Patrizio Rigatti

Lund University, Lund, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (683)2825.47 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate technical feasibility and oncologic and functional outcomes of three different surgical procedures of nerve-sparing radical cystectomy (NS-RC) for the treatment of organ-confined bladder cancer at a single referral centre. All consecutive cases of NS-RC carried out between 1997 and 2012 were retrospectively analysed. NS-RC included nerve-sparing cysto-vesicleprostatectomy (NS-CVP), capsule-sparing cystectomy (CS-C) and seminal-sparing cysto-prostatectomy (SS-CP). Peri-operative parameters and post-operative outcomes were analysed. Overall, 90 patients underwent NS-RC, 35 (38.9 %) of whom received a NS-CVP, while 36 (40 %) and 19 (21.1 %) underwent capsule CS-C and SS-CP, respectively. No difference was registered comparing oncologic outcomes of the three different techniques; however, two local recurrences after CS-C were attributed to the surgical technique. Complete post-operative daytime and night-time urinary continence (UC) at 24 and 48 months was achieved in 94.4 and 74.4 % and in 88.8 and 84.4 % of cases, respectively. CS-C showed both the best UC and sexual function preservation rate at early follow-up (24 months). Overall, a satisfactory post-operative erectile function (IIEF-5 ≥ 22) was proved in 57 (68.6 %) and 54 (65.0 %) patients at 24 and 48 months, respectively. Significant difference was found when comparing sexual function preservation rate of NS-CVP (28.5 %) to that of CS-C (91.6 %) and SS-CP (84.2 %). NS-RC for male patients accounted for 7.4 % of overall radical cystectomy. To a limited extent of the selected organ-confined bladder cancers treated, the three different procedures analysed showed comparable results in terms of local recurrence and cancer-specific survival. Both CS-C and SS-CP procedures provided excellent functional outcomes when compared to original NS-CVP.
    World Journal of Urology 01/2015; · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 50-year-old healthy man with early onset of micturition symptoms associated with an elevated total prostate-specific antigen. On physical examination, we found an enlarged prostate; a first-line ultrasound of the urinary tract revealed local disease which covered the entire small pelvis. A computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a 12.5 × 11.0 × 9.5-cm multicystic prostatic mass, compressing the bladder and pelvic ureters, associated with right hydronephrosis. Renal function was preserved and prostatic biopsies was negative for malignant disease. The mass was completely removed through transvesical approach and histological analysis diagnosed a low-grade phyllodes tumour of the prostate. The patient was free of local recurrence and metastasis 36 months after surgery.
    07/2014; 8(7-8):E561-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Although previous studies assessed the effects of Serenoa repens, quercetin and β-sitosterol on inflammatory parameters, no randomized studies have tested the combination of these agents neither on BPH symptoms nor on the inflammatory pattern. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effects of Difaprost® on voiding dysfunction, histological inflammatory alterations and apoptotic molecular mechanisms in BPH patients.
    06/2014; 66(2):119-25.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess external genitalia sensitivity and sexual function in adult patients affected by Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) and submitted to Passerini-Glazel feminizing genitoplasty at paediatric age compared with a control group of healthy counterparts. Inclusion criteria were: CAH, Passerini-Glazel feminizing genitoplasty, adult age, penetrative vaginal intercourse. Thermal and vibratory sensitivity of clitoris, vagina and labia minora were analyzed using the Genito-Sensory Analyzer (GSA). Psychosexual outcome was assessed with Beck's questionnaire for depression, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Matched analyses were performed to compare patients' outcomes with healthy medical students as control group. All statistical tests were performed using the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) - version 18.0 RESULTS: Twelve patients (12/120=10%) entered the study. Clitoral sensitivity, both thermal and vibratory, was significantly decreased in all patients compared with healthy controls (p<0.01). There was no difference in vaginal sensitivity, both thermal and vibratory. At FSDS 11 patients (91.6%) and 11 controls (91.6%,) described stable satisfactory relationship. All patients reported active sexual desire, good arousal, adequate lubrification and orgasm. No significant difference in FSFI global score and single domain scores was observed between CAH patients and healthy controls. Although clitoral sensitivity in sexually active patients treated with Passerini-Glazel feminizing genitoplasty is significantly reduced compared to controls, sexual function in those patients is not statistically and clinically significantly different from healthy counterparts. Finally, one-stage Passerini-Glazel feminizing genitoplasty seems to allow normal adult sexual function.
    The Journal of urology 08/2013; · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In surgically treated patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the progression-free survival (PFS) rate may significantly change according to the progression-free postoperative period. To test this hypothesis, we set to evaluate the conditional PFS rate in surgically treated patients with RCC. We evaluated 1,454 patients with RCC, surgically treated between 1987 and 2010, at a single institution. Cumulative survival estimates were used to generate conditional PFS rates. Separate Cox regression models were fitted to predict clinical-progression risk in patients who were progression free from 1 to 10 years after surgery. During the immediate postoperative period, the 5-year PFS rate was 88%, and it increased to 92%, 94%, and 97% in patients who remained progression free at, respectively, 1, 5, and 10 years after surgery. At multivariable analyses, where patients with stage I disease were considered as a reference, the highest clinical-progression risk was observed at the eighth postoperative year in patients with stage II disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.9) and during the immediate postoperative period in patients with stage III to IV disease (HR: 5.5). In comparison with patients with grade I disease, the highest clinical-progression risk was observed at the fourth (as well as eighth) postoperative year in patients with grade II disease (HR: 5.7), sixth postoperative year in patients with grade III disease (HR: 7.2), and during the immediate postoperative period in patients with grade IV disease (HR: 8.5). The postoperative progression-free period has an important effect on the subsequent clinical-progression risk. This aspect should be considered along with tumor characteristics to plan the most cost-effective follow-up scheme for surgically treated patients with RCC.
    Urologic Oncology 08/2013; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective In oncologic surgery, secondary lymphedema of male external genital organs and upper or lower limbs frequently develops as a result of excision or mechanical obstruction of collecting lymphatic trunks. We evaluated whether the short-term and long-term outcomes of microsurgical treatment of limb and genital organs improves tissue drainage in patients with secondary lymphedema by restoring the pre-existing lymphatic networks or through new lymphangiogenesis. Methods Of 110 secondary lymphedema patients, microsurgery was performed in 45 hospitalized patients. Patients were aged 25 to 75 years, had at least third-degree lymphedema, no satisfactory results from previous physical or pharmacologic therapy, without primitive neoplasia, at least 1 year since the last postsurgical adjuvant oncological treatment, and <15 years since the previous primary oncologic lymphedema development. A microsurgical lymphovenous shunt of the spermatic cord (n = 7), a lymphovenous shunt of the lower limbs (n = 32), or lymphatic grafting of the upper limbs (n = 6) was performed. The male external genitals were treated through an innovative lymphovenous shunt of the lymphatic collectors in the pampiniform plexus of the spermatic cord. For lower limb lymphedema, the lymphatics were shunted to the collaterals or saphenous vein. For upper limb lymphedema, a shunt was performed between the lymph vessels of the jugular-supraclavicular area and those in close continuity with the axillary region. The patency of the new lymphatic pathways was assessed using Photodynamic Eye (Hamamatsu Photonic K.K., Tokyo, Japan) lymphography. Results Six months postoperatively, 36 responding patients showed an almost complete recovery from secondary lymphedema. Lymphatic meshes, consisting of several lymphatic vessels merging into well-canalized and complex networks developing in the perianastomotic area or between the adjacent proximal anastomotic lymphatic collectors, were commonly observed in patients who positively responded to microsurgery. These complexes were never encountered in nonresponding patients or in normal, nonedematous tissue. Conclusions Long-term postsurgical recovery from severe secondary lymphedema requires canalizing the lymphatic collectors along their original flow pattern and developing perianastomotic meshes. Because this phenomenon can be observed with the same characteristics in different tissues, such as the spermatic cord and the inguinocrural, inguinoscrotal, inguinotesticular, and brachial regions, the development of meshes seems to reflect a generalized phenomenon of local lymphangiogenesis triggered by the microsurgical procedure.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders. 07/2013; 1(3):280–288.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that spatial distribution of positive cores at biopsy is a predictor of unfavourable prostate cancer characteristics at radical prostatectomy (RP) in active surveillance (AS) candidates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined the data of 524 patients treated with RP, between 2000 and 2012. All fulfilled at least one of four commonly used AS criteria. Regression models tested the relationship between positive cores spatial distribution, defined as the number of positive zones at biopsy (PBxZ) and tumour laterality at biopsy and two endpoints: (i) unfavourable prostate cancer at RP (Gleason score ≥4 + 3, and/or pT3 disease), and (ii) clinically significant prostate cancer (tumour volume ≥2.5 mL). RESULTS: Unfavourable prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer rates were 8 and 25%, respectively. Patients with more than one PBxZ had a 3.2-fold higher risk of harbouring unfavourable prostate cancer, and a 2.3-fold higher risk of harbouring clinically significant prostate cancer compared with their counterparts with one PBxZ (both P = 0.01). Patients with bilateral tumour at biopsy had a 3.3-fold higher risk of harbouring unfavourable prostate cancer and a 1.7-fold higher risk of harbouring clinically significant prostate cancer compared with their counterparts with unilateral tumour at biopsy (both P ≤ 0.04). Some of these results did not reach a statistically significant level, when the analyses were restricted to patients that fulfilled the most stringent AS criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Positive cores spatial distribution at biopsy should be considered, when advising patients about AS. The addition of this predictor to AS inclusion criteria can help identifying patients at a higher risk of progression, and reduce the rate of inappropriate surveillance of aggressive tumours. However, the most stringent AS criteria (namely John-Hopkins criteria and Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance criteria) might not benefit from the addition of this predictor. This point warrants further investigation in future studies.
    BJU International 06/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology 06/2013; 65(2):157-159. · 0.70 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2013; 189(4):e317. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background We set to assess the impact of stage migration in prostate cancer (PCa) on the evolution of the pN1 rate and tumor characteristics in pN1 patients over the last two decades.Patients and methodsWe evaluated 5274 PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy and anatomically extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) between 1990 and 2010. Year-per-year trends of clinical and pathological characteristics were examined. Logistic regression analyses addressed predictors of pN1.ResultsThe median number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed was 16.0. Overall, the pN1 rate was 13.8% and it decreased from 26.1% to 15.6% between 1990 and 2010 (P < 0.001). For the same period, the pN1 rate changed from 0% to 3% in the low-risk PCa, from 20% to 7% in the intermediate-risk PCa, and from 33% to 44% in the high-risk PCa (P ≤ 0.01). In pN1 patients, pre-operative cancer characteristics and the median number of positive LNs (three in 1990 versus two in 2010) did not significantly change overtime (all P ≥ 0.1). Year of surgery was not an independent predictor of pN1 (all P ≥ 0.06).Conclusion Based on ePLND outcomes, contemporary patients with intermediate- and high-risk PCa's still harbor a significant LNI risk. In consequence, stage migration does not justify omitting or limiting the extent of PLND in these individuals.
    Annals of Oncology 03/2013; · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the predictive ability of lymph node density (LND) and number of positive lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer and lymph node invasion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 568 patients with lymph node invasion treated with radical prostatectomy and extended pelvic lymph node dissection between January 1990 and July 2011 at a single center. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox regression models tested the association between the number of positive lymph nodes or LND and cancer-specific survival (CSS). The predictive accuracy of a baseline model was assessed using Harrell's concordance index and then compared with that of a model including either the number of positive nodes or LND. RESULTS: The median number of positive lymph nodes was 2, whereas the median LND was 11.1%. At 5, 8, and 10 years, CSS rates were 92.5%, 83.9%, and 82.8%, respectively. At multivariable analyses, number of positive lymph nodes and LND, considered as continuous variables, were independent predictors of CSS (all P≤0.01). A 30% LND cutoff was found to be highly predictive of CSS (P = 0.004), and a cutoff of 2 positive nodes was confirmed to be a strong predictor of CSS (P = 0.02). The number of positive nodes and LND similarly, continuous or dichotomized, increased the accuracy for CSS predictions (0.68-0.69 vs. 0.61 of baseline model). LND cutoff of 30% increased the discrimination the most (0.69; +0.083). CONCLUSIONS: The number of positive lymph nodes and LND showed comparable discriminative power for long-term CSS predictions. A cutoff of 30% LND might be suggested for the selection of patients candidate for adjuvant systemic therapy, because it increased the model's discrimination the most.
    Urologic Oncology 03/2013; · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements 03/2013; 12(1):e695. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • M. Roscigno, R. Naspro, U. Capitanio, R. Matloob, C. Carenzi, E. Di Trapani, F. Ceresoli, M. Nicolai, G. Deiana, P. Rigatti, F. Montorsi, L.F. Da Pozzo, R. Bertini
    European Urology Supplements 03/2013; 12(1):e173. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: α(1) -adrenoceptor (-AR) antagonists may facilitate ureter stone passage in humans. We aimed to study effects by the α(1A) -AR selective antagonist silodosin (compared to tamsulosin and prazosin) on ureter pressures in a rat model of ureter obstruction, and on contractions of human and rat isolated ureters. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: After ethical approval, ureters of male rats were cannulated beneath the kidney pelvis for in vivo ureteral intraluminal recording of autonomous peristaltic pressure waves. A partial ureter obstruction was applied to the distal ureter. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was recorded. Approximate clinical and triple clinical doses of the α(1) -AR antagonists were given intravenously. Effects by the α(1) -AR antagonists on isolated human and rat ureters were studied in organ baths. KEY RESULTS: Intravenous silodosin (0.1-0.3 mg kg(-1) ) or prazosin (0.03-0.1 mg kg(-1) ) reduced obstruction-induced increases in intraluminal ureter pressures by 21-37% or 18-40%, respectively. Corresponding effects by tamsulosin (0.01 or 0.03mg kg(-1) ) were 9-20%. Silodosin, prazosin, and tamsulosin reduced MAP by 10-12%, 25-26% (p<0.05), or 18-25% (p<0.05), respectively. When effects by the α(1A) -AR antagonists on obstruction-induced ureter pressures were expressed as a function of MAP, silodosin had 6 to 8-fold and 2.5 to 8- fold better efficacy than tamsulosin or prazosin, respectively. Silodosin effectively reduced contractions of both human and rat isolated ureters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Silodosin inhibits contractions of the rat and human isolated ureters and has excellent functional selectivity in vivo to relieve pressure-load of the rat obstructed ureter. Silodosin as pharmacological ureter stone expulsive therapy should be clinically further explored.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION.: Cyclic adenosine 3'5' monophosphate (cAMP) is produced by adenylate cyclase after activation by, e.g., vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). The cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is expressed in the vagina and clitoris, but no information is available on the functional role for PDE4-related signals in the female neurovascular genital response. AIM.: The aim of this study is to study the effect of inhibition of PDE4 with rolipram on nerve- and PGE1-induced vaginal and clitoral blood flow responses of rat. METHODS.: Measure of clitoral and vaginal blood flow and blood pressure in anesthetized rats during activation of the dorsal clitoral nerve (DCN) before and after intraperitoneal administration of rolipram or sildenafil (phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors [PDE5]) and nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). Effect by topical administration of PGE1 on genital blood flow was also evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE.: Blood flow was recorded as tissue perfusion units (TPU) by a Laser Doppler Flowmeter. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was recorded (cmH(2) O) in the carotid artery. Blood flow responses are expressed as TPU/MAP. Unpaired t-test and an analysis of variance were used. RESULTS.: Compared with control stimulations, rolipram (0.3 mg/kg) caused a twofold increase in peak blood flow (P < 0.05) and fourfold increase of the rate of clitoral blood flow during activation of the DCN (P < 0.05). Simultaneously, a twofold increase in peak blood flow and threefold increase in rate of blood flow were noted in the vagina (P < 0.05). Similar effects were noted for sildenafil (0.2 mg/kg) (P < 0.05). Inhibitory effects by L-NNA (60 mg/kg) on blood flow responses to DCN activation were significantly lower for rats treated with rolipram than with sildenafil (P < 0.05). PGE1-induced (10 μg) blood flow responses were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in rats treated with rolipram than with sildenafil. CONCLUSIONS.: These findings suggest that the cAMP/PDE4 system may be of similar functional importance as the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/PDE5 pathway for neurovascular genital responses of the female rat.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 01/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The ureteral involvement in deep pelvic endometriosis in usually asymptomatic and might lead to a silent loss of renal function. As a matter of fact, the diagnosis and the treatment modalities are still a matter of debate. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature review by searching the MEDLINE database for articles published in English between 1996 and 2010, using the key words urinary tract endometriosis, ureteral endometriosis, diagnosis and treatment. We found more than 200 cases of ureteral endometriosis (UE). Results: The disease most commonly affects a single distal segment of the ureter, with a left predisposition in most of the patients. Two major pathological types of UE may be distinguished: intrinsic and extrinsic. The symptoms are usually nonspecific and owing to secondary obstruction. The diagnosis has to be considered as a step- by-step procedure, starting from physical examination to highly detailed imaging methods. Nowadays, the treatment is usually chosen according to the type of UE, the site lesion and the distance to the ureteral orifice, with the use of JJ stents remaining a matter of debate. Conclusions: A close collaboration between the gynecologist and the urologist is advisable, especially in referral centers. Surgical treatment can lead to good results in terms of both patient compliance and prognosis.
    Urologia Internationalis 01/2013; · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Urinary incontinence is one of the most important morbidities after radical prostatectomy that has detrimental effect on the postoperative quality of life. The present study provides an accurate and dynamic multivariable risk stratification tool that predicts the postoperative urinary incontinence risk after radical prostatectomy based on patient-related as well as surgeon-related variables. OBJECTIVE: To develop a multivariable risk classification tool to estimate postoperative urinary incontinence (UI) risk as UI represents one of the most disabling surgical sequelae after radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 1311 patients treated with nerve-sparing RP between 2006 and 2010 at our institution. Regression tree analysis was used to stratify patients according to their postoperative UI risk. Kaplan-Meier curve estimates were used to assess the UI rate in the novel UI-risk groups. The discrimination of the novel tool was measured with the area under the curve method. RESULTS: At 3, 6 and 12 months, the UI rates were 44%, 26% and 12%, respectively. Regression tree analysis stratified patients into high risk (International Index of Erectile Function - Erectile Function domain [IIEF-EF] = 1-10), intermediate risk (IIEF-EF > 10 and age ≥ 65 years), low risk (IIEF-EF > 10, age < 65 years and body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m(2) ) and very low risk (IIEF-EF > 10, age < 65 years and BMI < 25 kg/m(2) ) groups. The 3-month UI rates in these groups were 37%, 43%, 45% and 48%, respectively. The 6-month UI rates were 19%, 23%, 29% and 34%, respectively. The 12-month UI rates were 7%, 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively (log-rank P < 0.001). The area under the curve was 71%, 70% and 68% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We developed the first risk classification tool that predicts patients at high risk of UI after RP. These consisted mainly of individuals who were impotent before RP, elderly and/or overweight. This tool can be used for patient counselling.
    BJU International 01/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
2,825.47 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2001–2013
    • Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1989–2013
    • San Raffaele Scientific Institute
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2012
    • Sant'Anna Hospital
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2010–2012
    • Università Telematica San Raffaele
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1990–2012
    • Ospedale di San Raffaele Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico
      • Dipartimento di Urologia
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1982–2011
    • University of Milan
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Biology and Genetics for Medical Sciences
      • • Institute of Human Physiology II
      • • Department of Biomedical Science
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2003–2010
    • Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2007
    • Université de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • University of Bologna
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Hamburg
      • Department of Urology
      Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany