Vandana Menon

Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (34)209.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Serum levels of creatinine, cystatin C, or β trace protein allow estimation of GFR, but whether these markers contribute additional prognostic information beyond that reflected in GFR is unknown. Here, we analyzed data from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study, which provided baseline levels of these markers for 816 participants with a median follow-up of 16.6 years. We examined associations between the reciprocals of these filtration markers and (125)I iothalamate GFR, expressed per SD, with kidney failure and mortality. In univariate analysis, lower GFR and higher levels of each filtration marker associated with a higher risk for all outcomes. After adjustment for GFR in a Cox proportional hazards model, higher creatinine associated with a higher risk for kidney failure but a lower risk for all-cause mortality. Higher cystatin C and β trace protein associated with a higher risk for both kidney failure and all-cause mortality. In models including either cystatin C or β trace protein, the association of GFR with all-cause mortality was no longer significant after the addition of the filtration marker, suggesting the possibility of multicollinearity. In summary, after adjustment for GFR, levels of creatinine, cystatin C, and β trace protein, each remained directly associated with kidney failure but differed with respect to their associations with mortality. These differences may be a result of non-GFR-related associations of filtration markers, residual confounding by GFR, or collinearity between the filtration markers and GFR. β trace protein and cystatin C seem to provide more consistent prognostic information than creatinine.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 12/2011; 23(2):351-9. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected for CKD of diverse etiology. After adjustment for potential confounders and albuminuria, we found that a 15 ml/min per 1.73 m² lower eGFR below a threshold of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m² was significantly associated with mortality and ESRD (pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.47 and 6.24, respectively). There was significant heterogeneity between studies for both HR estimates. After adjustment for risk factors and eGFR, an eightfold higher albumin- or protein-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with mortality (pooled HR 1.40) without evidence of significant heterogeneity and with ESRD (pooled HR 3.04), with significant heterogeneity between HR estimates. Lower eGFR and more severe albuminuria independently predict mortality and ESRD among individuals selected for CKD, with the associations stronger for ESRD than for mortality. Thus, these relationships are consistent with CKD stage classifications based on eGFR and suggest that albuminuria provides additional prognostic information among individuals with CKD.
    Kidney International 02/2011; 79(12):1331-40. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature mortality in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We examined peripheral augmentation index (AIx) as a measure of systemic vascular function and circulating markers of vascular inflammation in patients with ADPKD. Fifty-two ADPKD patients with hypertension and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), 50 ADPKD patients with hypertension and eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), 42 normotensive ADPKD patients with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 51 normotensive healthy controls were enrolled in this study. AIx was measured from peripheral artery tone recordings using finger plethysmography. Serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, soluble Fas (sFas) and Fas ligand (FasL) were measured as markers of vascular inflammation. AIx was higher in all three patient groups with ADPKD compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). AIx was similar between the normotensive ADPKD patients with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and hypertensive ADPKD patients with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P > 0.05). ICAM, P-selectin, E-selectin and sFas were higher and FasL lower in all ADPKD groups compared to controls (P < 0.05). ICAM, P-selectin and E-selectin were similar between the normotensive ADPKD patients with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and hypertensive ADPKD patients with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P > 0.05). According to multiple regression analysis, predictors of AIx in ADPKD included age, height, heart rate and mean arterial pressure (P < 0.05). Vascular inflammatory markers were not predictors of AIx in ADPKD. Systemic vascular dysfunction, manifesting as an increase in AIx and vascular inflammation is evident in young normotensive ADPKD patients with preserved renal function. Vascular inflammation is not associated with elevated AIx in ADPKD.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2011; 26(8):2515-21. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most deaths in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined novel CVD biomarkers in different stages of ADPKD. We recruited 50 hypertensive subjects with ADPKD with estimated GFR (eGFR) of >60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); 52 hypertensive subjects with ADPKD with eGFR of 25 to 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); 42 normotensive subjects with ADPKD and eGFR of >60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); and 50 healthy controls. We assayed serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 as markers of inflammation; plasma 8-epi-prostaglandin F(2α (8-epi-PGF2α)) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as markers of oxidative stress; and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) as a measure of insulin resistance. The hypertensive ADPKD eGFR of 25 to 60 group had higher levels of C-reactive protein and IL-6 than controls, normotensive ADPKD with eGFR of >60, and hypertensive ADPKD with eGFR of >60. The normotensive ADPKD eGFR >60, hypertensive ADPKD eGFR >60, and hypertensive ADPKD eGFR 25 to 60 groups had higher 8-epi-PGF(2α) and lower SOD than controls, with no difference between the ADPKD groups. There was no difference in HOMA levels between any of the groups. Adjustment for age, race, gender, and body mass index did not alter these relationships. Inflammation and oxidative stress are evident early in ADPKD even with preserved kidney function. Inflammation exhibits a graded relationship with levels of kidney function, whereas oxidative stress demonstrates a threshold effect. These pathways may be therapeutic targets for CVD risk mitigation.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2011; 6(1):7-13. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A low serum bicarbonate level is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, its relationship to long-term outcomes is unclear. Cohort study. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study examined the effects of dietary protein restriction and blood pressure control on progression of kidney disease. This analysis includes 942 screened but non-randomized individuals and 839 randomized participants with baseline serum bicarbonate measurements with stage 2-4 CKD. Serum bicarbonate level categorized into quartiles. Kidney failure, all-cause mortality, and a composite outcome of mortality and kidney failure. Local laboratories at each participating site measured bicarbonate in fasting serum samples. Kidney failure outcomes were obtained from the US Renal Data System, and mortality data, from the National Death Index. Mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 39 ± 21 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m(2) and serum bicarbonate level was 23.3 ± 3.8 mEq/L. Kidney failure rates were 72%, 64%, 50%, and 41%; mortality rates were 31%, 25%, 21%, and 25%, and rates of the composite outcome were 78%, 71%, 58%, and 54% in bicarbonate quartiles 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In analyses adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular disease factors, serum albumin level, proteinuria, and cause of kidney disease, compared with quartile 4, quartile 1 was associated with a 2.22 HR (95% CI, 1.83-2.68) of kidney failure; 1.39 HR (95% CI, 1.07-1.18) of all-cause mortality; and 1.36 HR (95% CI, 1.15-1.62) of the composite outcome. These associations were rendered nonsignificant with adjustment for GFR (kidney failure HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.87-1.28]; all-cause mortality HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.75-1.13]; composite HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.87-1.24]). Single baseline measurement of serum bicarbonate. Low serum bicarbonate level was associated with increased risk of long-term outcomes in nondiabetic patients with CKD. However, this risk is not independent of baseline GFR. Clinical trials are necessary to evaluate whether bicarbonate supplementation slows the progression of CKD.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2010; 56(5):907-14. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption appears to be protective for cardiovascular disease; however, its relationship with kidney disease is unclear. This prospective cohort study included 4343 subjects from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a longitudinal, community-based cohort of persons aged ≥65 from four US communities. We used previously defined categories based on weekly alcohol consumption: none, former, <1 drink, 1-6 drinks, 7-13 drinks and ≥14 drinks. Cystatin C was measured at baseline, year 3 and year 7; eligible subjects had at least two measures. Estimated GFR(cys) was calculated from cystatin C. The primary outcome was rapid kidney function as an annual estimated GFR (eGFR(cys)) loss >3 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year. Eight percent of the cohort reported former alcohol use and 52% reported current alcohol consumption. During a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, 1075 (25%) participants had rapid kidney function decline. In adjusted logistic regression models, there was no association between alcohol use and kidney function decline (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: none = reference; former = 1.18, 0.89-1.56; <1 drink = 1.20, 0.99-1.47; 1-6 = 1.18, 0.95-1.45; 7-13 = 1.10, 0.80-1.53; >14 = 0.89, 0.61-1.13). Results were similar with kidney function decline as a continuous outcome. Our results suggest that moderate alcohol consumption has neither adverse nor beneficial effects on kidney function. Although clinicians will need to consider the potential deleterious effects associated with alcohol consumption, there does not appear to be a basis for recommending that older adults discontinue or initiate light to moderate alcohol consumption to protect against kidney disease.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 10/2010; 25(10):3301-7. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia confers a paradoxical survival advantage in patients with kidney failure. Data are limited in the earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This was a cohort study in 840 subjects with stage 3 to 4 CKD enrolled in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study. Cox models were used to examine the relationship of total cholesterol (TC), non-HDL-cholesterol (NHDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and progression to kidney failure. During a mean follow-up of 10 years, there were 208 deaths, 128 deaths from CVD, and 554 subjects reached kidney failure. There was no association between tertiles of any of the lipid variables and mortality; the lowest HDL-C tertile (1.44, 1.18 to 1.78) had increased risk of kidney failure but covariate adjustment abolished this association. In analyses with lipids as continuous variables, there was a significant association with all-cause mortality for TC (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-mg/dl increase, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.03, 1.0 to 1.06) that disappeared with covariate adjustment; there was no association of TG, HDL-C, and NHDL-C as continuous variables with all-cause or CVD mortality. There was a significant inverse association between HDL-C and kidney failure (HR = 0.93, CI = 0.87 to 0.99) in an unadjusted Cox model that was attenuated after adjustment for covariates (HR = 0.98 CI = 0.91 to 1.06). In this cohort, with predominantly nondiabetic CKD patients, hyperlipidemia is not an independent predictor of long-term outcomes.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2010; 5(9):1582-7. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle wasting, a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD), contributes to poor outcomes. Mitochondrial biogenesis is critical for the maintenance of skeletal muscle function and structural integrity. The present study--a secondary analysis from a published randomized controlled trial--examined the effect of resistance exercise training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial (mt)DNA copy number and determined its association with skeletal muscle phenotype (muscle mass and strength). Twenty-three patients with moderate-to-severe CKD were randomized to resistance training (n = 13) or an attention-control (n = 10) group for 12 weeks. After a run-in period of a low-protein diet that continued during the intervention, mtDNA copy number in the vastus lateralis muscle was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR at baseline and 12 weeks. Participants mean age was 64 +/- 10 (SD) years and median (interquartile range, IQR) GFR 27.5 (37.0) ml/min. There were no differences between groups at baseline. Median (IQR) mtDNA copy number was 13,713 (10,618). There was a significant increase in muscle mtDNA with exercise compared with controls (1306 [13306] versus -3747 [15467], P = 0.01). The change in muscle mtDNA copy number was positively correlated with previously reported changes in types I and II muscle fiber cross-sectional area. In this pilot study, resistance training was highly effective in enhancing mitochondrial content in patients with moderate-to-severe CKD. This finding suggests that the mitochondrial dysfunction observed with chronic disease could potentially be restored with this exercise modality and should be investigated further.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 06/2010; 5(6):996-1002. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Kidney Diseases 09/2009; 54(3):582–583. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, reduces bioavailability of nitric oxide and induces endothelial dysfunction. This dimethylated amino acid accumulates in chronic kidney disease and may be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this population. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study was a randomized, controlled trial conducted between 1989 and 1993. We measured ADMA in frozen samples collected at baseline (n = 820) and obtained survival status, up to December 31, 2000, from the National Death Index. We examined the relationship of ADMA with prevalent CVD and performed multivariable Cox models to examine the relationship of ADMA with all-cause and CVD mortality. Mean (SD) age was 52 (12) yr, GFR was 32 +/- 12 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and ADMA was 0.70 +/- 0.25 micromol/L. A 1-SD increase in ADMA was associated with a 31% increased odds of prevalent CVD in an adjusted logistic regression model. During the 10-yr follow-up period, 202 (25%) participants died of any cause, 122 (15%) from CVD, and 545 (66%) reached kidney failure. In multivariable Cox models, a 1-SD increase in ADMA was associated with a 9% increased risk for all-cause and 19% increased risk for CVD mortality. In this cohort of patients with predominantly nondiabetic, stages 3 to 4 chronic kidney disease, there was a strong association of ADMA with prevalent CVD and a modest association with all-cause and CVD mortality.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2009; 4(6):1115-20. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperuricemia is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, data are limited about the relationship of uric acid levels with long-term outcomes in this patient population. Cohort study. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 840) conducted from 1989 to 1993 to examine the effects of strict blood pressure control and dietary protein restriction on progression of stages 3 to 4 CKD. This analysis included 838 patients. Uric acid level. The study evaluated the association of baseline uric acid levels with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and kidney failure. Mean age was 52 +/- 12 (SD) years, glomerular filtration rate was 33 +/- 12 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and uric acid level was 7.63 +/- 1.66 mg/dL. During a median follow-up of 10 years, 208 (25%) participants died of any cause, 127 (15%) died of CVD, and 553 (66%) reached kidney failure. In multivariate models, the highest tertile of uric acid was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.32), a trend toward CVD mortality (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.90 to 2.39), and no association with kidney failure (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.51) compared with the lowest tertile. In continuous analyses, a 1-mg/dL greater uric acid level was associated with 17% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.30) and 16% increased risk of CVD mortality (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.33), but was not associated with kidney failure (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.07). Primary analyses were based on a single measurement of uric acid. Results are generalizable primarily to relatively young white patients with predominantly nondiabetic CKD. In patients with stages 3 to 4 CKD, hyperuricemia appears to be an independent risk factor for all-cause and CVD mortality, but not kidney failure.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 03/2009; 53(5):796-803. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term effect of a very low-protein diet on the progression of kidney disease is unknown. We examined the effect of a very low-protein diet on the development of kidney failure and death during long-term follow-up of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study. Long-term follow-up of study B of the MDRD Study (1989-1993). The MDRD Study examined the effects of dietary protein restriction and blood pressure control on progression of kidney disease. This analysis includes 255 trial participants with predominantly stage 4 nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. A low-protein diet (0.58 g/kg/d) versus a very low-protein diet (0.28 g/kg/d) supplemented with a mixture of essential keto acids and amino acids (0.28 g/kg/d). Kidney failure (initiation of dialysis therapy or transplantation) and all-cause mortality until December 31, 2000. Kidney failure developed in 227 (89%) participants, 79 (30.9%) died, and 244 (95.7%) reached the composite outcome of either kidney failure or death. Median duration of follow-up until kidney failure, death, or administrative censoring was 3.2 years, and median time to death was 10.6 years. In the low-protein group, 117 (90.7%) participants developed kidney failure, 30 (23.3%) died, and 124 (96.1%) reached the composite outcome. In the very low-protein group, 110 (87.3%) participants developed kidney failure, 49 (38.9%) died, and 120 (95.2%) reached the composite outcome. After adjustment for a priori-specified covariates, hazard ratios were 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 1.12) for kidney failure, 1.92 (95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 3.20) for death, and 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 1.18) for the composite outcome in the very low-protein diet group compared with the low-protein diet group. Lack of dietary protein measurements during follow-up. In long-term follow-up of the MDRD Study, assignment to a very low-protein diet did not delay progression to kidney failure, but appeared to increase the risk of death.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 10/2008; 53(2):208-17. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study examined the effects of strict blood pressure control and dietary protein restriction on the progression of kidney disease. Here, we retrospectively evaluated outcomes of nondiabetic participants with stages 2-4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) from randomized and nonrandomized cohorts of the MDRD Study. Kidney failure and survival status through December of 2000, were obtained from the US Renal Data System and the National Death Index. Event rates were calculated for kidney failure, death, and a composite outcome of death and kidney failure. In the 1666 patients, rates for kidney failure were four times higher than that for death. Kidney failure was a more likely event than death in subgroups based on baseline glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, kidney disease etiology, gender, and race. It was only among those older than 65 that the rate for death approximated that for kidney failure. In contrast to other populations with CKD, our study of relatively young subjects with nondiabetic disease has found that the majority of the participants advanced to kidney failure with a low competing risk of death. In such patients, the primary emphasis should be on delaying progression of kidney disease.
    Kidney International 07/2008; 73(11):1310-5. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Kidney Diseases - AMER J KIDNEY DIS. 01/2008; 51(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Fetuin-A is a serum protein that inhibits vascular calcification such that lower levels are associated with a higher prevalence of vascular calcification and mortality risk among end-stage renal disease populations. We analyzed data of 822 persons in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study, a randomized, controlled trial of persons with predominantly non-diabetic stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum fetuin-A levels were measured in baseline serum. Survival status and cause of death were determined by the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models evaluated the association of fetuin-A levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Glomerular filtration ranged from 13 to 55 ml per min per 1.73 m(2). During a median follow-up of 9.5 years, 25% of persons died from any cause and 12% died from a cardiovascular cause. Compared to the lowest tertile, no association was found between the highest fetuin-A tertile and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Similarly, no association was found between fetuin-A as a continuous variable and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Our study shows that serum fetuin-A levels are not related to all-cause or cardiovascular mortality among persons with predominantly non-diabetic stage 3 or 4 CKD.
    Kidney International 01/2008; 72(11):1394-9. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse survival in the general population, but appears to confer a survival advantage in patients with kidney failure treated by hemodialysis. Data are limited on the relationship of BMI with mortality in patients in the earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cohort study. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study examined the effects of dietary protein restriction and blood pressure control on progression of kidney disease. This analysis includes 1,759 subjects. BMI. Cox models were used to evaluate the relationship of quartiles of BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Mean GFR and BMI were 39 +/- 21 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 27.1 +/- 4.7 kg/m(2), respectively. During a mean follow-up of 10 years, there were 453 deaths (26%), including 272 deaths (16%) from CVD. In unadjusted Cox models, quartiles 3 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 1.90) and 4 (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.06) were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with quartile 1. Adjustment for demographic, CVD, and kidney disease risk factors and randomization status attenuated this relationship for quartiles 3 (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.09) and 4 (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.20). In unadjusted Cox models, quartiles 3 (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.36) and 4 (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.33) were associated with increased risk of CVD mortality. Multivariable adjustment attenuated this relationship for quartiles 3 (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.36) and 4 (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.27). Primary analyses were based on single measurement of BMI. Because the MDRD Study cohort included relatively young white subjects with predominantly nondiabetic CKD, results may not be generalizable to all patients with CKD. In this cohort of subjects with predominantly nondiabetic CKD, BMI does not appear to be an independent predictor of all-cause or CVD mortality.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 09/2007; 50(3):404-11. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a powerful predictor of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its etiology is unclear. We hypothesized that the adipocyte-derived proteins leptin and adiponectin, inflammation (as measured by C-reactive protein, CRP), and insulin resistance (as measured by homeostasis model assessment, HOMA), implicated in the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome commonly seen in maintenance dialysis patients, would be associated with the loss of muscle mass in earlier stages of CKD. Arm muscle area was used as an indicator of muscle mass. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study cohort of people with CKD stages 3 and 4 was used for analysis (N = 780). Regression models were carried out to examine the relationships of leptin, adiponectin, CRP, and HOMA with arm muscle area (the main study outcome). Arm muscle area was 39 +/- 15 cm(2) (mean +/- SD), and adiponectin levels were 13 +/- 7 microg/mL. Median and interquartile range (IQR) concentrations were: 9.0 (13.6) ng/mL for leptin, 2.3 (4.9) mg/L for CRP, and 2.4 (2.0) for HOMA. Higher leptin (beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval, -6.9 [-8.7 to -5.1], P < .001) and higher CRP (beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval, -2.7 [-3.9 to -1.4], P < .001) were associated with lower arm muscle area. There was a trend toward lower arm muscle area with higher adiponectin (P = .07), but no association with HOMA (P = .80). Leptin and CRP were associated with lower muscle mass in subjects with CKD at stages 3 and 4. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these associations, and to develop targeted interventions for this patient population.
    Journal of Renal Nutrition 09/2007; 17(5):314-22. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    Jeremy Marcus, Mark J Sarnak, Vandana Menon
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of the general population have suggested that high homocysteine levels are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In chronic kidney disease, homocysteine levels rise, and cardiovascular risk increases with declining kidney function. While some studies in this population have found an association between elevated homocysteine and cardiovascular risk, others have noted that this association is largely attenuated by adjustment for kidney function, and several studies of patients with kidney failure have found that lower homocysteine levels predict mortality. Homocysteine levels can be lowered with folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. Three large, randomized, controlled trials of patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and two smaller, randomized, controlled trials of patients with kidney failure failed to detect any cardiovascular benefit from homocysteine-lowering vitamins. Several more interventional trials are ongoing, but the available data thus far do not support screening for or treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia.
    The Canadian journal of cardiology 08/2007; 23(9):707-10. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: No study has compared cystatin C level, serum creatinine concentration, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as risk factors for outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and none has compared measured GFR with CKD in any population. To compare cystatin C level with serum creatinine concentration and iothalamate GFR as risk factors for death and kidney failure. Observational study using serum cystatin C assayed from baseline samples of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (1989-1993). 15 clinical centers in the United States that participated in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. 825 trial participants with stage 3 or 4 nondiabetic CKD who had measurements of serum cystatin C. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CVD) mortality, and kidney failure until December 2000. Mean cystatin C level, creatinine concentration, and GFR were 2.2 mg/L (SD, 0.7), 212.16 micromol/L (SD, 88.4) (2.4 mg/dL [SD, 1.0]), and 33 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (SD, 12), respectively. Median follow-up was 10 years. Twenty-five percent of patients (n = 203) died of any cause, 15% (n = 123) died of CVD, and 66% (n = 548) reached kidney failure. In multivariate-adjusted models, 1-SD decreases in 1/creatinine, GFR, and 1/cystatin C were associated with increased risks for all-cause mortality of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.49), 1.27 (CI, 1.08 to 1.49), and 1.41 (CI, 1.18 to 1.67), respectively. For CVD mortality, the increased risks were 1.32 (CI, 1.05 to 1.64), 1.28 (CI, 1.04 to 1.59), and 1.64 (CI, 1.28 to 2.08), respectively. For kidney failure, the increased risks were 2.81 (CI, 2.48 to 3.18), 2.41 (CI, 2.15 to 2.70), and 2.36 (CI, 2.10 to 2.66), respectively. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study cohort may not be representative of all patients with nondiabetic CKD because participants were more likely to reach kidney failure than death in follow-up. The association of cystatin C level with all-cause and CVD mortality was as strong as or perhaps stronger than that of iothalamate GFR with these outcomes in stage 3 or 4 CKD.
    Annals of internal medicine 08/2007; 147(1):19-27. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is presumed to possess antiatherogenic and cardioprotective properties. Limited data exist on the relationship between adiponectin and mortality in the earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study was a randomized, controlled trial that was conducted between 1989 and 1993. Adiponectin was measured in frozen samples that were obtained at baseline (N = 820). Survival status and cause of death, up to December 31, 2000, were obtained from the National Death Index. Multivariable Cox models were used to examine the relationship of adiponectin with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Mean +/- SD age was 52 +/- 12 yr, and mean +/- SD glomerular filtration rate (GFR) rate was 33 +/- 12 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Eighty-five percent of participants were white, and 60% were male. Mean +/- SD adiponectin was 12.8 +/- 8.0 mug/ml. Triglycerides, insulin resistance, glucose, body mass index, GFR, C-reactive protein, and albumin were inversely related and proteinuria and HDL cholesterol were directly related to adiponectin. During the 10-year follow-up period, 201 (25%) participants died of any cause, and 122 (15%) from cardiovascular disease. In multivariable adjusted Cox models, a 1-mug/ml increase in adiponectin was associated with a 3% (hazard ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.05; P = 0.02) increased risk for all-cause and 6% (hazard ratio 1.06; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.09; P < 0.001) increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. High, rather than low, adiponectin is associated with increased mortality in this cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3 to 4. Further studies are necessary to confirm this association and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2006; 17(9):2599-606. · 8.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
209.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2011
    • Tufts Medical Center
      • • Division of Nephrology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Yale University
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 2009
    • Instituto Nacional de Cardiología
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 2008
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • Tufts University
      • Department of Medicine
      Georgia, United States
  • 2005
    • Hennepin County Medical Center
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States