[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter B6 (ABCB6) is highly expressed in megakaryocyte progenitors, but its role in platelet production and disease has not been elucidated.
Among various ABC transporters, ABCB6 was highly expressed in megakaryocyte progenitors, exhibiting the same pattern of expression of genes involved in heme synthesis pathway. Transplantation of Abcb6(-/-) bone marrow into Ldlr(-/-) recipient mice resulted in expansion and proliferation of megakaryocyte progenitors, attributable to increased reactive oxygen species production in response to porphyrin loading. The enhanced megakaryopoiesis in Abcb6(-/-) bone marrow-transplanted mice was further illustrated by increased platelet counts, mean platelet volume, and platelet activity. Platelets from Abcb6(-/-) bone marrow-transplanted mice had higher levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, which was associated with increased plasma chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 levels. There were also increased platelet-leukocyte aggregates, which resulted in leukocyte activation. Abcb6(-/-) bone marrow-transplanted mice had accelerated atherosclerosis which was associated with deposition of the chemotactic agent, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 in atherosclerotic plaques, resulting in increased macrophage accumulation.
Our findings identify a new role of ABCB6 in preventing atherosclerosis development by dampening platelet production, reactivity, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 deposition in atherosclerotic lesions.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although recent genome-wide association studies have called into question the causal relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease, ongoing research in animals and cells has produced increasing evidence that cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and HDL suppress atherosclerosis. These differing perspectives may be reconciled by a modified HDL theory that emphasizes the antiatherogenic role of cholesterol flux pathways, initiated in cells by ABC transporters. ABCA1 and ABCG1 control the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells in the bone marrow and hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cell mobilization and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Thus, activation of cholesterol efflux pathways by HDL infusions or liver X receptor activation results in suppression of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cell mobilization and extramedullary hematopoiesis, leading to decreased production of monocytes and neutrophils and suppression of atherosclerosis. In addition, macrophage-specific knockout of transporters has confirmed their role in suppression of inflammatory responses in the arterial wall. Recent studies have also shown that ABCG4, a close relative of ABCG1, controls platelet production, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis. ABCG4 is highly expressed in megakaryocyte progenitors, where it promotes cholesterol efflux to HDL and controls the proliferative responses to thrombopoietin. Reconstituted HDL infusions act in an ABCG4-dependent fashion to limit hypercholesterolemia-driven excessive platelet production, thrombosis, and atherogenesis, as occurs in human myeloproliferative syndromes. Activation of ABC transporter-dependent cholesterol efflux pathways in macrophages, hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells, or platelet progenitors by reconstituted HDL infusion or liver X receptor activation remain promising approaches to the treatment of human atherothrombotic diseases.
Circulation Research 01/2014; 114(1):157-70. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets have a key role in atherogenesis and its complications. Both hypercholesterolemia and increased platelet production promote atherothrombosis; however, a potential link between altered cholesterol homeostasis and platelet production has not been explored. Here we show that transplantation of bone marrow deficient in ABCG4, a transporter of unknown function, into Ldlr(-/-) mice resulted in thrombocytosis, accelerated thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Although not detected in atherosclerotic lesions, Abcg4 was highly expressed in bone marrow megakaryocyte progenitors (MkPs). Abcg4(-/-) MkPs had defective cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), increased cell surface expression of the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor (c-MPL) and enhanced proliferation. These consequences of ABCG4 deficiency seemed to reflect disruption of negative feedback regulation of c-MPL signaling by the E3 ligase c-CBL and the cholesterol-sensing LYN kinase. HDL infusion reduced platelet counts in Ldlr(-/-) mice and in a mouse model of myeloproliferative neoplasm in an ABCG4-dependent fashion. HDL infusions may offer a new approach to reducing atherothrombotic events associated with increased platelet production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Plasma HDL levels are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Although it is widely assumed that this is due to the ability of HDL to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, direct experimental support for this hypothesis is lacking. Objective: To assess the role of macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways in atherogenesis. Methods and Results: We developed MAC-ABC(DKO) mice with efficient deletion of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1 and ABCG1) in macrophages but not in hematopoietic stem or progenitor populations. MAC-ABC(DKO) bone marrow (BM) was transplanted into Ldlr(-/-) recipients. On the chow diet, these mice had similar plasma cholesterol and blood monocyte levels but increased atherosclerosis compared to controls. On the Western type diet (WTD), MAC-ABC(DKO) BM transplanted Ldlr(-/-) mice had disproportionate atherosclerosis, considering they also had lower VLDL/LDL cholesterol levels than controls. ABCA1/G1 deficient macrophages in lesions showed increased inflammatory gene expression. Unexpectedly, WTD-fed MAC-ABC(DKO) BM transplanted Ldlr(-/-) mice displayed monocytosis and neutrophilia in the absence of HSPC proliferation. Mechanistic studies revealed increased expression of M-CSF and G-CSF in splenic macrophage foam cells, driving BM monocyte and neutrophil production. Conclusions: These studies 1) show that macrophage deficiency of ABCA1/G1 is pro-atherogenic likely by promoting plaque inflammation and 2) uncover a novel positive feedback loop in which cholesterol-laden splenic macrophages signal BM progenitors to produce monocytes, with suppression by macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways.
Circulation Research 04/2013; · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The number of circulating blood monocytes impacts atherosclerotic lesion size and in mouse models, elevated levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) suppress blood monocyte counts and atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that individuals with mild renal dysfunction at increased cardiovascular risk would have reduced HDL levels, high blood monocyte counts, and accelerated atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test whether mild renal dysfunction is associated with increase in a leukocyte subpopulation rich in monocytes that has a known association with future coronary events, we divided individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDC) into baseline cystatin C quintiles (N=4757). Lower levels of renal function were accompanied by higher monocyte counts, and monocytes were independently associated with carotid bulb intima-media thickness cross-sectionally (p= 0.02). Cystatin C levels were positively and plasma HDL-C levels negatively associated with monocyte counts at baseline, following adjustment for traditional risk factors. Several amino acid metabolites tied to low HDL-C and insulin resistance measured in a subset of individuals (N= 752) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were independently associated with a 22-34% increased risk of being in the top quartile of monocytes (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A low HDL-C, insulin resistance phenotype occurs in subjects with mild renal dysfunction and is associated with elevated monocytes and atherosclerosis. High blood monocytes may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the strong relationship between cystatin C and cardiovascular risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high metabolic rate in myeloproliferative disorders is a common complication of neoplasms, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using three different mouse models of myeloproliferative disorders, including mice with defective cholesterol efflux pathways and two models based on expression of human leukemia disease alleles, we uncovered a mechanism by which proliferating and inflammatory myeloid cells take up and oxidize glucose during the feeding period, contributing to energy dissipation and subsequent loss of adipose mass. In vivo, lentiviral inhibition of Glut1 by shRNA prevented myeloproliferation and adipose tissue loss in mice with defective cholesterol efflux pathway in leukocytes. Thus, Glut1 was necessary to sustain proliferation and potentially divert glucose from fat storage. We also showed that overexpression of the human ApoA-I transgene to raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels decreased Glut1 expression, dampened myeloproliferation, and prevented fat loss. These experiments suggest that inhibition of Glut-1 and HDL cholesterol-raising therapies could provide novel therapeutic approaches to treat the energy imbalance observed in myeloproliferative disorders.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2013; · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocytosis and neutrophilia are well-established risk factors for atherosclerosis and seem to play a causative role in lesion development. Studies in mice with defects in cholesterol efflux pathways have identified novel roles for the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, ATP-binding cassette transporter G1, and apolipoprotein E in suppressing hematopoietic stem cell proliferation, mobilization, and the production of monocytes and neutrophils in the bone marrow. In addition, stem cell mobilization to the spleen initiates extramedullary hematopoiesis, which acts as a monocytic reservoir. Increased monocyte and neutrophil levels drive atherogenesis and its complications. Increasing high-density lipoprotein levels and cholesterol efflux can reverse excessive myelopoiesis and stem cell mobilization, suggesting a novel antiatherogenic effect of some forms of high-density lipoprotein elevation. After a myocardial infarction, splenic Ly-6C(hi) monocyte populations are sustained by a second wave of stem cell mobilization from the bone marrow and continue to enter atheroma, accelerating atherogenesis. Because activation of cholesterol efflux pathways can inhibit stem cell proliferation, mobilization, and monocyte production, this may provide a rationale for boosting high-density lipoprotein levels after a myocardial infarction to prevent reocclusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intact cholesterol homeostasis helps to maintain hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cell (HSPC) quiescence. Mice with defects in cholesterol efflux pathways due to deficiencies of the ATP binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 displayed a dramatic increase in HSPC mobilization and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Increased extramedullary hematopoiesis was associated with elevated serum levels of G-CSF due to generation of IL-23 by splenic macrophages and dendritic cells. This favored hematopoietic lineage decisions toward granulocytes rather than macrophages in the bone marrow leading to impaired support for osteoblasts and decreased Cxcl12/SDF-1 production by mesenchymal progenitors. Greater HSPC mobilization and extramedullary hematopoiesis were reversed by raising HDL levels in Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) and Apoe(-/-) mice or in a mouse model of myeloproliferative neoplasm mediated by Flt3-ITD mutation. Our data identify a role of cholesterol efflux pathways in the control of HSPC mobilization. This may translate into therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis and hematologic malignancies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukocytosis is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in humans and develops in hypercholesterolemic atherosclerotic animal models. Leukocytosis is associated with the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells (HSPCs) in mice with deficiencies of the cholesterol efflux-promoting ABC transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in BM cells. Here, we have determined the role of endogenous apolipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux pathways in these processes. In Apoe⁻/⁻ mice fed a chow or Western- type diet, monocytosis and neutrophilia developed in association with the proliferation and expansion of HSPCs in the BM. In contrast, Apoa1⁻/⁻ mice showed no monocytosis compared with controls. ApoE was found on the surface of HSPCs, in a proteoglycan-bound pool, where it acted in an ABCA1- and ABCG1-dependent fashion to decrease cell proliferation. Accordingly, competitive BM transplantation experiments showed that ApoE acted cell autonomously to control HSPC proliferation, monocytosis, neutrophilia, and monocyte accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. Infusion of reconstituted HDL and LXR activator treatment each reduced HSPC proliferation and monocytosis in Apoe⁻/⁻ mice. These studies suggest a specific role for proteoglycanbound ApoE at the surface of HSPCs to promote cholesterol efflux via ABCA1/ABCG1 and decrease cell proliferation, monocytosis, and atherosclerosis. Although endogenous apoA-I was ineffective, pharmacologic approaches to increasing cholesterol efflux suppressed stem cell proliferative responses.
The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2011; 121(10):4138-49. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common genetic variants in a 58-kb region of chromosome 9p21, near the CDKN2A/CDKN2B tumor suppressor locus, are strongly associated with coronary artery disease. However, the underlying mechanism of action remains unknown.
We previously reported a congenic mouse model harboring an atherosclerosis susceptibility locus and the region of homology with the human 9p21 locus. Microarray and transcript-specific expression analyses showed markedly decreased Cdkn2a expression, including both p16(INK4a) and p19(ARF), but not Cdkn2b (p15(INK4b)), in macrophages derived from congenic mice compared with controls. Atherosclerosis studies in subcongenic strains revealed genetic complexity and narrowed 1 locus to a small interval including Cdkn2a/b. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation studies implicated myeloid lineage cells as the culprit cell type, rather than resident vascular cells. To directly test the role of BM-derived Cdkn2a transcripts in atherogenesis and inflammatory cell proliferation, we performed a transplantation study using Cdkn2a(-/-) cells in the Ldlr(-/-) mouse model. Cdkn2a-deficient BM recipients exhibited accelerated atherosclerosis, increased Ly6C proinflammatory monocytes, and increased monocyte/macrophage proliferation compared with controls.
These data provide a plausible mechanism for accelerated atherogenesis in susceptible congenic mice, involving decreased expression of Cdkn2a and increased proliferation of monocyte/macrophages, with possible relevance to the 9p21 human locus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In some settings increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels has been associated with a reduction in experimental atherosclerosis. This has been most clearly seen in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) transgenic mice or in animals infused with HDL or its apolipoproteins. A major mechanism by which these treatments are thought to delay progression or cause regression of atherosclerosis is by promoting efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells. In addition, HDL has been described as having anti-inflammatory and other beneficial effects. Some recent research has linked anti-inflammatory effects to cholesterol efflux pathways but likely multiple mechanisms are involved. Macrophage cholesterol efflux may have a role in facilitating emigration of macrophages from lesions during regression. While macrophages can mediate cholesterol efflux by several pathways, studies in knockout mice or cells point to the importance of active efflux mediated by ATP binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and G1. In addition to traditional roles in macrophages, these transporters have been implicated in the control of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation, monocytosis and neutrophilia, as well as activation of monocytes and neutrophils. Thus, HDL and cholesterol efflux pathways may have important anti-atherogenic effects at all stages of the myeloid cell/monocyte/dendritic cell/macrophage lifecycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in High Density Lipoprotein Formation and Metabolism: A Tribute to John F. Oram (1945-2010).
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2011; 1821(3):513-21. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) via ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) modulates the interaction of caveolin (Cav) 1 and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS).
ABCG1 promotes cholesterol and 7-oxysterol efflux from endothelial cells (ECs) to HDL. It was previously reported that ABCG1 protects against dietary cholesterol-induced endothelial dysfunction by promoting the efflux of 7-oxysterols to HDL. Increased cholesterol loading in ECs is known to cause an inhibitory interaction between Cav-1 and eNOS and impaired NO release. In human aortic ECs, free cholesterol loading promoted the interaction of Cav-1 with eNOS, reducing eNOS activity. These effects of cholesterol loading were reversed by HDL in an ABCG1-dependent manner. HDL also reversed the inhibition of eNOS by cholesterol loading in murine lung ECs, but this effect of HDL was abolished in Cav-1-deficient murine lung ECs. Increased interaction of Cav-1 with eNOS was also detected in aortic homogenates of high-cholesterol diet-fed Abcg1(-/-) mice, paralleling a decrease in eNOS activity and impaired endothelial function.
The promotion of cholesterol efflux via ABCG1 results in a reduced inhibitory interaction of eNOS with Cav-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a leading cause of death worldwide because of its associated inflammatory disorders such as hypertension, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, and certain types of cancer. Adipose tissue expresses all components of the renin-angiotensin system necessary to generate angiotensin (Ang) peptides for local function. The angiotensin type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors mediate the effect of Ang II and recent studies have shown that both receptors may modulate fat mass expansion through upregulation of adipose tissue lipogenesis (AT2) and downregulation of lipolysis (AT1). Thus, both receptors may have synergistic and additive effects to promote the storage of lipid in adipose tissue in response to the nutrient environment. The production of angiotensinogen (AGT) by adipose tissue in rodents also contributes to one third of the circulating AGT levels. Increased adipose tissue AGT production in the obese state may be responsible in part for the metabolic and inflammatory disorders associated with obesity. This supports the notion that besides the traditional role of Ang II produced by the liver in the control of blood pressure, Ang II produced by the adipose tissue may more accurately reflect the role of this hormone in the regulation of fat mass and associated disorders.
Kidney International 10/2010; 79(2):162-8. · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of treatments with niacin or anacetrapib (an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein) on the ability of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to promote net cholesterol efflux and reduce toll-like receptor-mediated inflammation in macrophages.
A total of 18 patients received niacin, 2 g/d, for 4 weeks; 20 patients received anacetrapib, 300 mg/d, for 8 weeks; and 2 groups (n=4 and n=5 patients) received placebo. HDL samples were isolated by polyethylene glycol precipitation or ultracentrifugation, tested for the ability to promote cholesterol efflux in cholesterol-loaded THP-I or mouse peritoneal macrophages, or used to pretreat macrophages, followed by lipopolysaccharide exposure. HDL cholesterol levels were increased by 30% in response to niacin and by approximately 100% in response to anacetrapib. Niacin treatment increased HDL-mediated net cholesterol efflux from foam cells, primarily by increasing HDL concentration, whereas anacetrapib treatment increased cholesterol efflux by both increasing HDL concentration and causing increased efflux at matched HDL concentrations. The increased efflux potential of anacetrapib-HDL was more prominent at higher HDL cholesterol concentrations (>12 microg/mL), which was associated with an increased content of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and apolipoprotein E and completely dependent on the expression of ATP binding cassette transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1). Potent antiinflammatory effects of HDL were observed at low HDL concentrations (3 to 20 microg/mL) and were partly dependent on the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. All HDL preparations showed similar antiinflammatory effects, proportionate to the HDL cholesterol concentration.
Niacin treatment caused a moderate increase in the ability of HDL to promote net cholesterol efflux, whereas inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein via anacetrapib led to a more dramatic increase in association with enhanced particle functionality at higher HDL concentrations. All HDLs exhibited potent ability to suppress macrophage toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory responses, in a process partly dependent on cholesterol efflux via ABCA1 and ABCG1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated leukocyte cell numbers (leukocytosis), and monocytes in particular, promote atherosclerosis; however, how they become increased is poorly understood. Mice deficient in the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, which promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages and suppress atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice, displayed leukocytosis, a transplantable myeloproliferative disorder, and a dramatic expansion of the stem and progenitor cell population containing Lin(-)Sca-1(+)Kit+ (LSK) in the bone marrow. Transplantation of Abca1(-/-) Abcg1(-/-) bone marrow into apolipoprotein A-1 transgenic mice with elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) suppressed the LSK population, reduced leukocytosis, reversed the myeloproliferative disorder, and accelerated atherosclerosis. The findings indicate that ABCA1, ABCG1, and HDL inhibit the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells and connect expansion of these populations with leukocytosis and accelerated atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiatherogenic effects of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) include the ability to inhibit apoptosis of macrophage foam cells. The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 have a major role in promoting cholesterol efflux from macrophages to apolipoprotein A-1 and HDL and are upregulated during the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis).
The goal of this study was to determine the roles of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in preserving the viability of macrophages during efferocytosis.
We show that despite similar clearance of apoptotic cells, peritoneal macrophages from Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-), Abcg1(-/-), and, to a lesser extent, Abca1(-/-) mice are much more prone to apoptosis during efferocytosis compared to wild-type cells. Similar findings were observed following incubations with oxidized phospholipids, and the ability of HDL to protect against oxidized phospholipid-induced apoptosis was markedly reduced in Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) and Abcg1(-/-) cells. These effects were independent of any role of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in mediating oxidized phospholipid efflux but were reversed by cyclodextrin-mediated cholesterol efflux. The apoptotic response observed in Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) macrophages after oxidized phospholipid exposure or engulfment of apoptotic cells was dependent on an excessive oxidative burst secondary to enhanced assembly of NADPH oxidase (NOX)2 complexes, leading to sustained Jnk activation which turned on the apoptotic cell death program. Increased NOX2 assembly required Toll-like receptors 2/4 and MyD88 signaling, which are known to be enhanced in transporter deficient cells in a lipid raft-dependent fashion.
We identified a new beneficial role of ABCA1, ABCG1 and HDL in dampening the oxidative burst and preserving viability of macrophages following exposure to oxidized phospholipids and/or apoptotic cells.
Circulation Research 06/2010; 106(12):1861-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis has been characterized as a chronic inflammatory response to cholesterol deposition in arteries, but the mechanisms linking cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells to inflammation are poorly understood. Macrophage cholesterol efflux occurs at all stages of atherosclerosis and protects cells from free cholesterol and oxysterol-induced toxicity. The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 are responsible for the major part of macrophage cholesterol efflux to serum or HDL in macrophage foam cells, but other less efficient pathways such as passive efflux are also involved. Recent studies have shown that the sterol efflux activities of ABCA1 and ABCG1 modulate macrophage expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as lymphocyte proliferative responses. In macrophages, transporter deficiency causes increased signaling via various Toll-like receptors including TLR4. These studies have shown that the traditional roles of HDL and ABC transporters in cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport are mechanistically linked to antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive functions of HDL. The underlying mechanisms may involve modulation of sterol levels and lipid organization in cell membranes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased angiotensinogen (AGT) production by white adipose tissue has been related to not only obesity but also hypertension. Several studies have highlighted the importance of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) in the regulation of blood pressure and fat mass, but the relevance of this transporter in a physiopathological model of increased AGT production, as it occurs in obesity, has not yet been investigated. We used transgenic mice that display either a deletion of AT2 (AT2 KO), an overexpression of AGT (OVEX), or both compound mutants (KOVEX). Results demonstrated that adipocyte hypertrophy and increased lipogenic gene expression induced by adipose AGT overproduction was rescued by deletion of AT2. In line with AGT overexpression, KOVEX and OVEX mice have similar increased plasma AGT levels. However, KOVEX mice display a higher blood pressure than OVEX mice. In kidney, renin expression was clearly reduced in OVEX mice, and its expression was normalized in KOVEX mice. Taken together, we demonstrated that the loss of AT2 expression was sufficient to rescue obesity induced by adipose tissue AGT overexpression and confirmed the necessary role of AT2 for the onset of obesity in this model. Furthermore, despite a reduction of adipose mass in KOVEX, AT2 deficiency caused increased renin production, further worsening the hypertension caused by AGT overexpression.