Won Hee Lee

Kwangwoon University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (63)75.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A 49-year-old female patient was admitted due to memory disturbances. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging suggested gliomatosis cerebri (GC), which had spread to both insular lobes, both frontal and basal ganglia and the brain stem. A stereotactic biopsy was performed at the high signal intensity area of the T2-weighted MR image, and the revealed a diffuse astrocytoma. Radiation therapy was judged not to be an appropriate treatment for the patient because of her cognitive impairment. A combinatorial chemotherapy regiment consisting of Procarbazine, CCNU, and Vincristine (PCV) was agreed upon after discussion. The patient underwent six cycles of PCV chemotherapy (a full dose was applied until the 3rd cycle, and dose then was reduced to 75% for the remaining cycles). Although the patient exhibited side effects such as bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal symptoms, these were managed by medication. Over the 28 months following initiation of treatment, the high signal area in the right frontal and temporal lobes in the T2-weighted MR image decreased, and the patient's cognitive function [global deterioration scale (GDS) 4 points, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) 25 point] also improved (GDS 1 points, MMSE 29 points). PCV chemotherapy can therefore be an alternative therapeutic option for patients with GC who cannot be treated with radiation therapy or other chemotherapies.
    Brain tumor research and treatment. 10/2014; 2(2):102-107.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the characteristics of the electric field (E-field) induced in the brain by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST). The electric field induced by five ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, focal electrically administered seizure therapy, and frontomedial) as well as an MST coil configuration (circular) was computed in an anatomically realistic finite element model of the human head. We computed the maps of the electric field strength relative to an estimated neural activation threshold, and used them to evaluate the stimulation strength and focality of the various ECT and MST paradigms. The results show that the median ECT stimulation strength in the brain is 3-11 times higher than that for MST, and that the stimulated brain volume is substantially higher with ECT (47-100%) than with MST (21%). Our study provides insight into the observed reduction of cognitive side effects in MST compared to ECT, and supports arguments for lowering ECT current amplitude as a means of curbing its side effects.
    08/2014; 2014:410-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Mouse models are widely used in studies of various forms of transcranial electric stimulation (TES). However, there is limited knowledge of the electric field distribution induced by TES in mice, and computational models to estimate this distribution are lacking. This study examines the electric field and current density distribution in the mouse brain induced by TES. We created a high-resolution finite element mouse model incorporating ear clip electrodes commonly used in mouse TES to study, for example, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The electric field strength and current density induced by an ear clip electrode configuration were computed in the anatomically realistic, inhomogenous mouse model. The results show that the median electric field strength induced in the brain at 1 mA of stimulus current is 5.57 V/m, and the strongest field of 20.19 V/m was observed in the cerebellum. Therefore, to match the median electric field in human ECT at 800 mA current, the electrode current in mouse should be set to approximately 15 mA. However, the location of the strongest electric field in posterior brain regions in the mouse does not model well human ECT which targets more frontal regions. Therefore, the ear clip electrode configuration may not be a good model of human ECT. Using high-resolution realistic models for simulating TES in mice may guide the establishment of appropriate stimulation parameters for future in vivo studies.
    08/2014; 2014:406-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Rodent models are valuable for preclinical examination of novel therapeutic techniques, including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, comparison of TMS effects in rodents and humans is confounded by inaccurate scaling of the spatial extent of the induced electric field in rodents. The electric field is substantially less focal in rodent models of TMS due to the technical restrictions of making very small coils that can handle the currents required for TMS. We examine the electric field distributions generated by various electrode configurations of electric stimulation in an inhomogeneous high-resolution finite element mouse model, and show that the electric field distributions produced by human TMS can be approximated by electric stimulation in mouse. Based on these results and the limits of magnetic stimulation in mice, we argue that the most practical and accurate way to model focal TMS in mice is electric stimulation through either cortical surface electrodes or electrodes implanted halfway through the mouse cranium. This approach could allow much more accurate approximation of the human TMS electric field focality and strength than that offered by TMS in mouse, enabling, for example, focal targeting of specific cortical regions, which is common in human TMS paradigms.
    08/2014; 2014:6129-32.
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    ABSTRACT: High-temperature-induced and humidity-induced degradation behaviors were investigated through the failure analysis of encapsulated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) modules and non-encapsulated CIGS cells. After being exposed to high temperature (85 °C) for 1000 h, the efficiency loss of CIGS modules and the resistivities of the aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) layer, CIGS layer, and Mo layer were slightly increased. After damp heat (DH) testing (85 °C/85% RH), the efficiency of some modules decreased significantly accompanied by discoloration, and in these areas, the resistivity of the AZO layers increased markedly. The causes of degradation of CIGS cells after high temperature and DH tests were suggested through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The high-temperature-induced degradation behaviors were revealed to be increases in series resistance of the CIGS cells, due to the adsorption of oxygen on the AZO, CIGS, and Mo layers. The degradation behavior after DH (85 °C/85% RH) exposure was caused by the adsorption of oxygen, as well as the generation of Zn(OH)2 due to water molecules. In particular, the humidity-induced degradation behavior in discolored CIGS modules was ascribed to the generation of Zn(OH)2 and carboxylic acids in the AZO layer, due to a chemical reaction between the AZO, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, and water. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications 04/2014; · 7.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myoclonus-dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by childhood onset of myoclonus and dystonia. We report a case of the epsilon-sarcoglycan mutation-negative myoclonus-dystonia patient who underwent bilateral globus pallidus interna deep-brain stimulation with subsequent improvement of both myoclonus and dystonia. A 37-year-old woman with myoclonic jerks and dystonia affecting predominantly the lower limbs was treated with chronic bilateral globus pallidus interna deep-brain stimulation. The movement subscore of the Burke-Fahns-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale was 38 before surgery and improved to 7 after 3 years. The disability subscore of the Burke-Fahns-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale improved from 7 to 2. The Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale also decreased significantly from 93 to 39. No hardware- or stimulation-related complications occurred during follow-up. This report suggests that patients with myoclonus-dystonia may significantly benefit from bilateral globus pallidus interna deep-brain stimulation. Larger studies of this patient population are needed to confirm the optimal target.
    Neuromodulation 02/2014; · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) may be one of the most common predictors of mortality and rehospitalization. This study was conducted to identify factors affecting HRQOL in Korean patients with CHF using two HRQOL measurements. The study included a sample of 114 patients. HRQOL was measured by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Instrument - Short Version (WHOQOL-BREF). Multiple regression analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between the factors and HRQOL. Significant correlations were found between MLHFQ and WHOQOL-BREF in total and component scores, with the two exceptions of WHOQOL-BREF psychological and MLHFQ physical or total. The perceived economic status, functional status, and sex were factors identified as having an effect on HRQOL. The MLHFQ was better able to differentiate sex, comorbidity, and functional status. Further studies are needed to implement cost-effective nursing interventions for patients with CHF to improve their HRQOL.
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science 01/2014; 11(1):54-64. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ObjectiveAlthough metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the brain is uncommon, it is associated with a very high mortality rate and most patients usually expire within 1 year after brain metastasis. The aim of this study is to identify the effectiveness of the active interventions such as gamma knife radiosurgery or surgical intervention for these patients.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records and imaging data of 59 patients with metastatic brain tumors from hepatocellular carcinoma from May 2004 to September 2012. The study included patients with available clinical and radiological data who had been diagnosed with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma of the brain, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The overall survival time was analyzed and compared according to each risk factor.ResultsThe mean age at diagnosis of metastatic brain tumor was 52.2 years (14-77). The mean follow-up duration was 13.3 weeks (0.1-117.6). Overall median survival was 4.3 weeks (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.4). The results from an analysis of clinical factors related to survival revealed that treatment modalities were significantly related to the patient's survival (log rank, p=0.006). Twenty patients (32.8%) experienced tumor bleeding, and the survival time of the patients with tumor bleeding tended to be shorter, although the result was not statistically significant (log rank, p=0.058). Hepatic reserve, by Child-Pugh classification, was grade A in 38 patients (64.4%), grade B in 16 patients (27.1%), and grade C in 5 patients (8.5%), and was significantly related to the patient's survival (log rank, p=0.000).ConclusionAlthough patients with metastatic brain tumors from hepatocellular carcinoma showed poor survival, active intervention including surgical resection or gamma knife radiosurgery may result in better survival, especially if patients have preserved liver function.
    Brain tumor research and treatment. 10/2013; 1(2):78-84.
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
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    ABSTRACT: We have proposed that the current amplitude in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) be lowered to produce stimulation closer to the neural activation threshold and individualized to account for anatomical variability across patients. A novel approach to individualize the ECT current amplitude could be via motor threshold (MT) determination with transcranial electric stimulation (TES) applied through the ECT electrodes instead of the fixed high current approach. This study derives an estimate of the electric field (E-field) neural activation threshold and tests whether individual differences in TES MT are explained by anatomical variability measurements and simulations in individual head models. The E-field distribution induced by a right unilateral (RUL) ECT electrode configuration was computed in subject-specific finite element head models of four nonhuman primates (NHPs) for whom MT was measured. By combining the measured MTs and the computed E-field maps, the neural activation threshold is estimated to be 0.45 ± 0.07 V/cm for 0.2 ms stimulus pulse width. The individual MT was correlated with the electrode-to-cortex distance under the superior electrode (R(2)=.96, p=.022) as well as with the simulated electrode-current/induced-E-field ratio (R(2)=.95, p=.026), indicating that both anatomical measurements and computational models could predict the individual current requirements for transcranial stimulation. These findings could be used with realistic human head models and in clinical studies to explore novel ECT dosing paradigms, and as a new noninvasive means to determine individual dosage requirement with ECT.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 07/2013; 2013:815-818.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the characteristics of the electric field induced in the brain by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with individualized current amplitude. The electric field induced by bilateral (BL), bifrontal (BF), right unilateral (RUL), and frontomedial (FM) ECT electrode configurations was computed in anatomically realistic finite element models of four nonhuman primates (NHPs). We generated maps of the electric field strength relative to an empirical neural activation threshold, and determined the stimulation strength and focality at fixed current amplitude and at individualized current amplitudes corresponding to seizure threshold (ST) measured in the anesthetized NHPs. The results show less variation in brain volume stimulated above threshold with individualized current amplitudes (16-36%) compared to fixed current amplitude (30-62%). Further, the stimulated brain volume at amplitude-titrated ST is substantially lower than that for ECT with conventional fixed current amplitudes. Thus individualizing the ECT stimulus current could compensate for individual anatomical variability and result in more focal and uniform electric field exposure across different subjects compared to the standard clinical practice of using high, fixed current for all patients.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 07/2013; 2013:3082-3085.
  • Chillo Ga, Jeongho Lee, Won Hee Lee, Kiyun Yu
    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems 01/2013; E96.D(1):129-133. · 0.19 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science. 11/2012; 14(3):193-202.
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    ABSTRACT: To establish safe and efficient transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), it is of particular importance to understand the electrical effects of tDCS in the brain. Since the current density (CD) and electric field (EF) in the brain generated by tDCS depend on various factors including complex head geometries and electrical tissue properties, in this work, we investigated the influence of anisotropic conductivity in the skull and white matter (WM) on tDCS via a 3D anatomically realistic finite element head model. We systematically incorporated various anisotropic conductivity ratios into the skull and WM. The effects of anisotropic tissue conductivity on the CD and EF were subsequently assessed through comparisons to the conventional isotropic solutions. Our results show that the anisotropic skull conductivity significantly affects the CD and EF distribution: there is a significant reduction in the ratio of the target versus non-target total CD and EF on the order of 12-14%. In contrast, the WM anisotropy does not significantly influence the CD and EF on the targeted cortical surface, only on the order of 1-3%. However, the WM anisotropy highly alters the spatial distribution of both the CD and EF inside the brain. This study shows that it is critical to incorporate anisotropic conductivities in planning of tDCS for improved efficacy and safety.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/2012; 57(21):6961-80. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the stimulation strength and focality of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with individualized current amplitude in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model. We generated an anatomically realistic finite element model of a NHP head incorporating tissue heterogeneity and white matter conductivity anisotropy based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI data. The electric field spatial distributions of three conventional ECT electrode placements (bilateral, bifrontal, and right unilateral) and an experimental frontomedial electrode configuration were simulated. We calibrated the electric field maps relative to an empirical neural activation threshold and evaluated the stimulation strength and focality of the various ECT electrode configurations with individualized current amplitudes corresponding to the motor threshold and seizure threshold assessed in the anesthetized NHP. Understanding the stimulation strength and focality of various forms of ECT could provide insight into the mechanisms of therapeutic seizure induction, and could provide support for the clinical investigation of ECT with individualized current amplitude as an intervention with potentially improved risk/benefit ratio.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 08/2012; 2012:6430-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy, the most commonly used for the treatment of brain tumors, has been shown to be of major significance in tu-mor control and survival rate of brain tumor patients. About 200,000 patients with brain tumor are treated with either partial large field or whole brain radiation every year in the United States. The use of radiation therapy for treatment of brain tumors, however, may lead to devastating functional deficits in brain several months to years after treatment. In particular, whole brain radiation therapy results in a significant reduction in learning and memory in brain tumor patients as long-term consequences of treatment. Although a number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the pathogenesis of radiation-mediated brain injury, the cel-lular and molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces damage to normal tissue in brain remain largely unknown. Therefore, this review focuses on the pathophysiological mechanisms of whole brain radiation-induced cognitive impairment and the iden-tification of novel therapeutic targets. Specifically, we review the current knowledge about the effects of whole brain radiation on pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory pathways, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) system and extracellular matrix (ECM), and physiological angiogenesis in brain. These studies may provide a foundation for defin-ing a new cellular and molecular basis related to the etiology of cognitive impairment that occurs among patients in response to whole brain radiation therapy. It may also lead to new opportunities for therapeutic interventions for brain tumor patients who are undergoing whole brain radiation therapy.
    Biomolecules and Therapeutics 07/2012; 20(4):357-370. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While in traditional photogrammetry, photogrammetric tasks are solved by point-to-point correspondences, in the advanced computer technology environment higher-level linear features may be used to develop more robust, general, and accurate techniques. Employing high-level features increases the prospect that geometric information can provide suitable solutions and that prior knowledge of correspondence between individual points, consisting of features in object space and in image space, is not required. Three-dimensional natural cubic splines are employed as mathematical models of linear features in the object space and their counterparts in the projected image space. To solve overparameterization of 3D natural cubic splines, arc-length parameterization using Simpson's rule is used, and tangents of the splines provide additional constraints to the overparameterized system. Traditional collinearity equations are expanded to allow employment of the 3D curve. In this work, the integrated model of the extended collinearity equation utilizing 3D natural cubic splines, tangents of splines, and arc-length parameterization is derived to recover the exterior orientation parameters, 3D natural cubic spline parameters, and spline location parameters.
    Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience 04/2012; 8(1):718-724. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy γ-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy γ-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 04/2012; 82(5):1559-66. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first computational study investigating the electric field (E-field) strength generated by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) electrode configurations in specific brain regions of interest (ROIs) that have putative roles in the therapeutic action and/or adverse side effects of ECT. This study also characterizes the impact of the white matter (WM) conductivity anisotropy on the E-field distribution. A finite element head model incorporating tissue heterogeneity and WM anisotropic conductivity was constructed based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI data. We computed the spatial E-field distributions generated by three standard ECT electrode placements including bilateral (BL), bifrontal (BF), and right unilateral (RUL) and an investigational electrode configuration for focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST). The key results are that (1) the median E-field strength over the whole brain is 3.9, 1.5, 2.3, and 2.6 V/cm for the BL, BF, RUL, and FEAST electrode configurations, respectively, which coupled with the broad spread of the BL E-field suggests a biophysical basis for observations of superior efficacy of BL ECT compared to BF and RUL ECT; (2) in the hippocampi, BL ECT produces a median E-field of 4.8 V/cm that is 1.5-2.8 times stronger than that for the other electrode configurations, consistent with the more pronounced amnestic effects of BL ECT; and (3) neglecting the WM conductivity anisotropy results in E-field strength error up to 18% overall and up to 39% in specific ROIs, motivating the inclusion of the WM conductivity anisotropy in accurate head models. This computational study demonstrates how the realistic finite element head model incorporating tissue conductivity anisotropy provides quantitative insight into the biophysics of ECT, which may shed light on the differential clinical outcomes seen with various forms of ECT, and may guide the development of novel stimulation paradigms with improved risk/benefit ratio.
    NeuroImage 02/2012; 59(3):2110-23. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    Sebastian K Fixson, Won Hee Lee
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the effect industry life cycle phase shifts have on the effectiveness of firms’ knowledge creation strategies. Building on literature streams on strategic knowledge management and industry life cycles, we develop theoretical arguments for why the best knowledge search strategy should be different before the emergence of an industry compared to afterwards. Testing our hypotheses empirically in the emerging U.S. automotive airbag industry confirms the powerful forces of industry emergence: the best knowledge search strategy is initially one that looks inward into the organization but outside of the technology area, and later shifts to one that is looking outward from the organization and the technology. As practical implication we derive that R&D managers should (i) adjust their teams’ knowledge search strategies depending on the industry life cycle phase in which they find themselves, and (ii) especially look for new applications of their firm’s existing knowledge in related fields. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Carliss Baldwin, Michael Heeley, J. Peter Murmann, Karl Ulrich, seminar participants at Wharton and MIT, and three anonymous Academy of Management Annual Meeting Reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this paper. All errors remain our responsibility. The authors acknowledge financial support for this research from the National Science Foundation (SES-0620487).
    Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 01/2012; · 0.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology of radiation-induced cerebrovascular rarefaction remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effect of whole-brain irradiation on endothelial cell (EC) proliferation/apoptosis and expression of various angiogenic factors in rat brain. F344 × BN rats received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy γ rays) or sham irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8 and 24 h after irradiation. Double immunofluorescence staining was employed to visualize EC proliferation/apoptosis in brain. The mRNA and protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), endothelial-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (Tie-2), and Ang-2 in brain were determined by real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. A significant reduction in CD31-immunoreactive cells was detected in irradiated rat brains compared with sham-irradiated controls. Whole-brain irradiation significantly suppressed EC proliferation and increased EC apoptosis. In addition, a significant decrease in mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, Ang-1 and Tie-2 was observed in irradiated rat brains. In contrast, whole-brain irradiation significantly upregulated Ang-2 expression in rat brains. The present study provides novel evidence that whole-brain irradiation differentially affects mRNA and protein expression of VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Ang-2. These changes are closely associated with decreased EC proliferation and increased EC apoptosis in brain.
    Radiation Research 09/2011; 176(6):753-60. · 2.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

294 Citations
75.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Kwangwoon University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inje University
      • College of Medicine
      Kŭmhae, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2013
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chosun University
      • Department of Civil Engineering
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2012
    • The Seoul Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
      • • Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology
      • • Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences
      Blacksburg, Virginia, United States
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      • Department of Psychology
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
    • Sejong University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2010
    • Korea Polytechnic University
      • Department of Advanced Materials Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2009
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      • • College of Pharmacy
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005–2008
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Clinical Nursing
      • • College of Nursing
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003
    • Korea University
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea