[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) are a diverse and rapidly expanding group of viruses associated with a variety of disease conditions in humans and animals. To identify felid GHVs, we screened domestic cat (Felis catus), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) blood cell DNA samples from California, Colorado and Florida using a degenerate pan-GHV PCR. Additional pan-GHV and long-distance PCRs were used to sequence a contiguous 3.4 kb region of each putative virus species including partial glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. We identified three novel GHVs, each present predominantly in one felid species: Felis catus GHV 1 (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats, Lynx rufus GHV 1 (LruGHV1) in bobcats, and Puma concolor GHV 1 (PcoGHV1) in pumas. To estimate infection prevalence, we developed real-time quantitative PCR assays for each virus and screened additional DNA samples from all three species (n = 282). FcaGHV1 was detected in 16% of domestic cats across all study sites. LruGHV1 was detected in 47% of bobcats and 13% of pumas across all study sites, suggesting relatively common interspecific transmission. PcoGHV1 was detected in 6% of pumas, all from a specific region of Southern California. The risk of infection for each host varied with geographic location. Age was a positive risk factor for bobcat LruGHV1 infection, and age and being male were risk factors for domestic cat FcaGHV1 infection. Further characterization of these viruses may have significant health implications for domestic cats and may aid studies of free-ranging felid ecology.Importance Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) establish life-long infection in many animal species and can cause cancer and other diseases in humans and animals. In this study we identified DNA sequences of three GHVs present in the blood of domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor, also known as cougars or mountain lions). We found that these viruses were closely related to, but distinct from, other known GHVs of animals and represent the first GHVs identified as native to these feline species. We developed techniques to rapidly and specifically detect the DNA of these viruses in feline blood and found that the domestic cat and bobcat viruses were widespread across the US. In contrast, puma virus was found only in a specific region of southern California. Surprisingly, the bobcat virus was also detected in some pumas, suggesting relatively common virus transmission between these species. Adult domestic cats and bobcats were at greater risk for infection than juveniles. Male domestic cats were at greater risk for infection than females. This study identifies three new viruses that are widespread in three feline species, indicates risk factors for infection that may relate to route of infection, and demonstrates cross-species transmission between bobcats and pumas. These newly identified viruses may have important effects on feline health and ecology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial culture from a double guarded culture swab is commonly used to diagnose infectious endometritis. The objective of this study was to develop a qPCR assay to detect a broad range of bacteria from equine uterine samples. Twenty seven mares with a clinical history of endometritis had a double guarded culture swab collected for analysis by qPCR and microbial culture. An additional 12 mares had a uterine biopsy sample collected for qPCR analysis, microbial culture, and histopathology. Subsequently, a double guarded culture swab for microbial culture and a cytology brush sample were also collected. The qPCR assay detected bacterial DNA in 9 of 27 mares from a double guarded swab and 6 of 12 mares from an endometrial biopsy. Positive microbial growth was detected in 9 of 27 mares and 4 of 12 mares from a double guarded culture swab. Bacterial DNA was detected in 2 of 27 and 2 of 12 mares without subsequent microbial growth. The simple presence of an organism’s DNA allows for detection by non-culture based systems, both live and dead organisms can be identified. In conclusion, the qPCR assay was determined to be a sensitive diagnostic technique for identifying pathogens associated with infectious endometritis. The primary application of the qPCR assay is detection of potential pathogenic bacteria in the uterus of a mare suspected of having infectious endometritis when a traditional microbial culture is negative. Further work is warranted to determine if mares positive for bacterial DNA and negative for microbial culture are affected clinically.
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 01/2014; · 0.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline idiopathic cystitis is a common condition, often resulting in repeated episodes of life-threatening urethral obstruction. Defective urinary bladder glycosaminoglycans have been implicated as a causal factor. In this report, a commercially available glycosaminoglycan product was infused into the urinary bladders of cats with urethral obstruction from idiopathic cystitis to study the effect on repeated obstruction. In this randomized, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the therapeutic protocol was well-tolerated with no adverse effects. Whereas no glycosaminoglycan-treated cats (n = 9) developed repeated urethral obstruction during the 7-day follow-up period, 3/7 placebo-treated cats developed repeated obstructions. Approaching statistical significance (P = 0.06), these data suggest that further investigation of this new treatment option is warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: This Report was developed by the Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel of the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) to provide practical recommendations to help clinicians select appropriate vaccination schedules for their feline patients based on risk assessment. The recommendations rely on published data as much as possible, as well as consensus of a multidisciplinary panel of experts in immunology, infectious disease, internal medicine and clinical practice.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 09/2013; 15(9):785-808.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate diagnostic utility of aqueous humor analysis in animals with anterior uveitis.
Client-owned dogs (n = 12) and cats (n = 10).
Examination findings and diagnostic test results including aqueous humor cytology were compared.
Disease duration prior to aqueocentesis was not significantly different between dogs with idiopathic anterior uveitis and those with an etiologic diagnosis, but was shorter in cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) than those with idiopathic uveitis. Microbial nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies against them were seldom found in blood/serum; however, serum feline coronavirus titers ≥1:6400 were detected only in cats with FIP. Aqueous humor cytology was diagnostic in no cats and two dogs, both with neoplasia. Although aqueous humor contained predominantly neutrophils in cats with FIP and large reactive lymphocytes and plasma cells appeared more frequent in cats with idiopathic uveitis, neither clinical nor cytologic assessment of anterior chamber contents differed significantly between cats with idiopathic or FIP-associated uveitis. Cytologically assessed plasma cell number was correlated with keratic precipitates and disease duration. Clinically detectable hyphema and cytologic erythrocyte number were correlated. However, cytologic cell grades and clinical grade of flare or cell numbers within the anterior chamber were not correlated.
Aqueous humor cytology permitted diagnosis of neoplasia in dogs with anterior uveitis but was generally not helpful in cats. Poor correlation between clinical and cytologic assessment of cell numbers and type within the anterior chamber dictates that clinical grading should not be the sole criterion for electing to perform aqueocentesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. METHODS: Specific pathogen free cats (n = 19) were housed in three adjoining enclosures that were separated by mesh to allow C. felis to pass among groups but prevent cats in different enclosures from contacting one another. One group of 4 cats was inoculated intravenously with B. henselae and after infection was confirmed in all cats based on positive PCR assay results, the cats were housed in the middle enclosure. The B. henselae infected cat group was flanked by a group of 8 cats that had the collar placed and maintained for the duration of the study and a group of 7 cats that were not treated. Ctenocephalides felis (50 males and 50 females) raised in an insectary were placed on each of the 4 cats in the B. henselae infected group monthly for 7 applications and then every 2 weeks for 4 applications starting the day the collar was applied. Blood was collected from all cats weekly for Bartonella spp. PCR, serology and culture. RESULTS: While side-effects associated with the collars were not noted, persistent fever necessitating enrofloxacin therapy occurred in two of the untreated cats. While B. henselae infection was ultimately confirmed in 4 of 7 of the untreated cats, none of the cats with collars became infected (P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: In this study design, use of a collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was well tolerated and prevented C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To develop a broad-range 28S ribosomal DNA quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for detection of fungal DNA in equine endometrial samples. Sample-12 fungal samples from a clinical diagnostic laboratory and 29 samples obtained from 17 mares. Procedures-The qPCR assay was optimized with commercially acquired fungal organisms and validated with samples obtained from the clinical diagnostic laboratory. Subsequently, 29 samples from 17 mares suspected of having fungal endometritis were evaluated via the qPCR assay and via traditional fungal culture and endometrial cytology. Amplicons from the qPCR assay were subjected to genetic sequencing to identify the organisms. Results-The qPCR assay theoretically had a detection threshold of 2 organisms of Candida albicans. Fungal DNA was amplified from all 12 fungal samples from the commercial diagnostic laboratory. Fungal identification by use of genetic sequencing was successful for 34 of 36 amplicons from the 12 samples assayed. A fungal agent was identified via qPCR assay and genetic sequencing in all 12 samples; in contrast, a fungal agent was identified in only 8 of 12 samples via standard fungal culture and biochemical analysis. The qPCR assay detected fungal DNA in samples from 12 of 17 mares suspected of having fungal endometritis. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-A rapid, sensitive, and repeatable qPCR assay was developed for detection of fungal DNA from equine endometrial samples. The qPCR may prove to be clinically useful as an adjunct to microbial culture and cytologic examination to provide identification of fungal organisms in a timely manner.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 01/2013; 74(1):161-5. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies suggest that intranasal vaccination can stimulate nonspecific immunity against agents not contained within the vaccine, but this effect is not reported for cats.
A modified live feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) intranasal vaccine will reduce clinical signs of disease caused by experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica.
Twenty specific pathogen-free 12-week-old kittens.
Experimental study. Cats were randomized into 2 groups of 10 cats each. The vaccinated group was administered a single intranasal dose of a commercially available vaccine containing modified live strains of FHV-1 and FCV, and the control group remained unvaccinated. All 20 cats were administered B. bronchiseptica by nasal inoculation 7 days later and were observed daily for clinical signs of illness for 20 days.
In the first 10 days after B. bronchiseptica challenge, vaccinated cats were less likely to be clinically ill than control cats with a median clinical score of 0/180 (range 0-5) versus 2/180 (range 0-8) (P = .01). Nine of 10 control cats and 2 of 10 vaccinated cats were recorded as sneezing during days 1-10 after challenge (P = .006).
Intranasal vaccination against FHV-1 and FCV decreased signs of illness due to an infectious agent not contained in the vaccine. This nonspecific immunity could be beneficial for protection against organisms for which vaccines are not available and as protection before development of vaccine-induced humoral immunity.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 08/2012; 26(5):1121-5. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed Lynx rufus fecal parasites from California and Colorado, hypothesizing that bobcats shed zoonotic parasites around human landscapes. Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium, Ancylostoma, Uncinaria, and Toxocara cati were shed. Toxoplasma gondii serology demonstrated exposure. Giardia and Cryptosporidium shedding increased near large human populations. Genotyped Giardia may indicate indirect transmission with humans.
Journal of clinical microbiology 06/2012; 50(9):3080-3. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine and compare the assemblages of Giardia duodenalis isolated from mammalian fecal samples using the β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. A total of 202 samples, either submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Parasitology) at Colorado State University or part of ongoing research studies, were typed. A subset of 50 dog samples were also assessed by the tpi-D-specific primers. Of these, 183 were from dogs, 13 were from cats, two were from llamas, and one each was from a calf, an alpaca, a sheep, and a horse. The majority of the dogs (171 of 183 isolates) in this study were infected with only dog-adapted Assemblage C or D. The tpi-D-specific primers confirmed that 28 of the samples that typed as Assemblage D by the bg and gdh genes were also Assemblage D by the tpi-D-specific primers. Only 12 isolates were Assemblage A alone or Assemblage A and Assemblage C or D. Of the 13 cat isolates, seven were Assemblage F, two were Assemblage D, three were Assemblage A and 1 contained both Assemblages C and D. The calf isolate was Assemblage E (gdh, tpi) and the alpaca (bg, gdh), llamas (gdh), sheep (bg, gdh, tpi) and horse (tpi) isolates were all Assemblage A. When the assemblage could be determined for more than one gene, 91 of 117 dog isolates gave consistent results and 8 of 9 cat isolates gave consistent results.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs).The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population.Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians.In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France) in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world.As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians for the management of CVBDs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two groups of feline panleukopenia (FPV), feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) seronegative kittens (six cats per group) were administered one of two feline viral rhinotracheitis, calcivirus and panleukopenia (FVRCP) vaccines subcutaneously (one inactivated and one modified live) and the serological responses to each agent were followed over 49 days (days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49). While the kittens administered the modified live FPV vaccine were more likely to seroconvert on day 7 after the first inoculation than kittens administered the inactivated vaccine, all kittens had seroconverted by day 14. In contrast, FHV-1 serological responses were more rapid following administration of the inactivated FVRCP vaccine when compared with the modified live FVRCP vaccine. There were no statistical differences between the serological response rates between the two FVRCP vaccines in regard to FCV.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 02/2012; 14(2):161-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the mechanisms driving disease exposure and to predict zones of cross-species pathogen transmission among wild and domestic felids.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e31403. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have been recognized as significant pathogens in veterinary medicine. There have been documented cases of MRSA infection and colonization in veterinary critical care units, in veterinary personnel, and in equine and feline patients. To date, there have been no studies examining the prevalence of MRSA or MRSP colonization of cats and dogs in animal shelters in the United States. The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA and MRSP in cats and dogs in a northern Colorado animal shelter. Samples were collected from 200 cats and 200 dogs in an open admission shelter. Each species was divided into 2 smaller groups: 100 dogs or cats housed in the stray ward and 100 dogs or cats housed in the adoption area. Samples were evaluated for the prevalence of MRSA or MRSP, which was verified through aerobic culture and Kirby-Bauer agar disc diffusion to confirm antimicrobial sensitivity. Results revealed MRSA in 0.5% of cat samples, MRSA in 0.5% of dog samples, and MRSP in 3% of dog samples. These results are consistent with previously published prevalence rates for these 2 organisms in non-shelter populations of dogs and cats, indicating that cats and dogs from this Colorado shelter do not appear to pose any greater risk to the public than do cats and dogs in the general pet population.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 09/2011; 23(5):947-50. · 1.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in San Isidro de El General, Costa Rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. Each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for Giardia and Cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Giardia and Cryptosporidium IFA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification of specific DNA if possible. The seroprevalence rates for the vector-borne agents (Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) were estimated based on results from a commercially available ELISA. Enteric parasites were detected in samples from 75% of the dogs; Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis, Giardia, and Toxocara canis were detected. Of the cats, 67.5% harbored Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Ancylostoma tubaeforme, or Toxocara cati. Both Cryptosporidium spp. isolates that could be sequenced were Cryptosporidium parvum (one dog isolate and one cat isolate). Of the Giardia spp. isolates that were successfully sequenced, the 2 cat isolates were assemblage A and the 2 dog isolates were assemblage D. D. immitis antigen and E. canis antibodies were identified in 2.3% and 3.5% of the serum samples, respectively. The prevalence of enteric zoonotic parasites in San Isidro de El General in Costa Rica is high in companion animals and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates for select infectious agents of cats presented to the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Whole blood, serum, and oral mucosal and nail bed swabs were collected. While Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma species or Rickettsia felis DNA were not amplified from any cat, 44.2% of the cats had evidence of infection or exposure to either a Bartonella species (15.3% were seropositive and 5.8% polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive), a haemoplasma (28.6% PCR positive), and/or Toxoplasma gondii (19.2% seropositive). No Bartonella species DNA was amplified from the nail or oral mucosal swabs despite a 5.8% amplification rate from the blood samples. This finding likely reflects the absence of Ctenocephalides felis infection from our study population, as this organism is a key component for Bartonella species translocation in cats. The results from this study support the use of flea control products to lessen exposure of cats (and people) to Bartonella species and support discouraging the feeding of raw meat to cats and preventing them from hunting to lessen T gondii infection.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 05/2011; 13(8):553-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Otodectes cynotis infestation is common in kittens housed in crowded environments like animal shelters. It is unknown how rapidly O cynotis is killed within the first 72h of treatment with currently available products. Kittens ≥4 weeks of age with live O cynotis in both ears (AU) were administered 0.5ml of 0.01% ivermectin otic suspension (Acarexx; Idexx Pharmaceuticals) once, AU or selamectin (Revolution; Pfizer Animal Health) once, on the skin following the manufacturer's instructions. Repeat microscopic examination was performed on individual ears based on a randomization schedule during the 72h after treatment. There was no evidence of toxicity with either drug and administration of 0.01% ivermectin significantly reduced the time to live mite-free status compared to selamectin. Both drugs have an effect against O cynotis as early as 10-12h after administration with an increasing effect over time.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 04/2011; 13(8):622-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this pilot study, 12 adult, gang-housed cats that were known to be previously exposed (n=12) to feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) and/or vaccinated against (n=2) feline calicivirus (FCV) and FHV-1 were randomly assigned to one of two groups of six cats each. Nasal and pharyngeal samples were collected from each cat on days -7, -3, and 0 prior to vaccination and on days 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, and 28 after vaccination with an FHV-1, FCV, and panleukopenia (FVRCP) vaccine developed for intranasal (six cats) or parenteral (six cats) use. FHV-1 DNA was amplified from 1/12 cats (1/69 samples; 1.4%) prior to vaccination and 2/12 cats after vaccination (2/154 samples; 1.3%). FCV RNA was amplified from 2/12 cats (2/69 samples; 2.9%) prior to vaccination and 7/12 cats (12/154 samples; 7.8%) after vaccination. Positive molecular diagnostic assay results for FHV-1 and FCV were uncommon prior to or after vaccination in these cats.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery. 03/2011; 13(8):541-5.