Michael R Lappin

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States

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Publications (234)335.47 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an Ixodes species-transmitted rickettsial organism that is occasionally associated with clinical abnormalities in humans, ruminants, horses, dogs and cats. While serological evidence of A phagocytophilum exposure is common in cats in Ixodes species endemic areas, reports of clinical feline anaplasmosis are few. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory abnormalities and treatment responses in 16 cats with A phagocytophilum DNA amplified from blood. Commercial laboratory electronic records were searched to find cats that had A phagocytophilum DNA amplified from their blood. Once cases were identified, the primary care veterinarian was interviewed and the medical records were reviewed. The cats ranged in age from 4 months to 13 years (mean 4.1 years, median 2 years). All cats lived in Ixodes scapularis endemic areas and had potential for exposure. All cats were lethargic, 15 (94%) had elevated body temperature (>39.4°C) and 14 were anorexic on initial physical examination. Other less common clinical findings included hepatosplenomegaly, ataxia, conjunctivitis and elevation of the nictitating membranes. Blood from 11 cats was evaluated by complete blood cell count; abnormalities included lymphopenia in seven (64%) cats, thrombocytopenia in seven (64%), morulae in neutrophils of three (27%), neutropenia in three (27%) and leukopenia in two (18%). Treatment responses were reported for 14 cats, and the clinical abnormalities in these cats resolved when doxycycline was administered. This is the first published report describing A phagocytophilum morulae in neutrophils of naturally infected North American cats with infection confirmed by PCR. A phagocytophilum infection should be considered in cats evaluated for lethargy, anorexia and fever living in Ixodes species endemic areas. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/1098612X15571148 · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Michael R Lappin, Linda M Roycroft
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    ABSTRACT: Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) is a common ocular and respiratory pathogen of cats that can be associated with recurrent clinical signs of disease. Ciclosporin (cyclosporine) is commonly administered per os (PO) for the treatment of a number of inflammatory diseases in cats. A number of client-owned cats administered cyclosporine A (CsA) PO to block renal transplant rejection have developed clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease that may have been from activated FHV-1. In this study, cats experimentally inoculated with FHV-1 several months previously were administered methylprednisolone acetate intramuscularly, CsA PO or a placebo PO. While clinical signs of activated FHV-1 occurred in some cats, disease was mild and self-limited in most cats. There was no vomiting, diarrhea, inappetence, weight loss, polydipsia, polyuria or polyphagia recognized.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 09/2014; DOI:10.1177/1098612X14548865 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum can cause significant illness in some dogs and accurate diagnostic assays are needed. The objectives of the study were to optimize an automated fluorescence system for detection of antibodies against A. phagocytophilum in canine serum. Serum and blood was collected temporally from seven dogs inoculated parenterally with culture-derived A. phagocytophilum and from 36 dogs exposed to wild-caught, adult Ixodes scapularis for 7 days. The system was optimized using the samples from the parenterally inoculated dogs. The ability to detect antibodies against A. phagocytophilum in the I. scapularis exposed dogs by the automated system was compared with a diagnostic kit (ELISA) and an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA). Each blood sample was also assayed for A. phagocytophilum DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 36 dogs exposed to I. scapularis, A. phagocytophilum DNA was amplified from blood from 22 dogs by PCR with first positive results occurring on weeks 1 (7 dogs), 2 (9 dogs), 3 (4 dogs), 4 (1 dog), or 5 (1 dog). PCR results were positive prior to detection of antibodies in any of the three antibody assays for 19 dogs. The automated fluorescence system and IFA detected antibodies against A. phagocytophilum earlier than the ELISA. In conclusion, A. phagocytophilum PCR assays on blood are indicated in dogs with suspected acute anaplasmosis if serum antibody assays are negative.
    The Veterinary Journal 08/2014; 202(2). DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.08.018 · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • K.L. Reagan, J.R. Hawley, M.R. Lappin
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    ABSTRACT: The administration of intranasal (IN) or subcutaneous (SC) vaccines containing modified live feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) offers some level of protection against FHV-1 challenge, but relative efficacy is <100%. In this study, clinical signs and viral shedding in kittens were compared among three groups: (1) kittens vaccinated concurrently with IN and SC vaccines containing FHV-1 (Group 1, n=8); (2) kittens vaccinated with a SC FHV-1 vaccine alone (Group 2, n=8), and (3) unvaccinated control kittens (Group 3, n=8). All kittens were FHV-1 naïve at enrolment, and challenge with a virulent strain of FHV-1 was performed 1 week after vaccination. Daily clinical signs and pharyngeal FHV-1 shedding were recorded over a 21-day infection period. Overall, kittens in Group 1 had significantly less severe clinical illness than those in Group 2 (P<0.05). Additionally, significantly less FHV-1 DNA was detected on pharyngeal swabs from kittens in Group 1 compared to those in Group 2 (P<0.001). Concomitant administration of IN and SC FHV-1 vaccines was superior to administration of the SC FHV-1 vaccine alone in this challenge model of FHV-1 naïve kittens.
    The Veterinary Journal 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.05.003 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ehrlichia canis is the most common cause of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis in dogs around the world. The purpose of the present study was to validate a new automated fluorescence system (Accuplex4™ BioCD system; Antech Diagnostics, Lake Success, New York) to detect antibodies against the E. canis immunodominant glycoprotein 36 (gp36). Sera and blood samples (ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid) were collected from mixed sex beagles (n = 8) on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, and 98 after intravenous inoculation with culture-derived E. canis. Sera were assayed using the Accuplex4 BioCD system (Accuplex4), an E. canis indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and a commercially available kit. A complete blood cell count and a proprietary E. canis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on each blood sample. On the day thrombocytopenia was first detected for each dog, E. canis DNA was amplified from blood of all dogs. At those times, E. canis antibodies were detected in 7 of 8 dogs by the Accuplex4, 1 of 8 dogs by the commercial kit, and 4 of 8 dogs by IFAT. Ehrlichia canis DNA was amplified from blood before seroconversion in any antibody assay for 6 dogs. Antibodies against gp36 were detected by Accuplex4 within 3 days of PCR-positive test results and were detected up to 25 days sooner than the commercial kit. After starting doxycycline treatment, E. canis DNA was no longer amplified by PCR assay, but serum antibodies remained detectable by all assays.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 07/2014; 26(4):558-562. DOI:10.1177/1040638714534849 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), recently discovered in the USA, was detected in domestic cats in Australia (11.4%, 95% confidence interval 5.9–19.1, n=110) and Singapore (9.6%, 95% confidence interval 5.9–14.6, n=176) using qPCR. FcaGHV1 qPCR positive cats were 2.8 times more likely to be sick than healthy. Risk factors for FcaGHV1 detection included being male, increasing age and coinfection with pathogenic retroviruses, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or feline leukaemia virus. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in multiple tissues from infected cats with consistently high virus loads in the small intestine. FcaGHV1 viral load was significantly higher in FIV-infected cats compared with matched controls, mimicking increased Epstein–Barr virus loads in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans. FcaGHV1 is endemic in distant geographic regions and is associated with being sick and with coinfections. Horizontal transmission of FcaGHV1 is supported, with biting being a plausible route. A pathogenic role for FcaGHV1 in domestic cats is supported.
    Virology 07/2014; s 460–461:100–107. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.05.007 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal sepsis is a common problem in foals and is a primary cause of death in the postnatal period. Transient bactaeremia and subsequent host responses have not been described in the equine neonate.
    Equine Veterinary Journal 06/2014; DOI:10.1111/evj.12307 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial culture from a double guarded culture swab is commonly used to diagnose infectious endometritis. The objective of this study was to develop a qPCR assay to detect a broad range of bacteria from equine uterine samples. Twenty seven mares with a clinical history of endometritis had a double guarded culture swab collected for analysis by qPCR and microbial culture. An additional 12 mares had a uterine biopsy sample collected for qPCR analysis, microbial culture, and histopathology. Subsequently, a double guarded culture swab for microbial culture and a cytology brush sample were also collected. The qPCR assay detected bacterial DNA in 9 of 27 mares from a double guarded swab and 6 of 12 mares from an endometrial biopsy. Positive microbial growth was detected in 9 of 27 mares and 4 of 12 mares from a double guarded culture swab. Bacterial DNA was detected in 2 of 27 and 2 of 12 mares without subsequent microbial growth. The simple presence of an organism’s DNA allows for detection by non-culture based systems, both live and dead organisms can be identified. In conclusion, the qPCR assay was determined to be a sensitive diagnostic technique for identifying pathogens associated with infectious endometritis. The primary application of the qPCR assay is detection of potential pathogenic bacteria in the uterus of a mare suspected of having infectious endometritis when a traditional microbial culture is negative. Further work is warranted to determine if mares positive for bacterial DNA and negative for microbial culture are affected clinically.
    Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 05/2014; 34(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jevs.2013.12.016 · 0.62 Impact Factor
  • 04/2014; 174(24). DOI:10.1136/vr.102205
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma species are common inhabitants of the feline oral cavity, and so likely contaminate many cat bite abscesses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Mycoplasma species are common contaminants of cat bite abscesses and whether they are are associated with β-lactam-resistant clinical disease. Twenty-six privately owned cats with clinical evidence of an abscess suspected to be from a cat bite were included in the study. Samples from each cat were evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic culture, as well as Mycoplasma species culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All cats were initially treated with appropriate wound management and were administered an antibiotic of the β-lactam class (amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate or cefovicin sodium). Mycoplasma species DNA was amplified by PCR from 4/26 samples (15.4%); one of these cases was concurrently culture positive. Adequate DNA for sequencing was present for 2/4 positive PCR samples; one was most homologous with Mycoplasma felis, and the other was most homologous with Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma elephantis. Of the 26 cats, 25 responded to the initial treatment by day 7. The cat that failed initial treatment was positive for M equigenitalium or M elephantis DNA on days 0 and 12, and ultimately responded to administration of enrofloxacin and clindamycin. The results suggest that while Mycoplasma species can contaminate cat bite abscesses, routine wound management and β-lactam antibiotic therapy is adequate for treatment in most cases of abscess. However, as Mycoplasma species infections do not respond to β-lactam class antibiotic therapy, these organisms should be on the differential list for cats with abscesses that fail treatment with this antibiotic class.
    03/2014; DOI:10.1177/1098612X14527475
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    ABSTRACT: Background Long-term microscopic agglutination test (MAT) results after vaccination with 4-serovar Leptospira vaccines are not available for all vaccines used in client-owned dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives To determine antibody responses of client-owned dogs given 1 of 4 commercially available Leptospira vaccines. AnimalsHealthy client-owned dogs (n = 32) with no history of Leptospira vaccination for at least the previous year. Methods Dogs were given 1 of 4 Leptospira vaccines on week 0 and then approximately on week 3 and week 52. Sera were collected before vaccine administration on week 0 and then within 3 days of week 3, within 2 days of week 4, and approximately on weeks 7, 15, 29, 52, and 56. Antibody titers against Leptospira serovars bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohemorrhagiae, and pomona and were determined by MAT. ResultsWhen compared among vaccines, MAT results varied in maximal titers, the serovars inducing maximal titers, and the time required to reach maximal titers. Each vaccine induced at least some MAT titers ≥1 : 800. Most dogs were negative for antibodies against all serovars 1 year after vaccination, and anamnestic responses were variable. Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceDogs vaccinated with Leptospira vaccines have variable MAT titers over time, and antibodies should not be used to predict resistance to Leptospira infection. MAT titers ≥1 : 800 can develop after Leptospira spp. vaccination, which can complicate the clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 03/2014; DOI:10.1111/jvim.12337 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) are a diverse and rapidly expanding group of viruses associated with a variety of disease conditions in humans and animals. To identify felid GHVs, we screened domestic cat (Felis catus), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) blood cell DNA samples from California, Colorado and Florida using a degenerate pan-GHV PCR. Additional pan-GHV and long-distance PCRs were used to sequence a contiguous 3.4 kb region of each putative virus species including partial glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. We identified three novel GHVs, each present predominantly in one felid species: Felis catus GHV 1 (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats, Lynx rufus GHV 1 (LruGHV1) in bobcats, and Puma concolor GHV 1 (PcoGHV1) in pumas. To estimate infection prevalence, we developed real-time quantitative PCR assays for each virus and screened additional DNA samples from all three species (n = 282). FcaGHV1 was detected in 16% of domestic cats across all study sites. LruGHV1 was detected in 47% of bobcats and 13% of pumas across all study sites, suggesting relatively common interspecific transmission. PcoGHV1 was detected in 6% of pumas, all from a specific region of Southern California. The risk of infection for each host varied with geographic location. Age was a positive risk factor for bobcat LruGHV1 infection, and age and being male were risk factors for domestic cat FcaGHV1 infection. Further characterization of these viruses may have significant health implications for domestic cats and may aid studies of free-ranging felid ecology.Importance Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) establish life-long infection in many animal species and can cause cancer and other diseases in humans and animals. In this study we identified DNA sequences of three GHVs present in the blood of domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor, also known as cougars or mountain lions). We found that these viruses were closely related to, but distinct from, other known GHVs of animals and represent the first GHVs identified as native to these feline species. We developed techniques to rapidly and specifically detect the DNA of these viruses in feline blood and found that the domestic cat and bobcat viruses were widespread across the US. In contrast, puma virus was found only in a specific region of southern California. Surprisingly, the bobcat virus was also detected in some pumas, suggesting relatively common virus transmission between these species. Adult domestic cats and bobcats were at greater risk for infection than juveniles. Male domestic cats were at greater risk for infection than females. This study identifies three new viruses that are widespread in three feline species, indicates risk factors for infection that may relate to route of infection, and demonstrates cross-species transmission between bobcats and pumas. These newly identified viruses may have important effects on feline health and ecology.
    Journal of Virology 01/2014; DOI:10.1128/JVI.03405-13 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the specificity of Bartonella spp. immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assays in dogs. Bacteremia in sick dogs most often has been associated with Bartonella henselae (Bh), Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii (Bvb), and Bartonella koehlerae (Bk). Clarification of the diagnostic utility of IFA serology when testing against these organisms is needed. To evaluate the specificity of Bartonella IFA assays utilizing 6 cell culture-grown antigen preparations. Archived sera from SPF dogs (n = 29) and from dogs experimentally infected with Bvb (n = 10) and Bh (n = 3). Antibodies (Abs) to Bvb genotypes I, II, and III, Bh serotype I, strains H-1 and SA2, and to Bk were determined by IFA testing. Serum from naïve SPF dogs shown to be negative for Bartonella bacteremia did not react with any of the 6 Bartonella antigens by IFA testing. Dogs experimentally infected with Bvb genotype I developed Abs against homologous antigens, with no cross-reactivity to heterologous Bvb genotypes, Bh H-1, SA2 strains, or to Bk. Dogs experimentally infected with Bh serotype I developed Abs against Bh H-1, but not to Bh SA2 strain with no cross-reactive Abs to Bvb genotypes I-III or to Bk. Bartonella spp. Ab responses during acute experimental infections are species and type specific.
    Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 12/2013; DOI:10.1111/jvim.12263 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Allison M Bradley, Michael R Lappin
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    ABSTRACT: Feline idiopathic cystitis is a common condition, often resulting in repeated episodes of life-threatening urethral obstruction. Defective urinary bladder glycosaminoglycans have been implicated as a causal factor. In this report, a commercially available glycosaminoglycan product was infused into the urinary bladders of cats with urethral obstruction from idiopathic cystitis to study the effect on repeated obstruction. In this randomized, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the therapeutic protocol was well-tolerated with no adverse effects. Whereas no glycosaminoglycan-treated cats (n = 9) developed repeated urethral obstruction during the 7-day follow-up period, 3/7 placebo-treated cats developed repeated obstructions. Approaching statistical significance (P = 0.06), these data suggest that further investigation of this new treatment option is warranted.
    11/2013; 16(6). DOI:10.1177/1098612X13510918
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    ABSTRACT: Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a reservoir host for Bvb and Br and that ectoparasite control is an important component of shelter intake protocols.
    Veterinary Parasitology 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.10.017 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: This Report was developed by the Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel of the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) to provide practical recommendations to help clinicians select appropriate vaccination schedules for their feline patients based on risk assessment. The recommendations rely on published data as much as possible, as well as consensus of a multidisciplinary panel of experts in immunology, infectious disease, internal medicine and clinical practice.
    09/2013; 15(9):785-808. DOI:10.1177/1098612X13500429
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate diagnostic utility of aqueous humor analysis in animals with anterior uveitis. Client-owned dogs (n = 12) and cats (n = 10). Examination findings and diagnostic test results including aqueous humor cytology were compared. Disease duration prior to aqueocentesis was not significantly different between dogs with idiopathic anterior uveitis and those with an etiologic diagnosis, but was shorter in cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) than those with idiopathic uveitis. Microbial nucleic acids, antigens, or antibodies against them were seldom found in blood/serum; however, serum feline coronavirus titers ≥1:6400 were detected only in cats with FIP. Aqueous humor cytology was diagnostic in no cats and two dogs, both with neoplasia. Although aqueous humor contained predominantly neutrophils in cats with FIP and large reactive lymphocytes and plasma cells appeared more frequent in cats with idiopathic uveitis, neither clinical nor cytologic assessment of anterior chamber contents differed significantly between cats with idiopathic or FIP-associated uveitis. Cytologically assessed plasma cell number was correlated with keratic precipitates and disease duration. Clinically detectable hyphema and cytologic erythrocyte number were correlated. However, cytologic cell grades and clinical grade of flare or cell numbers within the anterior chamber were not correlated. Aqueous humor cytology permitted diagnosis of neoplasia in dogs with anterior uveitis but was generally not helpful in cats. Poor correlation between clinical and cytologic assessment of cell numbers and type within the anterior chamber dictates that clinical grading should not be the sole criterion for electing to perform aqueocentesis.
    Veterinary Ophthalmology 08/2013; DOI:10.1111/vop.12075 · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. Methods Specific pathogen free cats (n = 19) were housed in three adjoining enclosures that were separated by mesh to allow C. felis to pass among groups but prevent cats in different enclosures from contacting one another. One group of 4 cats was inoculated intravenously with B. henselae and after infection was confirmed in all cats based on positive PCR assay results, the cats were housed in the middle enclosure. The B. henselae infected cat group was flanked by a group of 8 cats that had the collar placed and maintained for the duration of the study and a group of 7 cats that were not treated. Ctenocephalides felis (50 males and 50 females) raised in an insectary were placed on each of the 4 cats in the B. henselae infected group monthly for 7 applications and then every 2 weeks for 4 applications starting the day the collar was applied. Blood was collected from all cats weekly for Bartonella spp. PCR, serology and culture. Results While side-effects associated with the collars were not noted, persistent fever necessitating enrofloxacin therapy occurred in two of the untreated cats. While B. henselae infection was ultimately confirmed in 4 of 7 of the untreated cats, none of the cats with collars became infected (P = 0.026). Conclusions In this study design, use of a collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was well tolerated and prevented C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months.
    Parasites & Vectors 01/2013; 6(1):26. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-6-26 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To develop a broad-range 28S ribosomal DNA quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for detection of fungal DNA in equine endometrial samples. Sample-12 fungal samples from a clinical diagnostic laboratory and 29 samples obtained from 17 mares. Procedures-The qPCR assay was optimized with commercially acquired fungal organisms and validated with samples obtained from the clinical diagnostic laboratory. Subsequently, 29 samples from 17 mares suspected of having fungal endometritis were evaluated via the qPCR assay and via traditional fungal culture and endometrial cytology. Amplicons from the qPCR assay were subjected to genetic sequencing to identify the organisms. Results-The qPCR assay theoretically had a detection threshold of 2 organisms of Candida albicans. Fungal DNA was amplified from all 12 fungal samples from the commercial diagnostic laboratory. Fungal identification by use of genetic sequencing was successful for 34 of 36 amplicons from the 12 samples assayed. A fungal agent was identified via qPCR assay and genetic sequencing in all 12 samples; in contrast, a fungal agent was identified in only 8 of 12 samples via standard fungal culture and biochemical analysis. The qPCR assay detected fungal DNA in samples from 12 of 17 mares suspected of having fungal endometritis. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-A rapid, sensitive, and repeatable qPCR assay was developed for detection of fungal DNA from equine endometrial samples. The qPCR may prove to be clinically useful as an adjunct to microbial culture and cytologic examination to provide identification of fungal organisms in a timely manner.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 01/2013; 74(1):161-5. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.74.1.161 · 1.21 Impact Factor
  • Edward B Breitschwerdt, Michael R Lappin
    09/2012; 14(9):609-10. DOI:10.1177/1098612X12458628

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4k Citations
335.47 Total Impact Points


  • 1990–2015
    • Colorado State University
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
      Fort Collins, Colorado, United States
  • 1990–2010
    • North Carolina State University
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Raleigh, NC, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Zurich
      • Vetsuisse-Faculty
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2007
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • School of Veterinary Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2006
    • University of California, Davis
      • Center for Companion Animal Health (CCAH)
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Bristol
      • School of Veterinary Sciences
      Bristol, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1988–1992
    • University of Georgia
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Атина, Georgia, United States