[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Native bees of the tribe Meliponini produce a distinct kind of propolis called geopropolis. Although many pharmacological activities of propolis have already been demonstrated, little is known about geopropolis, particularly regarding its antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens. The present study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of M. fasciculata geopropolis against oral pathogens, its effects on S. mutans biofilms, and the chemical contents of the extracts. A gel prepared with a geopropolis extract was also analyzed for its activity on S. mutans and its immunotoxicological potential.
Antimicrobial activities of three hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs) of geopropolis, and hexane and chloroform fractions of one extract, were evaluated using the agar diffusion method and the broth dilution technique. Ethanol (70%, v/v) and chlorhexidine (0.12%, w/w) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were assayed by spectrophotometry. Immunotoxicity was evaluated in mice by topical application in the oral cavity followed by quantification of biochemical and immunological parameters, and macro-microscopic analysis of animal organs.
Two extracts, HAE-2 and HAE-3, showed inhibition zones ranging from 9 to 13 mm in diameter for S. mutans and C. albicans, but presented no activity against L. acidophilus. The MBCs for HAE-2 and HAE-3 against S. mutans were 6.25 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. HAE-2 was fractionated, and its chloroform fraction had an MBC of 14.57 mg/mL. HAE-2 also exhibited bactericidal effects on S. mutans biofilms after 3 h of treatment. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid concentrations were observed among the samples. Signs toxic effects were not observed after application of the geopropolis-based gel, but an increase in the production of IL-4 and IL-10, anti-inflammatory cytokines, was detected.
In summary, geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata can exert antimicrobial action against S. mutans and C. albicans, with significant inhibitory activity against S. mutans biofilms. The extract with the highest flavonoid concentration, HAE-2, presented the highest antimicrobial activity. In addition, a geopropolis-based gel is not toxic in an animal model and displays anti-inflammatory effect.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2011; 11:108. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite several studies showed that the Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom (Tsv) induces an inflammatory response, just a few have investigated the effect of the venom on the immune response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate alterations of venom application on lymphoid organs and on the recruitment and activation of cells and also on the cytokine production. Swiss male mice (2–3 months, 20–25 g) received a non-lethal dose of crude Tsv (200 μg/kg), diluted in sterile PBS by subcutaneous route. Control animals received only sterile PBS. The animals were sacrificed after 30, 120 and 360 min. The inflammatory parameters studied were skin histology at the site of venom application, leukocyte count, and blood cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α). Inguinal lymph node, spleen and bone marrow cellularity was determined for evaluation of the Tsv effect on immune system organs. The results showed that Tsv caused no local inflammation, but it induced an increase of blood neutrophils and serum IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. After 360 min of envenomation there was a reduction in the cells number from peritoneum and spleen, but there was an increase in the cell number from lymph nodes. In conclusion, the Tsv induces systemic alterations characterized by changes in the cell number in lymphoid organs, increase pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines.Highlights► T. serrulatus venom increases the number of neutrophils. ► The number of macrophages in the peritoneal cavity was decreased. ► The cell number in lymph node and spleen was also affected. ► Blood levels of TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-10 were augmented.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) have been used by native people to treat many diseases. Recently, we showed that the treatment with small dose (5mg/kg) of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) from Chenopodium ambrosioides' leaves has immunestimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the subchronic toxicity of the oral treatment with this HE in preclinical assays.
Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups (n=10/group). They received the HE daily at the doses of 5, 50 and 500 mg/kg by gavage during 15 days. The control group received only water. They were observed each hour for 24h and each day for 15 days, when the blood was collected. The serum was used to perform the biochemical analysis. The mice were then killed and the vital and lymphoid organs were collected and evaluated.
There was neither death nor alterations in the body weight in the HE-treated groups, but there were alterations in the weight of some organs. There was an increase in the lymph node cells number in the highest two doses. The number of cells in the bone marrow was high in the HE-treated groups, but the number of peritoneal cells was smaller in the HE-treated groups when compared to the control. There was no alteration in the AST, but there was a reduction in the albumin levels in the HE500 group and in the triglycerides and VLDL in the highest doses.
The subchronic treatment with HE induced punctual alterations in the groups treated with the highest doses. However, the HE treatment was not lethal and did not induce toxic alterations using the therapeutic dose, suggesting that it is safe to use this product in the adequate dose.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2009; 127(3):602-5. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leaves and the fruits from Syzygium jambolanum DC.(Myrtaceae), a plant known in Brazil as sweet olive or 'jambolão', have been used by native people to treat infectious diseases, diabetes, and stomachache. Since the bactericidal activity of S. jambolanum has been confirmed in vitro, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the prophylactic treatment with S. jambolanum on the in vivo polymicrobial infection induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice.
C57Bl/6 mice were treated by the subcutaneous route with a hydroalcoholic extract from fresh leaves of S. jambolanum (HCE). After 6 h, a bacterial infection was induced in the peritoneum using the lethal CLP model. The mice were killed 12 h after the CLP induction to evaluate the cellular influx and local and systemic inflammatory mediators' production. Some animals were maintained alive to evaluate the survival rate.
The prophylactic HCE treatment increased the mice survival, the neutrophil migration to infectious site, the spreading ability and the hydrogen peroxide release, but decreased the serum TNF and nitrite. Despite the increased migration and activation of peritoneal cells the HCE treatment did not decrease the number of CFU. The HCE treatment induced a significant decrease on the bone marrow cells number but did not alter the cell number of the spleen and lymph node.
We conclude that the treatment with S. jambolanum has a potent prophylactic anti-septic effect that is not associated to a direct microbicidal effect but it is associated to a recruitment of activated neutrophils to the infectious site and to a diminished systemic inflammatory response.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2008; 8:57. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis, caused by protozoan from Leishmania genus, is an endemic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The chemotherapy to this disease is not always effective and can cause several side effects. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) is used by the native people in the treatment of cutaneous ulcers caused by different species of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the treatment with a hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides on the murine infection with Leishmania amazonensis.
The mice were treated for 4-6 weeks post-infection (p.i.) with HCE (5 mg/kg) or meglumine antimoniate (Sb(v)) (28 mg/kg) either by the oral route, once a day, for 15 days or by five intralesional (IL) injections at intervals of 4 days. The thickness of the infected paws was determined weekly and the parasite load evaluated in the draining lymph nodes (LN), the spleen and in the footpad after 7 weeks of infection. The nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated in cultures with cells from peritoneum or LN.
The IL treatment increased the NO production in the LN and peritoneum cultures and reduced the parasite load from the footpad, spleen and LN. On the other hand, the oral treatment decreased did alter neither the NO production nor the parasite load.
IL HCE treatment was more efficient than the oral HCE treatment since the former was able to control the dissemination of infection. This effect can be due to either a direct leishmanicidal effect of HCE or the improvement in the NO production by HCE-stimulated macrophages. The results could justify the topical use of the Chenopodium ambrosioides' leaves in the treatment of the ulcers caused by Leishmania.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 02/2008; 115(2):313-9. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Babassu is the popular name of Orbignya phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae). The mesocarp flour obtained from their fruits has been used in Brazil as medicine in the treatment of pains, constipation, obesity, leukemia, rheumatism, ulcerations, tumors, inflammations and venous diseases. The effect of the chronic oral treatment with aqueous extract of babassu mesocarp (500mg/kgday) on the number of platelets, the prothrombin time (PT), the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), the nitric oxide (NO) production and the carrageenin-induced thrombosis was evaluated, using C57Bl/6 mice. The chronic oral treatment with babassu mesocarp induced an anti-thrombotic effect. There was a 88.9% reduction in the necrosis of the tail. This effect seems to be related to an increase in the ability of the macrophage to produce NO and to a slow coagulation process associated to an increase of 12.0 and 13.9% in PT and aPTT, respectively. However, the anti-thrombotic effect seems to be not related to alterations in the number of platelets. It is possible to conclude that the oral treatment with babassu mesocarp has a significant anti-thrombotic effect, which could justify the popular use of babassu mesocarp in the treatment of venous diseases. Meanwhile, this study suggests a potential use of babassu mesocarp as a prophylactic agent to avoid thrombosis events.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 05/2007; 111(1):155-9. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leaves and the oil from the seeds of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae), a plant known in Brazil as 'mastruz', have been used by native people to treat parasitic diseases. Experimentally it was shown that Chenopodium ambrosioides inhibits the Ehrlich tumor growth, what could be due to an immunomodulatory effect of this product. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) from leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides on macrophage activity and on lymphoid organs cellularity. C3H/HePas mice received the HCE (5mg/kg) by intraperitoneal via and were sacrificed 2 days later. HCE treatment did not alter the cell number in bone marrow, but it increased the cell number in peritoneal cavity, spleen and lymph node. The spreading and phagocytosis activity, the PMA-induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) release and the nitric oxide (NO) production were also increased when compared to control group. Similar results were obtained with concanavalin A (Con A), used as a positive control, with exception of the NO production that was only detected in HCE-derived macrophages. The in vitro treatment with HCE induced a dose-dependent NO production by resident macrophages, but did not enhance the NO production by HCE-derived macrophage, which however, was enhanced by Con A, suggesting that HCE and Con A induce NO production by different routes. In conclusion, HCE-treatment was able to increase the macrophages activity and also the cellular recruitment to secondary lymphoid organs, what could explain the previously related anti-tumor activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 05/2007; 111(1):148-54. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [Chenopodiaceae] ('mastruz') have been indicated for the treatment of several diseases, among which the cancer. There are no results focusing the effect of C. ambrosioides treatment on tumor development in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with C. ambrosioides on Ehrlich tumor development. Swiss mice were treated by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) with hydroalcoholic extract from leaves of C. ambrosioides (5 mg/kg) or with PBS (control group) 48 h before or 48 h later the Ehrlich tumor implantation. The tumor cells were implanted on the left footpad (solid tumor) or in the peritoneal cavity (ascitic tumor). To determine the solid tumor growth, footpad was measured each 2 days until the fourteenth day, when the feet were weighed. Ascitic tumor development was evaluated after 8 days of tumor implantation by quantification of the ascitic fluid volume and tumor cell number. The i.p. administration of C. ambrosioides extract before or after the tumor implantation significantly inhibited the solid and ascitic Ehrlich tumor forms. This inhibition was observed in ascitic tumor cell number, in the ascitic volume, in the tumor-bearing foot size and foot weight when compared to control mice. The treatments also increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, C. ambrosioides has a potent anti-tumoral effect which was evident with a small dose and even when the treatment was given two days after the tumor implantation. This effect is probably related with anti-oxidant properties of C. ambrosioides.
Life Sciences 05/2006; 78(22):2650-3. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Babassu is the popular name of Orbignya phalerata Mart. [Arecaceae (Palmae)], which fruits mesocarp has been used in Brazil as medicine for the treatment of pains, constipation, obesity, leukemia, rheumatism, ulcerations, tumors and inflammations. In this study, we investigated the effect of babassu mesocarp flour aqueous extract (BM) on C3H/HePas mice peritoneal cellular migration and macrophage activation by measuring the nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release, spreading activity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression. Our results demonstrate that BM injected once ip in mice at 10 and 20 mg/kg increased the cellular influx to the peritoneal cavity, the MHC class II expression and the spreading ability, and also induced the production of NO, TNF and H(2)O(2). The increase in NO-production and MHC expression was also observed after the addition of BM to resident macrophage cultures (100 microg/ml). Thus, BM-treatment was able to activate peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo inducing the production of inflammatory and cytotoxic metabolites, which could justify the popular use of babassu mesocarp in the treatment of tumor diseases, but not in inflammatory pathologies.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 02/2006; 103(1):53-8. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sunflower seed oil (SSO) effect on solid and ascitic forms of Ehrlich tumor was evaluated.
Solid or ascitic Ehrlich tumor-bearing Swiss mice were treated daily, by subcutaneous route, with 200 microl of SSO. The solid tumor-bearing footpad was measured every 3 days and ascitic tumor-bearing mice had their ascites collected and quantified. At the end of the SSO treatment, the total cell number in lymphoid organs was quantified.
Subcutaneous treatment with SSO inhibits the solid tumor growth and increases lymph node cell number in animals with solid tumor, but has no effect on animals with ascitic tumor.
SSO can delay the solid tumor growth, possibly due to better absorption of this treatment by draining lymph nodes.