of sites with whiplash injury is immediately hyperthermia and gradually decreased after two weeks, finally it got close to normal temperature. These were highly correlated with reduced VAS. IR thermography can be a reliable tool to visualize the symptoms of whiplash injury and the effectiveness of treatment in clinical settings.
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 04/2015; 57(4):283-8. DOI:10.3340/jkns.2015.57.4.283 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT MPI) has improved the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected coronary artery disease, it remains a primary source of low-dose radiation exposure for cardiac patients. To determine the biological effects of low-dose radiation from SPECT MPI, we measured the activation of the DNA damage response pathways using quantitative flow cytometry and single-cell gene expression profiling. Blood samples were collected from patients before and after SPECT MPI (n=63). Overall, analysis of all recruited patients showed no marked differences in the phosphorylation of proteins (H2AX, protein 53, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated) after SPECT. The majority of patients also had either downregulated or unchanged expression in DNA damage response genes at both 24 and 48 hours post-SPECT. Interestingly, a small subset of patients with increased phosphorylation had significant upregulation of genes associated with DNA damage, whereas those with no changes in phosphorylation had significant downregulation or no difference, suggesting that some patients may potentially be more sensitive to low-dose radiation exposure. Our findings showed that SPECT MPI resulted in a variable activation of the DNA damage response pathways. Although only a small subset of patients had increased protein phosphorylation and elevated gene expression postimaging, continued care should be taken to reduce radiation exposure to both the patients and operators. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 02/2015; 8(2). DOI:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.114.002851 · 5.32 Impact Factor

  • Turkish neurosurgery 01/2015; DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.13280-14.5 · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    Hyun Gon Lee · Keun Soo Lee · Won Hee Lee · Sung Tae Kim ·
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    ABSTRACT: A 49-year-old female patient was admitted due to memory disturbances. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging suggested gliomatosis cerebri (GC), which had spread to both insular lobes, both frontal and basal ganglia and the brain stem. A stereotactic biopsy was performed at the high signal intensity area of the T2-weighted MR image, and the revealed a diffuse astrocytoma. Radiation therapy was judged not to be an appropriate treatment for the patient because of her cognitive impairment. A combinatorial chemotherapy regiment consisting of Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine (PCV) was agreed upon after discussion. The patient underwent six cycles of PCV chemotherapy (a full dose was applied until the 3rd cycle, and dose then was reduced to 75% for the remaining cycles). Although the patient exhibited side effects such as bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal symptoms, these were managed by medication. Over the 28 months following initiation of treatment, the high signal area in the right frontal and temporal lobes in the T2-weighted MR image decreased, and the patient's cognitive function [global deterioration scale (GDS) 4 points, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) 25 point] also improved (GDS 1 points, MMSE 29 points). PCV chemotherapy can therefore be an alternative therapeutic option for patients with GC who cannot be treated with radiation therapy or other chemotherapies.
    10/2014; 2(2):102-107. DOI:10.14791/btrt.2014.2.2.102
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the promise shown by stem cells for restoration of cardiac function after myocardial infarction, the poor survival of transplanted cells has been a major issue. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1) is a transcription factor that mediates adaptive responses to ischemia. Here, we hypothesize that codelivery of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) with a nonviral minicircle plasmid carrying HIF1 (MC-HIF1) into the ischemic myocardium can improve the survival of transplanted CPCs. Methods and results: After myocardial infarction, CPCs were codelivered intramyocardially into adult NOD/SCID mice with saline, MC-green fluorescent protein, or MC-HIF1 versus MC-HIF1 alone (n=10 per group). Bioluminescence imaging demonstrated better survival when CPCs were codelivered with MC-HIF1. Importantly, echocardiography showed mice injected with CPCs+MC-HIF1 had the highest ejection fraction 6 weeks after myocardial infarction (57.1±2.6%; P=0.002) followed by MC-HIF1 alone (48.5±2.6%; P=0.04), with no significant protection for CPCs+MC-green fluorescent protein (44.8±3.3%; P=NS) when compared with saline control (38.7±3.2%). In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that cardiac endothelial cells produced exosomes that were actively internalized by recipient CPCs. Exosomes purified from endothelial cells overexpressing HIF1 had higher contents of miR-126 and miR-210. These microRNAs activated prosurvival kinases and induced a glycolytic switch in recipient CPCs, giving them increased tolerance when subjected to in vitro hypoxic stress. Inhibiting both of these miRs blocked the protective effects of the exosomes. Conclusions: In summary, HIF1 can be used to modulate the host microenvironment for improving survival of transplanted cells. The exosomal transfer of miRs from host cells to transplanted cells represents a unique mechanism that can be potentially targeted for improving survival of transplanted cells.
    Circulation 09/2014; 130(11 Suppl 1):S60-9. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.007917 · 14.43 Impact Factor
  • Won Hee Lee · Bomi Kim · Moo Seong Kim ·
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    ABSTRACT: Primary leptomeningeal lymphoma is very rare disease that is a subtype of primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Primary dural lymphoma is a subentity of primary leptomeningeal lymphoma and arises from the dura mater without systemic disease. A 47-year-old woman presented with an indolent mass in the right frontal region. The patient's physical examination demonstrated no focal neurological abnormality. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study revealed a mass lesion in the right frontal region. The patient underwent a right frontal craniectomy and removal of tumor. Histological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The patient received chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP protocol) every 3 weeks for six cycles. The patient was discharged without neurological deficit and no evidence of tumor recurrence. There was no systemic dissemination of disease 72 months after the surgery. Until the optimal standard management protocol is established, the treatment should be with an individualized multidisciplinary approach and continued follow-up and clinical surveillance are recommended for every patient.
    Turkish neurosurgery 09/2014; 24(5):799-803. DOI:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.9535-13.2 · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    John M Bernabei · Won Hee Lee · Angel V Peterchev ·
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    ABSTRACT: Mouse models are widely used in studies of various forms of transcranial electric stimulation (TES). However, there is limited knowledge of the electric field distribution induced by TES in mice, and computational models to estimate this distribution are lacking. This study examines the electric field and current density distribution in the mouse brain induced by TES. We created a high-resolution finite element mouse model incorporating ear clip electrodes commonly used in mouse TES to study, for example, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The electric field strength and current density induced by an ear clip electrode configuration were computed in the anatomically realistic, inhomogenous mouse model. The results show that the median electric field strength induced in the brain at 1 mA of stimulus current is 5.57 V/m, and the strongest field of 20.19 V/m was observed in the cerebellum. Therefore, to match the median electric field in human ECT at 800 mA current, the electrode current in mouse should be set to approximately 15 mA. However, the location of the strongest electric field in posterior brain regions in the mouse does not model well human ECT which targets more frontal regions. Therefore, the ear clip electrode configuration may not be a good model of human ECT. Using high-resolution realistic models for simulating TES in mice may guide the establishment of appropriate stimulation parameters for future in vivo studies.
  • Walter L Barnes · Won Hee Lee · Angel V Peterchev ·
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    ABSTRACT: Rodent models are valuable for preclinical examination of novel therapeutic techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, comparison of TMS effects in rodents and humans is confounded by inaccurate scaling of the spatial extent of the induced electric field in rodents. The electric field is substantially less focal in rodent models of TMS due to the technical restrictions of making very small coils that can handle the currents required for TMS. We examine the electric field distributions generated by various electrode configurations of electric stimulation in an inhomogeneous high-resolution finite element mouse model, and show that the electric field distributions produced by human TMS can be approximated by electric stimulation in mouse. Based on these results and the limits of magnetic stimulation in mice, we argue that the most practical and accurate way to model focal TMS in mice is electric stimulation through either cortical surface electrodes or electrodes implanted halfway through the mouse cranium. This approach could allow much more accurate approximation of the human TMS electric field focality and strength than that offered by TMS in mouse, enabling, for example, focal targeting of specific cortical regions, which is common in human TMS paradigms.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the characteristics of the electric field (E-field) induced in the brain by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST). The electric field induced by five ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, focal electrically administered seizure therapy, and frontomedial) as well as an MST coil configuration (circular) was computed in an anatomically realistic finite element model of the human head. We computed the maps of the electric field strength relative to an estimated neural activation threshold, and used them to evaluate the stimulation strength and focality of the various ECT and MST paradigms. The results show that the median ECT stimulation strength in the brain is 3-11 times higher than that for MST, and that the stimulated brain volume is substantially higher with ECT (47-100%) than with MST (21%). Our study provides insight into the observed reduction of cognitive side effects in MST compared to ECT, and supports arguments for lowering ECT current amplitude as a means of curbing its side effects.
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been reported to promote tolerance against acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the mechanism through which HIF-1 stabilization actually confers this cardioprotection is not clear. We investigated whether HIF-1α stabilization protects the heart against acute IRI by preventing the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and the potential mechanisms involved. Methods and results: Stabilization of myocardial HIF-1 was achieved by pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) domain-containing enzyme using GSK360A or using cardiac-specific ablation of von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL(fl/fl)) in mice. Treatment of HL-1 cardiac cells with GSK360A stabilized HIF-1, increased the expression of HIF-1 target genes pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK1) and hexokinase II (HKII), and reprogrammed cell metabolism to aerobic glycolysis, thereby resulting in the production of less mitochondrial oxidative stress during IRI, and less MPTP opening, effects which were shown to be dependent on HKII. These findings were further confirmed when HIF-1 stabilization in the rat and murine heart resulted in smaller myocardial infarct sizes (both in vivo and ex vivo), decreased mitochondrial oxidative stress, and inhibited MPTP opening following IRI, effects which were also found to be dependent on HKII. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that acute HIF-1α stabilization using either a pharmacological or genetic approach protected the heart against acute IRI by promoting aerobic glycolysis, decreasing mitochondrial oxidative stress, activating HKII, and inhibiting MPTP opening.
    Cardiovascular Research 07/2014; 104(1). DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvu172 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    Youkyung Han · Byeonghee Kim · Yongil Kim · Won Hee Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we propose an automatic cloud detection process for images with high spatial resolution. First, thick cloud regions are detected by applying a simple threshold method to the target image (an image that includes a cloud-covered region). Next, a reference image (another image that was acquired at a different time and includes the region with relatively little or no cloud-cover) is transformed to the coordinates of the target image by a modified scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) method. The difference between the target image and transformed reference image is used to extract the peripheral cloud regions. The thick and peripheral cloud regions are then merged based on their relative locations and areas to detect the final cloud regions. Multi-temporal Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-2 (KOMPSAT-2) images are used to construct study sites to evaluate the proposed method for a range of cloud-cover cases. From the proposed method, a large number of correctly matched points were extracted for this generation of the transformation model, and cloud-covered regions were effectively detected for all sites without manual intervention.
    Remote Sensing Letters 07/2014; 5(7):601-608. DOI:10.1080/2150704X.2014.942921 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2014; 63(12):A1047. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(14)61047-0 · 16.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

556 Citations
228.64 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
    • Hanyang University
      • Department of Energy Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012-2015
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Medicine
      Palo Alto, California, United States
    • The Seoul Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Department of Medicine
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Kwangwoon University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inje University
      • Department of Medicine and Premedicine
      Kŭmhae, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2010-2014
    • Chosun University
      • Department of Civil Engineering
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005-2014
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Clinical Nursing
      • • College of Nursing
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Boditech Med Inc.
      Chinsen, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Life Sciences
      Geijitsu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
  • 2012-2013
    • Kookmin University
      • School of Electrical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010-2013
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2011-2012
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      • Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology
      Blacksburg, Virginia, United States
  • 2009-2010
    • Korea Polytechnic University
      • Department of Advanced Materials Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sejong University
      • Department of Electronic Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Kentucky
      • College of Nursing
      Lexington, Kentucky, United States
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Department of Psychology
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2007-2010
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      • • College of Pharmacy
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006-2007
    • Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003
    • Korea University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea