Michael R Lappin

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (255)343.75 Total impact

  • Jessica Quimby · Michael Lappin ·
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    ABSTRACT: Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.
    Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 11/2015; DOI:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6213 · 0.86 Impact Factor
  • Elliott Chiu · Ryan M Troyer · Michael R Lappin · Sue VandeWoude ·
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Several studies have reported that domestic cats can be naturally infected with bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4). Cats experimentally inoculated with BHV4 developed clinical signs involving the urinary tract, leading to the hypothesis that natural infection with BHV4 may be associated with feline lower urinary tract diseases. However, the question of whether BHV4 infection is common in cats remains equivocal. In this study, we sought to determine whether BHV4 is a common natural infection of domestic cats in the USA. Methods: We used a sensitive nested PCR protocol specific to the BHV4 thymidine kinase gene to screen free-ranging domestic cat blood DNA samples (n = 101) collected from California, Colorado and Florida. Results: Cats within this cohort were positive for seven other common pathogens of domestic cats, demonstrating the relatively high exposure of this population to endemic feline infections. In contrast, all domestic cat blood samples were negative for BHV4, while BHV4-containing tissue culture extracts were strongly positive. Conclusions and relevance: BHV4 has been detected in tissues of latently infected cattle, though viral DNA is typically also detected in peripheral blood cells throughout infection. Our results suggest that persistent presence of BHV4 DNA in the blood of domestic cats is either rare or non-existent. We thus conclude that BHV4 is unlikely to be a major pathogen of cats.
    10/2015; 2(4-5). DOI:10.1177/1098612X15607586
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    ABSTRACT: Prevalence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, and Wolbachia DNA in blood of 479 cats collected in different veterinary clinics in Southern Germany was determined using a previously published conventional PCR using 16S-23S intergenic spacer primers (5' CTG GGG ACT ACG GTC GCA AGA C 3' - forward; 5' CTC CAG TTT ATC ACT GGA AGT T 3' - reverse). Purified amplicons were sequenced to confirm genus and species. Associations between rickettsial infections, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), as well as feline leukemia virus (FeLV) status were evaluated. Rickettsial prevalence was 0.4% (2/479; CI: 0.01-1.62%). In the two infected cats, Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was amplified. These cats came from different environment and had outdoor access. Both were ill with many of their problems likely related to other diseases. However, one cat had neutrophilia with left shift and the other thrombocytopenia potentially caused by their A. phagocytophilum infection. There was no significant difference in the FIV and FeLV status between A. phagocytophilum-negative and -positive cats. A. phagocytophilum can cause infection in cats in Southern Germany, and appropriate tick control is recommended.
    Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases 09/2015; 42. DOI:10.1016/j.cimid.2015.08.003 · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Wayne A Jensen · Janet S Totten · Michael R Lappin · Ronald D Schultz ·
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the current study was to determine whether detection of Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific serum antibodies correlates with resistance to challenge with virulent virus. Virus neutralization (VN) assay results were compared with resistance to viral challenge in 2 unvaccinated Beagle puppies, 9 unvaccinated Beagle dogs (4.4-7.2 years of age), and 9 vaccinated Beagle dogs (3.7-4.7 years of age). Eight of 9 (89%) unvaccinated adult dogs exhibited clinical signs after virus challenge, and 1 (13%) dog died. As compared to adult dogs, the 2 unvaccinated puppies developed more severe clinical signs and either died or were euthanized after challenge. In contrast, no clinical signs were detected after challenge of the 9 adult vaccinated dogs with post-vaccination intervals of up to 4.4 years. In vaccinated dogs, the positive and negative predictive values of VN assay results for resistance to challenge were 100% and 0%, respectively. Results indicate that dogs vaccinated with modified live CDV can be protected from challenge for ≤4.4 years postvaccination and that detection of virus-specific antibodies is predictive of whether dogs are resistant to challenge with virulent virus. Results also indicate that CDV infection in unvaccinated dogs results in age-dependent morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of age-dependent morbidity and mortality, duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and the positive and negative predictive values of detection of virus-specific serum antibodies are useful in development of rational booster vaccination intervals for the prevention of CDV-mediated disease in adult dogs. © 2015 The Author(s).
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 09/2015; 27(5). DOI:10.1177/1040638715602291 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Scott Moroff · Colby Woodruff · Todd Woodring · Irene Sokolchik · Michael R Lappin ·
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    ABSTRACT: The primary objective of our study was to optimize detection of serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi using a new commercial automated fluorescence system (Accuplex4 BioCD system, Antech Diagnostics, Lake Success, New York). The system used multiple natural and artificial peptides-outer surface proteins (OspA, OspC, OspF), an outer membrane protein (P39), and a proprietary synthetic peptide (small Lyme peptide [SLP])-and the results were compared with a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses a proprietary peptide (C6). Sera from 4 groups were evaluated: dogs vaccinated with 1 of 3 commercially available vaccines (n = 18); dogs infested with adult Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick; n = 18); dogs previously vaccinated and then infested with I. scapularis (n = 18); and dogs with B. burgdorferi infection that were then vaccinated (n = 14). All of the vaccines evaluated induced OspA responses. However, antibodies against OspF or C6 were not induced in any of the vaccinated dogs. Additionally, the OspF antibodies had 100% sensitivity and specificity when compared to antibodies against C6 peptide. In B. burgdorferi-infected dogs, antibodies against OspC and SLP were detected in serum sooner than antibodies against the other targets. Low levels of antibodies against OspA developed in 6 of 14 B. burgdorferi-infected, unvaccinated dogs and had the shortest duration compared to the other antibodies. Detection of antibody responses to multiple B. burgdorferi targets with this system can be used to help differentiate vaccinated dogs from exposed dogs as well as acute infection from chronic infection. © 2015 The Author(s).
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 08/2015; 27(5). DOI:10.1177/1040638715600196 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical signs of upper respiratory tract infection can be hard to manage in cats, particularly those in shelters. In this study, clinical data were collected from chronically ill (3-4 weeks' duration) cats with suspected feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) or feline calicivirus (FCV) infections after administration of one of two novel therapies. Group A cats were administered a commercially available formulation of human interferon-α2b at 10,000 U/kg subcutaneously for 14 days, and group B cats were administered one dose of a FHV-1 and FCV intranasal vaccine. Molecular assays for FHV-1 and FCV were performed on pharyngeal samples, and a number of cytokines were measured in the blood of some cats. A clinical score was determined daily for 14 days, with cats that developed an acceptable response by day 14 returning to the shelter for adoption. Those failing the first treatment protocol were entered into the alternate treatment group. During the first treatment period, 8/13 cats in group A (61.5%) and all 12 cats in group B (100%) had apparent responses. The seven cats positive for nucleic acids of FHV-1 or FCV responded favorably, independent of the treatment group. There were no differences in cytokine levels between cats that responded to therapy or failed therapy. Either protocol assessed here may be beneficial in alleviating chronic clinical signs of suspected feline viral upper respiratory tract disease in some cats that have failed other, more conventional, therapies. The results of this study warrant additional research involving these protocols. © The Author(s) 2015.
    08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1098612X15596199
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    ABSTRACT: A collar containing 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin (Seresto; Bayer Animal Health) controls flea and tick infestations for 8 months and is effective in preventing transmission of Bartonella henselae and Cytauxzoon felis among cats. The purpose of this study was to compare tolerance of client-owned cats for the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar or a physically identical placebo collar. A total of 96 client-owned cats were enrolled in the study. Cats that were systemically ill, of hairless breed or declawed in all four limbs were excluded. Cats were randomized by household to wear a placebo collar for 14 days followed by the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar for 14 days or the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar for 28 days. Examinations by a veterinarian were performed on days 0, 14 and 28. Owners recorded daily systemic and local health observations. All but two cats, including one that entrapped the mandible in the collar and one that developed local pyodermatitis (10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar), completed the 28-day study. The majority of the local lesions or licking associated with the collars occurred in the first 14 days, and licking (but not skin lesions) was more common in cats wearing the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collars. No local lesions were reported for placebo cats after switching to the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar, and only one cat wearing the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar had reports of licking after day 14. Housing status, single or multiple cat household, and whether a collar had been worn previously were not associated with side effects. Adverse events detected for cats wearing 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collars were similar to those for cats wearing placebo collars and to cats wearing identification collars in a separate study. The data suggest that most cats originally intolerant of collars become receptive over time. © The Author(s) 2015.
    08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1098612X15599824
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    ABSTRACT: Cats are infected by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi when exposed to infected Ixodes scapularis (black-legged ticks). The purpose of our study was to allow wild-caught I. scapularis to feed on healthy research cats (n = 4) and temporally evaluate for A. phagocytophilum DNA in blood by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay as well as for antibody responses to the B. burgdorferi C6 peptide, to the A. phagocytophilum P44 peptide, and to a novel A. phagocytophilum peptide (P44-4). Prior to I. scapularis infestation, all cats were negative for antibodies against both organisms based on a kit optimized for dog serum, and negative for A. phagocytophilum DNA in blood using a conventional PCR assay. Using the pre-infestation samples, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies against the P44-4 peptide was optimized. Cats were infested with wild-caught I. scapularis for 7 days. Genomic DNA of A. phagocytophilum was amplified from the blood before antibodies were detected in all 4 cats. Antibodies against the C6 peptide, P44 peptide, and P44-4 peptide were detected in the sera of all 4 cats. Antibodies against P44-4 were detected prior to those against P44 in 3 out of 4 cats. The results suggest that a PCR assay should be considered in acutely ill cats with suspected anaplasmosis that are seronegative. © 2015 The Author(s).
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 07/2015; 27(4). DOI:10.1177/1040638715593598 · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Sarah B Shropshire · Julia K Veir · Arianne K Morris · Michael R Lappin ·
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to validate the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) using feline sera, determine cross-reactivity of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in the MAT, and evaluate if there is an association between Leptospira species seropositivity in aged (⩾10 years) client-owned cats with and without azotemia (creatinine >2 g/dl). A four-serovar canine leptospiral vaccine was administered to two specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats on days 0 and 14. The MAT was performed intermittently until day 42 for the serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Bratislava, with a cut-off value of ⩾1:100. Five purpose-bred cats were infested with wild-caught Ixodes scapularis adults with an average B burgdorferi infection rate of 50%, and tested for antibodies against B burgdorferi C6 peptide and DNA in skin biopsies, as well as by MAT. Sera from 66 azotemic and 75 non-azotemic cats ⩾10 years of age were tested for Leptospira species antibodies using the MAT and results were compared by the χ(2) test. Both SPF cats seroconverted by week 3 and formed antibodies against at least one serovar. There was no cross-reactivity in the MAT using samples from cats with antibodies to B burgdorferi. MAT results were positive for 4/66 azotemic cats and 8/75 non-azotemic cats; these results were not statistically different. The MAT can be interpreted using feline serum and does not appear to cross-react in cats with B burgdorferi antibodies. There was no association between Leptospira species MAT results and azotemia in this group of aged client-owned cats but further studies are needed to determine if leptospirosis contributes to feline chronic kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2015.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1177/1098612X15593902
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    Ecological Applications 07/2015; DOI:10.1890/15-0445.1 · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Madeline A Fujishiro · Andrea V Scorza · Jody L Gookin · Michael R Lappin ·
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    ABSTRACT: Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is found worldwide, is associated or suggested to be associated with reproductive abnormalities in a number of species including cats, and is the cause of Q fever in humans. In a previous study, C burnetii DNA was amplified from the uterine tissues of 8.5% of client-owned cats in the USA but reproductive history was unknown and histopathological examination was not performed. In this study, uterine tissues of 26 normal cats and 11 cats with histopathological evidence of uterine disease or other reproductive abnormalities were evaluated for the presence of C burnetii. A PCR assay that amplifies the repetitive transposon-like region (Trans 1 and 2) and a PCR assay that amplifies the IS-1111-insertion sequence (IS-1111) were optimised and applied to the DNA extracts. The sensitivity threshold of both PCR assays was 12 pg/µl. Positive samples were evaluated for the presence of the organism using immunohistochemistry performed on paraffin-embedded tissue. Amplicons of the expected size developed in three samples (one from a cat with reproductive abnormalities) in the IS-1111 assay; however, there was not enough DNA for sequence analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to further evaluate these three samples and was negative for C burnetii. While C burnetii could not be confirmed by sequence analysis or immunohistochemistry, the PCR positive prevalence rate (8.1%) was similar to that published previously. Biosafety precautions should be taken when working with cats that are aborting or parturient. Further research should be performed to evaluate the role that C burnetii may play in reproductive abnormalities in cats. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.
    05/2015; 27. DOI:10.1177/1098612X15584693
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether anti-inflammatory doses of cyclosporine activate Toxoplasma gondii in chronically infected cats or potentiate infection in cats exposed for the first time. ANIMALS 30 T gondii-negative cats. PROCEDURES Cats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (10 cats/group). Group 1 (control) cats were administered a placebo for 126 days; group 2 cats were administered a placebo for 84 days, followed by cyclosporine at 7.5 mg/kg/d, PO, for 42 days; and group 3 cats were administered cyclosporine at 7.5 mg/kg/d, PO, for 126 days. Cats were orally inoculated with T gondii on day 42. Results for fecal flotations, PCR assays, and histologic examinations and IgM and IgG titers were analyzed. Cyclosporine concentrations were measured on selected days. RESULTS All cats were infected by T gondii and developed signs of self-limiting gastrointestinal tract infection. Group 3 had the highest incidence and severity of CNS and pulmonary histopathologic findings typical of toxoplasmosis. One cat in group 3 died of systemic toxoplasmosis; that cat had a cyclosporine concentration of 1,690 ng/mL. Group 2 cats infected with T gondii before cyclosporine administration did not have repeated oocyst shedding. Group 3 cats shed fewer oocysts for a shorter time than did control cats of group 1. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of cyclosporine in accordance with the protocol for this study did not potentiate the enteroepithelial phase of T gondii infection. Cats with high cyclosporine blood concentrations at the time of primary T gondii infection may be at risk of developing systemic toxoplasmosis.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2015; 76(4):351-7. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.76.4.351 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether healthy dogs undergoing elective surgery will accept and prefer an oral recuperation fluid (ORF) to water during the perioperative time period and if the consumption of an ORF would lead to increased caloric intake during the final preoperative and first postoperative periods. This prospective, observational study was performed in the setting of a University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. A total of 67 healthy dogs were presented for routine ovariectomy (n = 30) or castration (n = 37). Before surgical intervention, dogs were offered an ORF to assess their voluntary acceptance of the fluid. After 2 hours, the ORF was offered alongside water to assess fluid preference. Routine castration or ovariectomy was then performed. During the immediate postoperative period, dogs were reassessed as to their acceptance and preference of the ORF. A high percentage of dogs accepted the ORF in both the preoperative (55/67, 82%) and postoperative (42/67, 63%) periods (P < .01 and P = .04, respectively). Of dogs that demonstrated a preference between the ORF and water, 87% (95% CI: 77%-93%) chose the ORF preoperatively, whereas 98% (95% CI: 87%-99.5%) chose the ORF postoperatively (P < .01 and P < .01, respectively). Dogs that consumed the ORF in each measurement period ingested a higher amount of food (measured as percentage of kilocalories offered) when compared with those that did not consume the ORF (preoperatively 83% vs. 49%, P < .01; postoperatively 51% vs. 27%, P = .01). A commercially manufactured veterinary ORF was found to be palatable, as determined by acceptance and preference testing, in healthy dogs during the preoperative and postoperative phases of routine sterilization. Further studies in dogs undergoing more intensive surgical procedures or recovering from nonsurgical illness or both are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 03/2015; 30(1). DOI:10.1053/j.tcam.2015.01.002 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an Ixodes species-transmitted rickettsial organism that is occasionally associated with clinical abnormalities in humans, ruminants, horses, dogs and cats. While serological evidence of A phagocytophilum exposure is common in cats in Ixodes species endemic areas, reports of clinical feline anaplasmosis are few. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory abnormalities and treatment responses in 16 cats with A phagocytophilum DNA amplified from blood. Commercial laboratory electronic records were searched to find cats that had A phagocytophilum DNA amplified from their blood. Once cases were identified, the primary care veterinarian was interviewed and the medical records were reviewed. The cats ranged in age from 4 months to 13 years (mean 4.1 years, median 2 years). All cats lived in Ixodes scapularis endemic areas and had potential for exposure. All cats were lethargic, 15 (94%) had elevated body temperature (>39.4°C) and 14 were anorexic on initial physical examination. Other less common clinical findings included hepatosplenomegaly, ataxia, conjunctivitis and elevation of the nictitating membranes. Blood from 11 cats was evaluated by complete blood cell count; abnormalities included lymphopenia in seven (64%) cats, thrombocytopenia in seven (64%), morulae in neutrophils of three (27%), neutropenia in three (27%) and leukopenia in two (18%). Treatment responses were reported for 14 cats, and the clinical abnormalities in these cats resolved when doxycycline was administered. This is the first published report describing A phagocytophilum morulae in neutrophils of naturally infected North American cats with infection confirmed by PCR. A phagocytophilum infection should be considered in cats evaluated for lethargy, anorexia and fever living in Ixodes species endemic areas. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/1098612X15571148 · 1.16 Impact Factor
  • Michael R Lappin · Linda M Roycroft ·
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    ABSTRACT: Feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) is a common ocular and respiratory pathogen of cats that can be associated with recurrent clinical signs of disease. Ciclosporin (cyclosporine) is commonly administered per os (PO) for the treatment of a number of inflammatory diseases in cats. A number of client-owned cats administered cyclosporine A (CsA) PO to block renal transplant rejection have developed clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease that may have been from activated FHV-1. In this study, cats experimentally inoculated with FHV-1 several months previously were administered methylprednisolone acetate intramuscularly, CsA PO or a placebo PO. While clinical signs of activated FHV-1 occurred in some cats, disease was mild and self-limited in most cats. There was no vomiting, diarrhea, inappetence, weight loss, polydipsia, polyuria or polyphagia recognized.
    Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 09/2014; 17(4). DOI:10.1177/1098612X14548865 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum can cause significant illness in some dogs and accurate diagnostic assays are needed. The objectives of the study were to optimize an automated fluorescence system for detection of antibodies against A. phagocytophilum in canine serum. Serum and blood was collected temporally from seven dogs inoculated parenterally with culture-derived A. phagocytophilum and from 36 dogs exposed to wild-caught, adult Ixodes scapularis for 7 days. The system was optimized using the samples from the parenterally inoculated dogs. The ability to detect antibodies against A. phagocytophilum in the I. scapularis exposed dogs by the automated system was compared with a diagnostic kit (ELISA) and an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA). Each blood sample was also assayed for A. phagocytophilum DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 36 dogs exposed to I. scapularis, A. phagocytophilum DNA was amplified from blood from 22 dogs by PCR with first positive results occurring on weeks 1 (7 dogs), 2 (9 dogs), 3 (4 dogs), 4 (1 dog), or 5 (1 dog). PCR results were positive prior to detection of antibodies in any of the three antibody assays for 19 dogs. The automated fluorescence system and IFA detected antibodies against A. phagocytophilum earlier than the ELISA. In conclusion, A. phagocytophilum PCR assays on blood are indicated in dogs with suspected acute anaplasmosis if serum antibody assays are negative.
    The Veterinary Journal 08/2014; 202(2). DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.08.018 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • K.L. Reagan · J.R. Hawley · M.R. Lappin ·
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    ABSTRACT: The administration of intranasal (IN) or subcutaneous (SC) vaccines containing modified live feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) offers some level of protection against FHV-1 challenge, but relative efficacy is <100%. In this study, clinical signs and viral shedding in kittens were compared among three groups: (1) kittens vaccinated concurrently with IN and SC vaccines containing FHV-1 (Group 1, n=8); (2) kittens vaccinated with a SC FHV-1 vaccine alone (Group 2, n=8), and (3) unvaccinated control kittens (Group 3, n=8). All kittens were FHV-1 naïve at enrolment, and challenge with a virulent strain of FHV-1 was performed 1 week after vaccination. Daily clinical signs and pharyngeal FHV-1 shedding were recorded over a 21-day infection period. Overall, kittens in Group 1 had significantly less severe clinical illness than those in Group 2 (P<0.05). Additionally, significantly less FHV-1 DNA was detected on pharyngeal swabs from kittens in Group 1 compared to those in Group 2 (P<0.001). Concomitant administration of IN and SC FHV-1 vaccines was superior to administration of the SC FHV-1 vaccine alone in this challenge model of FHV-1 naïve kittens.
    The Veterinary Journal 08/2014; 201(2). DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.05.003 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ehrlichia canis is the most common cause of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis in dogs around the world. The purpose of the present study was to validate a new automated fluorescence system (Accuplex4™ BioCD system; Antech Diagnostics, Lake Success, New York) to detect antibodies against the E. canis immunodominant glycoprotein 36 (gp36). Sera and blood samples (ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid) were collected from mixed sex beagles (n = 8) on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, and 98 after intravenous inoculation with culture-derived E. canis. Sera were assayed using the Accuplex4 BioCD system (Accuplex4), an E. canis indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and a commercially available kit. A complete blood cell count and a proprietary E. canis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on each blood sample. On the day thrombocytopenia was first detected for each dog, E. canis DNA was amplified from blood of all dogs. At those times, E. canis antibodies were detected in 7 of 8 dogs by the Accuplex4, 1 of 8 dogs by the commercial kit, and 4 of 8 dogs by IFAT. Ehrlichia canis DNA was amplified from blood before seroconversion in any antibody assay for 6 dogs. Antibodies against gp36 were detected by Accuplex4 within 3 days of PCR-positive test results and were detected up to 25 days sooner than the commercial kit. After starting doxycycline treatment, E. canis DNA was no longer amplified by PCR assay, but serum antibodies remained detectable by all assays.
    Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 07/2014; 26(4):558-562. DOI:10.1177/1040638714534849 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), recently discovered in the USA, was detected in domestic cats in Australia (11.4%, 95% confidence interval 5.9–19.1, n=110) and Singapore (9.6%, 95% confidence interval 5.9–14.6, n=176) using qPCR. FcaGHV1 qPCR positive cats were 2.8 times more likely to be sick than healthy. Risk factors for FcaGHV1 detection included being male, increasing age and coinfection with pathogenic retroviruses, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or feline leukaemia virus. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in multiple tissues from infected cats with consistently high virus loads in the small intestine. FcaGHV1 viral load was significantly higher in FIV-infected cats compared with matched controls, mimicking increased Epstein–Barr virus loads in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans. FcaGHV1 is endemic in distant geographic regions and is associated with being sick and with coinfections. Horizontal transmission of FcaGHV1 is supported, with biting being a plausible route. A pathogenic role for FcaGHV1 in domestic cats is supported.
    Virology 07/2014; s 460–461(1):100–107. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.05.007 · 3.32 Impact Factor

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  • 1994-2015
    • North Carolina State University
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 1990-2015
    • Colorado State University
      • • Department of Clinical Sciences
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
      Fort Collins, Colorado, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Zurich
      • Vetsuisse-Faculty
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2006
    • University of California, Davis
      • Center for Companion Animal Health (CCAH)
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 2002
    • Louisiana State University
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 1995
    • United States Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
  • 1992
    • University of Georgia
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Атина, Georgia, United States