Christopher R J Woodhouse

University College London, London, ENG, United Kingdom

Are you Christopher R J Woodhouse?

Claim your profile

Publications (97)386.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate sexual function and quality of life in adolescent and adult women with classical bladder exstrophy (BE).Materials and MethodsA two-part observational cross-sectional study with a questionnaire arm and a retrospective case review arm was performed. The study was undertaken in a tertiary referral gynaecology and urology service. Outcomes were sexual function and quality of life scores.ResultsForty-four women with BE were identified from departmental databases and included in the study, of whom 28 (64%) completed postal questionnaires. Sexual function scores and quality of life visual analogue scales were significantly poorer compared to normative data.Conclusions Bladder exstrophy has a detrimental psychological impact on women. In future, methodical multi-disciplinary paediatric follow-up research will help to identify predictors for better and worse adolescent and adult outcomes. Development and evaluation of cost-effective psychological interventions to target specific problems is also warranted.
    BJU International 05/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the testes in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), including any benign or malignant changes.Materials and Methods:This was a retrospective review of the testicular MR images and histologic reports from 25 patients with CAIS who chose to retain their testes beyond age 16 years and who were imaged between January 2004 and December 2010. Ethical approval was obtained, and informed consent was obtained from each subject to review the medical records, images, and histologic slides and reports. Imaging and histologic findings were compared.Results:Twelve patients (mean age, 24 years; age range, 18-39 years) retained their testes and 13 (mean age, 22 years; age range, 17-37 years) eventually underwent gonadectomy. Review of the MR images showed that testicular parenchyma was heterogeneous in 30 of 46 testes (65%). The most common changes on MR images included simple-looking paratesticular cysts (34 of 46 testes, 74%) and low-signal-intensity, well-defined Sertoli cell adenomas (26 of 46 testes, 56%). Correlation of the histologic and MR imaging findings showed that MR imaging could correctly depict the presence or absence of Sertoli cell adenomas in 19 of 23 testes (83%). Paratesticular cysts were correctly detected in 22 of 23 testes (96%). Microscopic examination showed that the testes were composed of atrophic seminiferous tubules, whereas germ cells were found in 13 of 26 testes (50%). All paratesticular cysts were confirmed to be benign; however, a focus of intratubular germ cell neoplasia was found in a Sertoli cell adenoma. Premalignant foci were detected in three patients, two with intratubular germ cell neoplasia and one with sex cord tumor with annular tubules. No invasive cancers were found.Conclusion:MR imaging is accurate in the detection of testicular changes, including paratesticular cysts and Sertoli cell adenomas. Although these changes are usually benign, Sertoli adenomas can sometimes harbor premalignant lesions. MR imaging cannot depict premalignant changes; therefore, the standard of care for patients with CAIS should remain gonadectomy after puberty.© RSNA, 2013.
    Radiology 03/2013; · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Existing outcomes for DSD individuals are inadequate because reports are based upon information collected retrospectively. This paper is presented to review existing data emphasizing information needed to lead to better future care, is based on presentations and discussions at a multi-disciplinary meeting on DSD held in Annecy in 2012, and is not intended to define the present status of management of each of the various DSD diagnoses. Rather it is intended to provide information needed to do studies regarding outcome data from the treatment of children with DSD by providing a summary of recommendations of 'patient-centered' topics that need investigation. The hope is that by being concerned with what is not known, new protocols will be developed for improving both early management and transition to adult life.
    Journal of pediatric urology 11/2012; · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper is a review of some of the recent publications regarding outcome of DSD patients, with an emphasis upon surgical and sexual outcomes. Currently available outcome studies of patients with DSDs have limitations because of multiple factors, including lack of representative patient sampling, and lack of adequate information concerning both medical and surgical care, and psychological, social and family support. The most frequent reports involve females with 21-α-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This most common form of DSD, if one excludes hypospadias and cryptorchidism, is an excellent example of a form of DSD in which all aspects of outcome, regarding surgery, sexual functionality and sensitivity, psychological input and endocrine hormonal therapy, carry a major role. The goals of therapy include a surgical outcome with a good cosmetic appearance and functionality with potential for sexual intercourse with sufficient sensitivity for satisfactory responsiveness. Endocrine replacement therapy should provide a normal adrenal hormonal milieu, while sex steroid therapy may be indicated. Psychological care should be provided from birth with gradual transition primarily to the patient, including basic counseling with full disclosure, although adjustment depends upon the patient's personality and parents' abilities and acceptance. Among forms of DSD involving gonadal insufficiency, hormonal replacement therapy should provide physiologic levels. Among females, estrogen therapy enhances healing after feminizing surgery and is required from puberty throughout adult life to maintain femininity, sexual organs and bone health, and enhance gender and sexuality. Among males, appropriate testosterone therapy maintains stamina, muscle tone, bone health, libido, sexual potency and general well-being, while benefit for healing after genital surgery is unclear. Further, outcome is clearly related to predominant cultural factors. Outcome studies should include evaluation of all of these factors.
    Journal of pediatric urology 11/2012; · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate bladder biopsies from patients with classical bladder exstrophy (BE) for their histological features and discuss the potential clinical significance of the findings. DESIGN AND METHODS: From 2004 to 2011 bladder tissues were collected from patients with BE. These were obtained at the time of primary bladder closure (group I, n=29), during secondary reconstructive procedures (group II, n=27) or during cystectomy for failed reconstruction (group III, n=15). All tissues specimens were investigated for inflammatory, proliferative, meta- and dysplastic changes. Expression of urothelial differentiation markers CK13 and CK20 was determined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Inflammatory, proliferative and metaplastic changes were found in bladder specimens of all subgroups. Neither dysplasia nor neoplasia was present. Severe epithelial changes such as cystitis glandularis and intestinal metaplasia were observed in up to 62% of bladders several years after primary closure. Aberrant expression patterns of CK13 and CK20 suggesting abnormal urothelial differentiation were shown to be present in the urothelium of all subgroups. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide prima facie evidence that the epithelial changes observed in the unclosed bladder template persist or even progress in a subset of bladders after primary closure. Although the malignant potential of cystitis glandularis and intestinal metaplasia is controversial, some bladders may be at increased risk of developing dys-/neoplasia in the long term. As the natural history of these lesions in the exstrophic bladder is unknown, patients require lifelong surveillance.
    The Journal of urology 09/2012; · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the outcomes of undescended testes and sex development disorders in adolescence and young adulthood. We reviewed the requirements for the long-term care of children born with these and other major congenital anomalies of the genitourinary system. The current English language literature was retrieved with a PubMed® search for articles on these subjects. Only articles covering outcomes at ages past puberty were included in analysis. The material was supplemented from the database of the clinic for adults with sex development disorders at University College London Hospitals. An undescended testis has impaired spermatogenesis. In men in whom a unilateral undescended testis was corrected before puberty the incidence of paternity is normal at around 90% of those who attempt it. The equivalent rate for those with bilateral undescended testes is about 65%. If surgery for bilateral undescended testes is delayed until after puberty, fertility is unlikely. The risk of testicular neoplasms is overestimated and the relative risk is between 2.5 and 8. Children born with a sex development disorder receive multidisciplinary treatment throughout childhood and require the same care as adults. Males who are under virilized likely have a micropenis (greater than 2 SD below the mean stretched length) but they may have normal sexual function. Fertility depends on the underlying condition. Virilized females, who most commonly have congenital adrenal hyperplasia, currently present to adult clinics with an inadequate vagina after infantile surgery. Reconstruction is required to allow intercourse. The care of adults born with abnormalities of the genitalia is complex. Early management may define upbringing in childhood but requirements for sexuality and fertility in adult life are different. Multidisciplinary care is essential and a case can be made to establish a subspecialty of urology to coordinate it.
    The Journal of urology 07/2012; 188(3):717-23. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Christopher R.J. Woodhouse, Guy H. Neild, Richard N. Yu, Stuart Bauer
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose In this article we highlight the difference, from established adult urology, in required approach to the care of adolescents and young adults presenting with the long-term consequences of the major congenital anomalies of the genitourinary tract. We review some abnormalities of the kidneys, progressive renal failure and disorders of bladder function from which general conclusions can be drawn. Materials and Methods The published literature was reviewed and augmented with material from our institutional databases. For renal function the CAKUT (congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract) database at University College London Hospitals was used, which includes 101 young adult patients with CAKUT in whom the urinary tract has not been diverted or augmented. For bladder function some data are from patient records at Boston Children's Hospital. Results Adolescents who grow up with the burden of a major congenital anomaly have an overwhelming desire to be normal. Many achieve high levels of education and occupy a wide range of employment scenarios. Babies born with damaged kidneys will usually experience improvement in renal function in the first 3 years of life. Approximately 50% of these cases will remain stable until puberty, after which half of them will experience deterioration. Any urologist who treats such patients needs to test for proteinuria as this is a significant indicator of such deterioration. In its absence, the urologist must have a reasonable strategy for seeking a urological cause. The most effective management for nephrological renal deterioration is with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, which slow but do not prevent end stage renal failure. Renal deterioration is generally slower in these patients than in those with other forms of progressive renal disease. The bladder is damaged by obstruction or by functional abnormalities such as myelomeningocele. Every effort should be made to stabilize or reconstruct the bladder in childhood. A dysfunctional bladder is associated with or causes renal damage in utero, but continued dysfunction will cause further renal damage. Bladder function often changes in puberty, especially in boys with posterior urethral valves who may experience high pressure chronic retention. Dysfunction is managed with antimuscarinic drugs, clean intermittent self-catheterization and intestinal augmentation. Adult urologists must be able to manage the long-term problems associated with these treatments. Conclusions Pediatric conditions requiring management in adolescence are rare but have major, lifelong implications. Their management requires a broad knowledge of pediatric and adult urology, and could well be a specialty in its own right. Therefore, adult urologists must remain aware of the conditions, the problems that they may encounter and the special management required for these patients to live normal lives.
    The Journal of urology 04/2012; 187(4):1164–1171. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We sought to examine the reproductive outcomes of 52 women with classical bladder exstrophy. This was an observational study with cross-sectional and retrospective arms. The average age of the sample was 33 years (range, 17-63). Of those who had tried, 19/38 (66%) had conceived. A total of 57 pregnancies (3 sets of twins) were reported for the 19 patients and resulted in 34/57 live births (56%), 21/57 miscarriages (35%), 1/57 (2%) termination, and 4/57 (7%) stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Four deliveries resulted in major complications including 1 transection of the ureter (4%), 1 fistula formation (4%), and 2 postpartum hemorrhages (8%). There were 2 admissions to intensive care, one for urinary sepsis and another for massive obstetric hemorrhage. Fertility is impaired in women with bladder exstrophy. Pregnancy is high risk both for the mother and baby. Delivery should be at a tertiary referral obstetric unit with urology cover. In the majority of cases planned cesarean section is the most appropriate mode of delivery.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 03/2012; 206(6):496.e1-6. · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is important that any patient with a urinary diversion can accept the psychological impact alongside the surgical and physical aspects. However, there are currently no validated methods or instruments available to allow direct measurement of this phenomenon in these patients. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is often high following different types of urinary diversion-this may suggest a high acceptance level and thus may act as a secondary end point. Such an assessment is a retrospective validation of successful patient selection, allowing us to redirect the nihilistic misinterpretation that urologists should return to offering ileal conduits as a standard. In modern urinary diversion, high patient acceptance develops from comprehensive counselling providing a realistic expectation, careful patient-to-method-matching, strict adherence to surgical detail during the procedure and a meticulous lifelong follow-up. Coping strategies, disease-related social support and confidence in the success of treatment are among other factors which contribute to acceptance of urinary reconstruction as either independent or combined factors. Significant experience is required in every respect, as misjudgement and mistakes in any of these issues may be detrimental to the patients' health. It should be acknowledged that there is no 'best' urinary diversion in general terms. A reconstructive surgeon must have all techniques available and choices need to be tailored to the individual patient.
    Der Urologe 03/2012; 51(4):515-21. · 0.44 Impact Factor
  • Rola S Nakhal, Rebecca Deans, Sarah M Creighton, Dan Wood, Christopher R J Woodhouse
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to study the incidence and risk factors for genital prolapse in adult women with bladder exstrophy and to describe the long-term outcome of the Gore-Tex wrap procedure for genital prolapse. A retrospective observational study on adult women with classical bladder exstrophy in a tertiary referral centre for disorders of sex development, including complex urogenital anomalies. Medical notes were reviewed and a confidential postal questionnaire on urinary continence and symptoms of prolapse was carried out. Fifty-two women with bladder exstrophy and a mean age of 39 years (range 23 to 63) were identified, of whom 27 patients (52%) developed pelvic organ prolapse. Twenty-three out of 27 (85%) were treated surgically while only 4 patients were managed expectantly. Risk factors for prolapse included pregnancy in 10 (37%) patients and introitoplasty in 1 patient (4%). Of the 23 women treated surgically, 16 (70%) were treated using a Gore-Tex wrap, while 7 had other surgical procedures including colposuspension and hysterosacrocolpopexy. In the Gore-Tex wrap group, 12 out of 16 patients (75%) had had a successful result after the first repair compared with 2 out of the 7 patients (28%) in the group treated using other procedures. Mean follow-up was 8 years (range 1-15). One patient developed an infection after the procedure and another patient had Gore-Tex erosion. Prolapse is a common gynaecological complaint in adult women with bladder exstrophy and the majority will require treatment. At present the Gore-Tex wrap offers good results with a low rate of serious complications.
    International Urogynecology Journal 03/2012; 23(9):1201-5. · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: People with major congenital urological or neurological malformations invariably require bladder reconstruction with enterocystoplasty in early childhood. The improvement of the surgical management of these children has reflected significantly on their life expectancy. As a result, more young people with enterocystoplasty are being transitioned to adolescent clinics where they receive the usual counselling about sexual health and pregnancy risks. However, the possibility of false-positive urinary pregnancy tests in these young women remains an overlooked but essential message. The lack of awareness about this fact can result in significant patient anxiety and the potential for unnecessary interventions as exemplified by the three cases we have encountered.
    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 11/2011; 119(3):366-8. · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We set out to critically assess the value of animal experimentation in urinary diversion through intestinal segments, as some authors question the effectiveness of animal research, criticising the methodological quality, lack of standardization, inadequate reporting and the few systematic reviews in this field. Based on a comprehensive MEDLINE literature search (MeSH database; search terms: urinary diversion, urinary reservoirs, continent, rat, dog, animal models) we retrieved and evaluated all full-length papers published in English, German, French, and Spanish languages from 1966 to 2011 reporting the use of animal models in the setting of urinary diversion. Studies were stratified according to the addressed research question. Within each category species, gender, number of animals, age at procedure, type of diversion, mortality, length of follow-up, experimental procedure and outcome were recorded and tabulated. In all, 159 articles were judged to be relevant and while there are numerous animal models only a few have been used in more than one study. Animals were used for the systematic study of new surgical techniques (93 articles) or metabolic and functional consequences of urinary reconstruction (66 articles). For the latter purpose, the most often used animal is the rat, whereas the dog model is preferred for technical experimentation. In many studies, the validity of the model is at least questionable. Animal experiments have repeatedly been conducted addressing the same question, often with striking discrepancies in outcome. Animal studies were even performed after a surgical technique had been pioneered in humans. The use of animal models in urinary diversion is far from standardized rendering the results less than ideal for comparison across studies. Due to differences in anatomy and physiology, the applicability of findings in animal experiments to clinical urology is limited. Continued effort is needed to optimise the use of animal models in experimental urology.
    BJU International 09/2011; 109(1):6-23. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Peter U Ardelt, Christopher R J Woodhouse, Hubertus Riedmiller, Elmar W Gerharz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To critically assess the biophysical properties and current status of outlet formation in heterotopic intestinal urinary diversion. As despite three decades of clinical experience with continent cutaneous urinary diversion through bowel segments, no consensus has been reached for the optimal efferent segment although its function largely determines patient satisfaction. A comprehensive Medline literature search using the Medical Subject Headings database (search terms: continent urinary diversion followed by either efferent segment, nipple, Mitrofanoff, Yang-Monti, Benchekroun, tapered ileum, intussuscepted ileum, Kock pouch, T-valve, or Ghonheim) was conducted to identify all full-length original articles addressing the various principles and techniques of outlet formation as well as their outcomes and complications. Examined series were published in English between 1966 and 2010. All studies were systematically evaluated using a checklist (study design, number of patients, etc.) and rated according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence (LoE). While there was a continuous flow of publications over the last three decades, the vast majority of studies were retrospective case series with numerous confounding factors and poorly defined, non-standardized outcomes (LoE, 3). Only a few investigations compare different efferent segments (LoE, 2a). No randomized studies exist. The major biophysical principles are based on the use of flap, nipple, and hydraulic valves. Vermiform appendix, intussuscepted ileal nipple, and the Yang-Monti tube are the most popular techniques and have well-established data on outcomes, complications, and failure rates. Artificial sphincter systems and tissue engineering have provided disappointing results thus far. Most reconstructive strategies are subject to a process of on-going improvement. The continuous quest for optimization has not led to a single universally applicable efferent segment in continent cutaneous urinary diversion. While all techniques have their unique set of advantages and disadvantages, they will always remain a compromise. Success depends on selecting the optimal strategy for individual patients. A major change in principles in the near future is unlikely.
    BJU International 06/2011; 109(2):288-97. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ketamine has become increasingly recognized as a drug of recreational use. Individuals using significant amounts have developed symptoms including a small painful bladder, ureteric obstruction, papillary necrosis and hepatic dysfunction. The present paper examines the current literature on the relationship between ketamine use and these symptoms. Our own clinical experience and the data available clarify the causal relationship, and further data help to elucidate the mechanism of damage. On the basis of continued work and development with patients who are ketamine users we suggest an assessment and treatment regime that includes cessation of ketamine use and adequate analgesia to overcome symptoms. In conclusion, it is important for medical practitioners who encounter patients with these symptoms to ask about recreational drug use. Ketamine remains a safe and effective drug to use under appropriate medical supervision. Patients identified as suffering from this syndrome will need to be referred to a urological unit with an interest in the treatment of the condition.
    BJU International 02/2011; 107(12):1881-4. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Dan Wood, Christopher Woodhouse
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article considers the impact and outcomes of both treatment and underlying condition of penile anomalies in adolescent males. Major congenital anomalies (such as exstrophy/epispadias) are discussed, including the psychological outcomes, common problems (such as corporal asymmetry, chordee, and scarring) in this group, and surgical assessment for potential surgical candidates. The emergence of new surgical techniques continues to improve outcomes and potentially raises patient expectations. The importance of balanced discussion in conditions such as micropenis, including multidisciplinary support for patients, is important in order to achieve appropriate treatment decisions. Topical treatments may be of value, but in extreme cases, phalloplasty is a valuable option for patients to consider. In buried penis, the importance of careful assessment and, for the majority, a delay in surgery until puberty has completed is emphasised. In hypospadias patients, the variety of surgical procedures has complicated assessment of outcomes. It appears that true surgical success may be difficult to measure as many men who have had earlier operations are not reassessed in either puberty or adult life. There is also a brief discussion of acquired penile anomalies, including causation and treatment of lymphoedema, penile fracture/trauma, and priapism.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2011; 11:614-23. · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Ronak A Gor, Christopher R J Woodhouse, Justine M Schober
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Symptomatic ejaculatory duct (ED) calculi, typically composed of uric acid, carbonate apatite and calcium phosphate, or calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite, are rare occurrences. We report a case of bilateral, large ED calculi in a patient with spina bifida myelomeningocele and an augmented neurogenic bladder. A 25-year-old Caucasian male, not compliant with his urological management, presented with abdominal pain, difficulty in self-catheterization, nausea and vomiting. Two of eight large struvite calculi, which blocked the urethra, were identified at the right ED. After endoscopic calculi removal, further management included bladder irrigation and infection control modalities. This case highlights the importance of clean intermittent catheterization, bladder irrigation, and routine urologic management necessary for patients with myelodysplasia and neurogenic bladder. It is the first recorded case to demonstrate the augmented bladder as an initiator of ejaculatory duct calculi in patients with an open bladder neck and spastic external sphincter.
    Journal of pediatric urology 10/2010; 7(2):233-5. · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Justine M Schober, Lori M Dulabon, Ronak A Gor, Christopher R J Woodhouse
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess for the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms and abnormal semen parameters in adults with a history of PUV. The study involved 29 male patients, aged 17-51 (mean 21.5 years), with a history of PUV. Ten had more severe symptoms of frequency, urgency and enuresis, and agreed to detailed study. Medical history, urine analysis, ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrogram were completed for all. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts, ultrasonography of the prostate, as well as semen analysis and culture, and measurement of serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone were performed on the 10/29 patients with severe symptoms. Of the 8/10 patients who provided acceptable semen culture data, 88% (7/8) showed significant bacterial growth and pyospermia. On semen analysis, 3/8 patients had profound decreases in sperm count, 6/8 < 50% motility and 4/8 ≤ 30% normal forms. pH range for semen was 7.2-7.8 (mean 7.45). For all 10 patients, follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormone values were within normal range. Elongation of the prostate was the only radiologic variant of the sex accessory structures. A significant finding of pyospermia and bacterial growth in semen culture is reported in a subpopulation of young men with a history of PUV and severe lower urinary tract symptoms. This may have an impact on fertility.
    Journal of pediatric urology 10/2010; 6(6):614-8. · 1.38 Impact Factor
  • Dan Wood, Brid Carr, Kim Robinson, Christopher Woodhouse
    European Urology Supplements 04/2010; 183(4). · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2010; 183(4). · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To estimate the risk of a second primary tumour (SPT) of the bladder in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors, investigate factors associated with a bladder SPT developing, and compare the risk observed with that expected from the general population. The analysis included 17981 individuals diagnosed with childhood cancer, between 1940 and 1991 in Britain, and surviving for ≥5 years. Ascertainment of a bladder SPT was primarily through the National Health Service Central Registers (NHSCR). From the NHSCR, 17 bladder SPTs were ascertained; this corresponded to four times (95% confidence interval 2.5-6.4) the expected number of bladder tumours. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) varied significantly (P < 0.05) by first primary tumour (FPT) type, follow-up period, attained age and chemotherapy. The highest SIRs were in those: with heritable retinoblastoma (31.4); treated with chemotherapy (12.0); 0-9 years of follow-up (10.8); and aged 0-19 years (9.3). The absolute excess risk (AER) for a bladder SPT was 3.7 cases/100000 survivors per year. The AER varied significantly by FPT type, follow-up period, attained age and gender. The highest AERs were in those: diagnosed with heritable retinoblastoma (34.0); 20-29 years of follow-up (14.2); aged 40-49 years (13.0); and male (5.8). Using multivariable Cox regression, FPT and chemotherapy were significantly associated with the risk of a bladder SPT developing. By the age of 55 years, 0.4% of survivors developed a bladder SPT. Although the absolute risk of a bladder tumour within childhood cancer survivors was low, the risk was four times that expected from the general population. Specific groups, e.g. survivors of heritable retinoblastoma and those treated with chemotherapy, were at the highest risk.
    BJU International 02/2010; 106(7):1060-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
386.53 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2013
    • University College London
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Institute of Neurology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of New South Wales
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
    • Penn State Hershey Medical Center and Penn State College of Medicine
      • Pediatrics
      Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • UPMC Hamot
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Middlesex University, UK
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Kingston Hospital
      Kingston Seymour, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Urology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2005
    • University of Wuerzburg
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
    • Michigan Institute of Urology
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
    • University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom