[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW)>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm) and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm) were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74%) transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26%) transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65%) of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e90027. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to estimate the variability between buffalo as oocyte donors. In Experiment 1, reproductive variables were retrospectively analyzed in buffalo (n=40) that underwent repeated ovum pick up (OPU), over 16 puncture sessions (PS). The follicular recruitment among individuals and the relationship between follicular population and oocyte production were evaluated. In Experiment 2, eight buffalo underwent OPU for 28 PS and the oocytes were processed separately to correlate follicular and oocyte population at the first PS to blastocyst (BL) production. In Experiment 1, the average number of total follicles (TFL), small follicles (SFL), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) and Grade A+B COC recorded in each 4-PS period had great repeatability (r=0.52, 0.54, 0.60 and 0.57, respectively). The average number of Grade A+B COC recovered during the subsequent 15 PS was positively correlated with the first PS number of TFL (r=0.60; P<0.001), SFL (r=0.68; P<0.001), COC (r=0.48; P<0.01) and Grade A+B COC (r=0.40; P<0.05). In Experiment 2, a large variability among animals was observed in blastocyst yields. When animals were grouped according to the BL yield, the greatest BL yield group had a greater (P<0.05) number of TFL (8.3±0.9 compared with 5.6±0.7) and SFL (7.3±0.3 compared with 3.8±0.7) at the first PS than the lesser BL yield group. The average number of BL produced over the subsequent sessions was correlated with the number of TFL (r=0.80; P<0.05) and COC (r=0.76; P<0.05) observed at the first PS. These results demonstrated a donor influence on the oocyte and BL production, suggesting a preliminary screening to select the donors with greater potential.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brucellosis is considered the world's most widespread zoonotic infection. It causes abortion and sterility in livestock leading to serious economic losses and has even more serious medical impact in humans, since it can be a trigger to more than 500,000 infections per year worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Haematopinus tuberculatus, a louse that can parasitize several ruminants, as a new host of brucellosis. Louse specimens were collected from seropositive and seronegative water buffaloes and divided in 3 developmental stages: adults, nymphs and nits. All samples were separately screened for Brucella spp. DNA and RNA detection by Real Time PCR. In particular, primers and probes potentially targeting the 16S rRNA and the Brucella Cell Surface 31kDalton Protein (bcsp31) genes were used for Real Time PCR and buffalo beta actin was used as a housekeeping gene to quantify host DNA in the sample. A known amount of B. abortus purified DNA was utilized for standard curve preparation and the target DNA amount was divided by the housekeeping gene amount to obtain a normalized target value. A further molecular characterization was performed for Brucella strain typing and genotyping by the Bruce-ladder, AMOS-PCR and MLVA assays. Data were statistically analysed by ANOVA.
Brucella abortus DNA and RNA were detected in all developmental stages of the louse, suggesting the presence of viable bacteria. Data obtained by MLVA characterization support this finding, since the strains present in animals and the relative parasites were not always identical, suggesting bacterial replication. Furthermore, the detection of Brucella DNA and RNA in nits samples demonstrate, for the first time, a trans-ovarial transmission of the bacterium into the louse.
These findings identified H. tuberculatus as a new host of brucellosis. Further studies are needed to establish the role of this louse in the epidemiology of the disease, such as vector or reservoir.
BMC Veterinary Research 12/2013; 9(1):236. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the proteome profiles of the chorioamnion and corresponding caruncle for buffalo embryos that had either normal or retarded development on Day 25 after artificial insemination (AI). In experiment 1, embryos that were to subsequently undergo late embryonic mortality had a lesser width on Day 25 after AI than embryos associated with pregnancy on Day 45 after AI. In experiment 2, 25 Italian Mediterranean buffaloes underwent transrectal ultrasonography on Day 25 after AI and pregnant animals were categorized as two groups based on embryonic width: normal embryos (embryonic width > 2.7 mm) and retarded embryos (embryonic width < 2.7 mm). Three buffaloes of each group were slaughtered on Day 27 after AI to collect chorioamnion and caruncle tissues for subsequent proteomic analyses. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and MALDI-ToF/ToF mass spectrometer analysis were used to ascertain the proteomic profiles. To confirm 2D-DIGE-results, three selected proteins were analyzed by Western blot. The proteomic profiles of the chorioamnion of retarded embryos and the corresponding caruncles showed differences in the expression of several proteins compared to normal embryos. In particular, a down-regulation was observed for proteins involved in protein folding (HSP 90-alpha, calreticulin), calcium binding (annexin A1, annexin A2), and coagulation (fibrinogen alpha-chain) (P < 0.05) whereas proteins involved in protease inhibition (alpha-1-antiproteinase, serpin H1, serpin A3-8), DNA and RNA binding (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 and K), chromosome segregation (serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A), cytoskeletal organization (ezrin), cell redox homeostasis (amine oxidase-A), and hemoglobin binding (haptoglobin) were up-regulated (P < 0.05).
Biology of Reproduction 04/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Export Date: 27 November 2013, Source: Scopus, Art. No.: e80, doi: 10.4081/ijas.2013.e80, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Campanile, G.; Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria e Produzioni Animali, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Federico Delpino 1, 80137 Napoli, Italy; email: firstname.lastname@example.org, References: Bavister, B.D., Culture of preimplantation embryos: Facts and artifacts (1995) Hum. Reprod. Update, 1, pp. 91-148;
Italian Journal of Animal Science 01/2013; 12(4):492-496. · 0.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to ascertain whether relationships between corpus luteum (CL) vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes were consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season in a Mediterranean environment. Stage of the estrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes was synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed AI program and buffaloes were mated by AI in both the breeding season (N = 131) and transition period (N = 125). Detailed investigation of CL structure and function was undertaken in 39 buffaloes at each of the respective times using realtime B-mode/color-Doppler ultrasonography on Days 10 and 20 after AI. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined by RIA in all buffaloes. Pregnancy rate on Day 45 after AI was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding season (58.0%) than the transitional period (45.6%) and this was primarily the result of a lower (P < 0.05) late embryonic mortality during the breeding season (7.3%) compared with the transition period (23%). Circulating concentrations of P4 on Days 10 and 20 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (4.6 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2, respectively) than during the transition period (1.6 ± 0.12 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively), and this was independent of reproductive status as there was no interaction between pregnancy and season. Corpus luteum time average medium velocity at Day 10 after AI was greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (19.3 ± 1.5) than in the transitional period (8.3 ± 0.7). There were positive correlations in pregnant buffaloes between CL time average medium velocity and P4 concentrations on Day 10 (r = 0.722; P < 0.01) and Day 20 (r = 0.446; P < 0.01) after AI. The findings were interpreted to indicate that relationships between CL vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes are consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season. The distinction between the breeding season and the transition period is the relatively low proportion of buffaloes that have CL function and P4 concentrations required to establish a pregnancy during the transition period, which is manifested in a greater incidence of embryonic mortality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of season on in vivo oocyte recovery and embryo production in Mediterranean Italian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). For this purpose repeated transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick up (OPU) was conducted twice a week throughout autumn, mid-winter (transitional period) and spring-summer. The number and size of follicles was determined before puncture. The recovered oocytes were first classified in morphological categories and then used for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) according to standard procedures. The mean number of total follicles observed per session did not differ among the three periods we examined (on average 4.6). Although season did not considerably affect the number of oocytes recovered (on average 2.3/buffalo/session), the number of degenerated and abnormally expanded oocytes increased during autumn. Furthermore, the percentage of abnormally expanded oocytes significantly increased during autumn (6.1%) compared with both the transitional period and spring-summer (1.9 and 2.3%, respectively). Interestingly, the embryo output we recorded at day 7, in terms of tight morulae-blastocysts was higher in autumn (30.9%) compared to the other two periods (13.3% and 10.3%, respectively, in spring-summer and in the transitional period; P<0.01). The results of this trial demonstrated that the morphological features of the oocytes did not vary substantially among the considered periods, with the exception of degenerated and abnormally expanded oocytes. On the other hand, the oocyte developmental competence improved in autumn compared to spring-summer and the transitional period. This datum reflects buffalo reproductive pattern expressed in vivo at Italian latitudes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate whether minimizing the glucose concentration during culture or replacing the hexose with other energy substrates and/or embryotrophic compounds would affect the in vitro development, the resistance to cryopreservation and the sex ratio of bovine embryos. In vitro matured and fertilized oocytes were randomly assigned to 4 groups for in vitro culture, that differed in the energy substrates included: group A) 1.5 mM glucose, as in standard SOF; group B) 0.15 mM glucose; group C) 0.125 mM G3P, in the presence of 0.15 mM glucose and group D) 0.34 mM citrate, in combination with 2.77 mM myo-inositol. Blastocysts were evaluated on day 7, then vitrified by cryotop in 16.5% DMSO, 16.5% EG and 0.5 M sucrose and warmed in decreasing concentration of sucrose (0.25 to 0.15 M sucrose). The survival rates were assessed after 24 h in vitro culture. Finally, the blastocysts produced were sexed by PCR. An increased blastocyst rate was recorded in groups B, C and D, i.e., when glucose concentration was reduced, compared to group A (28.2, 41.0, 35.7 and 35.8, respectively in groups A, B, C and D; P < 0.01). However, the embryos cultured in group D showed the slowest developmental speed, indicated by the lowest percentage of advanced stage-embryos (expanded and hatched blastocysts) out of the total blastocysts (56.1, 45.8, 56.9 and 31.8 %, respectively in groups A, B, C and D; P < 0.01). Furthermore, survival rates after 24 h culture of vitrified-warmed blastocysts also decreased in group D (73.3, 73.1, 71.4 and 58.4%, respectively in groups A, B, C and D; P < 0.01). Interestingly, in group D a higher percentage of female embryos was obtained compared to group A, with intermediate values in groups B and C (45.6, 53.4, 50.0 and 61.5%, respectively in groups A, B, C and D; P < 0.05). In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the energy substrate during in vitro culture affects both the production and the viability of blastocysts. Furthermore, manipulating the metabolic profile of embryos during in vitro culture may have an impact on sex ratio.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this work were to evaluate whether the sperm penetration speed is correlated to the in vitro fertility and whether adapting the gamete co-incubation length to the kinetics of the bull improves in vitro fertility and affects the sex ratio. In vitro matured oocytes were co-incubated with spermatozoa from four different bulls (A-D). At various post-insemination (p.i.) times (4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h), samples of oocytes were fixed and stained with DAPI for nuclei examination, while the remaining ones were transferred into culture to evaluate embryo development. The blastocysts produced were sexed by PCR. Two bulls (A and B) had faster kinetics than the others (C and D), as shown by the higher penetration rates recorded at 4 h p.i. (43%, 30%, 11% and 6%, respectively for bulls A, B, C and D; p<0.01). The differences in the kinetics among bulls did not reflect their in vitro fertility. The incidence of polyspermy was higher for faster penetrating bulls (36%, 24%, 16% and 4%, respectively for bulls A, B, C and D; p<0.01) and at longer co-incubation times (0%, 16%, 19%, 30% and 34%, respectively at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h p.i.; p<0.01). The fertilizing ability of individual bulls may be improved by adapting the co-incubation length to their penetration speed. A sperm-oocyte co-incubation length of 8 h ensured the greatest blastocyst yields for the two faster penetrating bulls. On the contrary, 16 h co-incubation was required to increase (p<0.01) cleavage rate of the two slower bulls. Bulls with a faster kinetics did not alter the embryo sex ratio towards males. The female/male (F/M) ratios recorded were 2.1, 1.4, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6, respectively at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 h p.i.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals 04/2011; 46(6):1090-7. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy rates when compared with conventional nonsexed semen. Deposition of sexed semen into the body of the uterus, however, increased pregnancy rates significantly.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an Ovum Pick-up (OPU) treatment carried out for 9 months in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) species. Eight pluriparous non-lactating buffalo cows underwent OPU for 9 months. Recovered cumulus enclosed oocytes (COCs) were classified and COCs suitable for in vitro embryo production (IVEP) were in vitro matured (IVM), fertilized (IVF) and cultured (IVC) to the blastocyst (Bl) stage. Animals were monitored for a total period of 270 days, but at the summer solstice, follicular turnover decreased and at the 68-day of the trial, we decided to increase the OPU sampling interval from 3-4 to 7 days. It was therefore possible to distinguish two phases: a first phase (18 sessions), during which OPU was carried out twice weekly and a second phase (16 sessions) during which OPU sessions were performed weekly. This reduction did not modify the percentage of good quality COCs, while the incidence of grade D COCs decreased (P<0.01). Furthermore, embryo production was higher in the second phase, either if embryos were calculated on the total recovered COCs (8.3% vs. 21.4%; P<0.01) and on grade A+B COCs (13.0% vs. 32.1%; P<0.01), that supposedly should have given similar blastocyst yield. During the total period of the trial it was possible to distinguish a first period of 6 months (34 sessions) characterized by blastocyst production (0.36 blastocyst/buffalo/session), followed by an unproductive period of 3 months (12 sessions), during which embryos were not produced. During the first 6 months a higher (P<0.01) number of follicles (5.06 vs. 3.71), small follicles (3.38 vs. 2.07), total COCs (2.58 vs. 1.56) and good quality (A+B) COCs (1.51 vs. 0.94) per subject/session were recorded compared to the last 3 months. No Blastocyst were produced during the second period, even if the percentage of grade A+B COCs was similar to that recorded during the first period. In conclusion, buffalo cows submitted to repeated OPU sampling for a 9-month period, showed a decline of follicle recruitment and oocyte collection after the first two months of samplings. After 6-month of samplings, in spite of the quality grade of the collected oocytes, we found a drop in their developmental competence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At Italian latitudes, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a seasonally polyestrous species, showing an improved reproductive efficiency when daylight decreases (autumn). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the season on buffalo oocyte recovery rate, on oocyte quality, assessed on morphological basis, and developmental competence after in vitro fertilization. For this purpose, buffalo ovaries were collected from a local abattoir and the oocytes obtained by aspirating the follicles were evaluated, classified and, if considered of good quality, devolved to the different procedures of IVEP. In general, no differences were found in terms of oocyte recovery per ovary among seasons, but interestingly, the percentage of small oocytes was higher (P<0.05) during spring and summer (0.9±0.1 and 0.9±0.2) compared to autumn and winter (0.3±0.1 and 0.2±0.1). Both cleavage and embryo rate increased during the period from October to December (71.7±3.1 and 26.5±2.1, respectively) compared to the period from April to June (58.0±2.4 and 18.8±1.6, respectively), thus reflecting the in vivo reproductive behavior. Nevertheless, it is worth emphasizing that transferrable embryos were produced in vitro, even during the unfavorable season, but with decreased efficiency. In conclusion, these results suggest to avoid the oocyte collection during spring when planning OPU trials in order to save resources and improve the benefits/costs ratio.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate whether providing a support of cumulus cells during IVF of buffalo denuded oocytes submitted to vitrification-warming enhances their fertilizing ability. In vitro matured denuded oocytes were vitrified by Cryotop in 20% EG + 20% of DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose and warmed into decreasing concentrations of sucrose (1.25 M-0.3M). Oocytes that survived vitrification were fertilized: 1) in the absence of a somatic support (DOs); 2) in the presence of bovine cumulus cells in suspension (DOs+susp); 3) on a bovine cumulus monolayer (DOs+monol); and 4) with intact bovine COCs in a 1:1 ratio (DOs+COCs). In vitro matured oocytes were fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage as a control. An increased cleavage rate was obtained from DOs+COCs (60.9%) compared to DOs, DOs+susp (43.6 and 38.4, respectively; P < 0.01) and DOs+monol (47.5%; P < 0.05). Interestingly, cleavage rate of DOs+COCs was similar to that of fresh control oocytes (67.8%). However, development to blastocysts significantly decreased in all vitrification groups compared to the control (P < 0.01). In conclusion the co-culture with intact COCs during IVF completely restores fertilizing capability of buffalo denuded vitrified oocytes, without improving blastocyst development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review brings together information on ovarian physiology in buffaloes including folliculogenesis, ovulation, and the development and function of the corpus luteum. Features of embryonic development are also considered. The buffalo is classified as a short-day breeder but in equatorial zones can show oestrous cycles throughout the year provided that nutrition is adequate to maintain reproductive function. In sub-tropical zones and at higher latitudes, day length is often the major determinant of reproductive function including the occurrence of regular oestrous cycles, duration of oestrus, and the period to resumption of ovulation postpartum. Indeed, at higher latitudes buffaloes that give birth during the period of increasing day length may not show a resumption of ovulation until the following period of decreasing day length. This can have a major impact on the productive value of buffaloes and requires the development and utilisation of practical and effective assisted breeding technology for out-of-season breeding in buffaloes. Embryonic development in buffaloes occurs at a faster rate than in cattle and this has implications for the earlier establishment and functionality of the corpus luteum in buffaloes. It would appear that the interrelationships between the development of the early conceptus, corpus luteum function, uterine preparation, and maternal recognition of pregnancy, are more closely time-bound in buffaloes compared with cattle. The phase of embryonic attachment would seem to be a critical period for determining the reproductive outcome in buffaloes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous progesterone supplementation on superovulatory response in buffaloes that has undergone a multiple ovulation program. Fourteen Mediterranean buffaloes were divided into two groups and received a 4-day decreasing dosage of an equal mixture of 500 IU of FSH and LH starting on day 8 of the cycle. In group A (n = 7) a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device was removed on day 8, whereas in group B (n = 7) it was left till day 10, when PGF2alpha was administered. Eighty hours later, buffaloes were artificially inseminated and after 6 days they undergone uterine flushing. A higher (P < 0.05) number of corpora lutea (8.3 vs. 5.7) and embryo/flushing/buffalo (2.3 vs. 1.3) were recorded in group B vs. group A if responsive buffaloes are considered (n = 12) and the number of corpora lutea was highly correlated with the number of embryos (r = 0.65; P < 0.05). In conclusion, progesterone supplementation during the first 2 days of the superovulation treatment seems to enhance the recovery rate in buffalo species. A high ovulation rate, associated with a high number of corpora lutea, can represent a parameter for estimating embryo recovery.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 08/2010; 42(6):1243-7. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to check if two different recording systems utilized by AIA and a typical buffalo herd influence the lactation curve characteristics of dairy buffalo, such as peak yield and day to peak. Two different recording systems of milk yield data for 569 Mediterranean Italian buffalo primiparous farmed in the same herd were compared. The AIA’s system (RS1), consisting in monthly collections of individual milk yield data, and the pedometer system (Dairy Plan C21–Westfalia) (RS2), consisting in daily collections of individual milk yield data, were compared. Lactation curves were obtained with the Wood function (1967). The different estimates of peak yield and day to peak obtained from the data collected with the two systems, indicate that the type of system may influence these two characteristics. The lower coefficient of determination from fitting the Wood function to the data collected with RS1 compared to that of data collected with RS2, also suggests that the second system may be more accurate. However, cumulative milk yields estimated at 270 days of lactation did not differ between the two systems
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate cheese yield by using the chemical- physical parameters of the milk. Analysis were performed on 325 milk samples with 80-219 days in milk interval. Furthermore, buffaloes which showed a ratio between theoretical cheese yield (calculated by Altiero formula) and real cheese yield at 28 hours higher (Group A) or lower (Group B) than 0.983, were compared taking into account 5 hypothetical analytical potentialities of laboratories: 1) Fat percentage; 2) Protein and fat percentages; 3) Protein and fat percentages, pH and SH; 4) Protein and fat percentages, pH, SH, urea, protein percentage corrected per urea, lactose, solids-not-fat (SNF) and SCC; 5) Protein and fat percentages, pH, SH, urea, protein percentage corrected per urea, lactose, SNF, SCC, TAMF, milk DM percentage, ash percentage and casein percentage. Correlation and regression analyses with stepwise method were performed for curd quantity in relation to the physic-chemical ad microbiological milk composition by using SPSS 15.0. As expected, R2 value was such high as the number of variables included in the calculation. A higher R2 value was observed in those samples characterized by a ThCY/28CY ratio < 0.983. ThCY calculated according to Altiero et al (1989), underestimated 28CY of +1.8 g/litre in all samples, whereas a difference between –2.2 (Laboratory 2) and +1.0 (Laboratory 3) g/litre was registered if the actual formula is utilized. According to Altiero formula, 28CY was overestimated of 9.6 g/litre in Group A, whereas it was underestimated of 1.8 g/litre in Group B. According to our study, the estimation of 28CY showed a difference between –9.3 (Laboratory 2) and 9 (Laboratory 1) g/litre in Group A and – 3.5 (Laboratory 1) e 0.0 (Laboratory 5) g/litre.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of embryonic mortality in three different period of year in buffaloes naturally mated. The trial was carried out in a buffalo farm located in Caserta province between 2000-2006. In this period were registered natural insemination on 200 buffaloes. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out on Day 30, confirmed on Day 45 and every 15th days until 90 days after natural mating. Buffaloes that were pregnant on Day 30 but not on Day 45 or Day 90 were considered to have undergone embryonic (EM) or fetal mortality (FM) respectively. EM and FM were 8.8% and 13.4% respectively throughout the experimental period. A high incidence (P<0.01) of FM was found in the transitional period (December-March) than in other months of the year. The incidence of embryonic mortality was significantly (P<0.01) higher between 28-60 days of gestation and lower after 71 day of gestation. The higher fetal mortality found in this study could be due the lower serum levels of progesterone normally found in transitional period in buffalo cows.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The percentages of dry matter (DM), protein, casein, fat, lactose, solidsnot- fat and ash of milk and the characteristics of the curd (31 components and/or characteristics) were evaluated on 326 milk samples collected from 60 buffaloes every 50 days. The animals were half sib (same father or same mother ascertained by DNA test) and were bred in two farms. Relationships between the values of components and/or characteristics were also calculated. Significant relationships were found among DM percentage of milk and its components, cheese yield, curd characteristics, ratio between the studied cheese yields and protein percentage. Protein, casein and fat showed positive relationships, whereas lactose presented negative relationships. The association among proteins and real cheese yield or the dry matter of the curd that derived from 1 litre of milk (CDM), was lower than that with calculated cheese yield. This difference strongly decreased if proteins percentage, corrected for urea value, was utilized in cheese yield calculation. No relationship was found between proteins and urea in milk, but a direct relation was present between proteins and proteins adjusted for urea. This relation affects a correct estimation of cheese yield, because the percentage of true proteins in milk, corrected per urea was 4.52 vs. 4.64.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed on 21,622 lactation of Mediterranean Italian dairy buffalo recorded by AIA with ICAR standard from 1992 to 1996 in Caserta province. The extending of lactation was performed using integrative methods (Pilla et al., 1979), taking into account the effect of lactation number per day, calving order and month of calving. The results showed that the obtained coefficient was able to extending the lactation at 270 days with good approximation also beginning from a part –lactation of 90 days. In this case, the correlation coefficient between real and estimate milk yield varied from 0.91 to 0.93 in the considered groups. Moreover, the percentage of difference between real and estimated average milk yield is not over 5%.