[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are obligate intracellular parasites that infect species from virtually every major eukaryotic lineage. Several rickettsial genera harbor species that are significant emerging and re-emerging pathogens of humans. As species of Rickettsiales are associated with an extremely diverse host range, a better understanding of the historical associations between these bacteria and their hosts will provide important information on their evolutionary trajectories and, particularly, their potential emergence as pathogens.ResultsNine species of Rickettsiales (two in the genus Rickettsia, three in the genus Anaplasma, and four in the genus Ehrlichia) were identified in two species of hard ticks (Dermacentor nuttalli and Hyalomma asiaticum) from two geographic regions in Xinjiang through genetic analyses of 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL gene sequences. Notably, two lineages of Ehrlichia and one lineage of Anaplasma were distinct from any known Rickettsiales, suggesting the presence of potentially novel species in ticks in Xinjiang. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed some topological differences between the phylogenies of the bacteria and their vectors, which led us to marginally reject a model of exclusive bacteria-vector co-divergence.Conclusions
Ticks are an important natural reservoir of many diverse species of Rickettsiales. In this work, we identified a single tick species that harbors multiple species of Rickettsiales, and uncovered extensive genetic diversity of these bacteria in two tick species from Xinjiang. Both bacteria-vector co-divergence and cross-species transmission appear to have played important roles in Rickettsiales evolution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is recognized as an important human diarrheal pathogen. Swine plays an important role as a carrier of this pathogen. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of STEC from healthy swine collected between May 2011 and August 2012 from 3 cities/provinces in China.
A total of 1003 samples, including 326 fecal, 351 small intestinal contents and 326 colon contents samples, was analyzed. Two hundred and fifty five samples were stx-positive by PCR and 93 STEC isolates were recovered from 62 stx-positive samples. Twelve O serogroups and 19 O:H serotypes including 6 serotypes (O100:H20/[H20], O143:H38/[H38], O87:H10, O172:H30/[H30], O159:H16, O9:H30/[H30]) rarely found in swine and ruminants were identified. All 93 STEC isolates harbored stx2 only, all of which were stx2e subtype including 1 isolate being a new variant of stx2e. 53.76%, 15.05% and 2.15% STEC isolates carried astA, hlyA and ehxA respectively. Four STEC isolates harbored the high-pathogenicity island. Of the 15 adherence-associated genes tested, 13 (eae, efa1, iha, lpfAO113, lpfAO157/OI-154, lpfAO157/OI-141, toxB, saa, F4, F5, F6, F17 or F41) were all absent while 2 (paa and F18) were present in 7 and 4 STEC isolates respectively. The majority of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (79.57%), nalidixic acid (78.49%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.12%) and kanamycin (55.91%). The STEC isolates were divided into 63 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 21 sequence types (STs). Isolates of the same STs generally showed the same or similar drug resistance patterns. A higher proportion of STEC isolates from Chongqing showed multidrug resistance with one ST (ST3628) resistant to 14 antimicrobials.
Our results indicate that swine is a significant reservoir of STEC strains in China. Based on comparison by serotypes and sequence types with human strains and presence of virulence genes, the swine STEC may have a low potential to cause human disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene for New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) has been reported to be transmitted via plasmids which are easily transferable and capable of wide distribution. We report the isolation of two NDM-1 producing strains and possible in vivo transfer of blaNDM-1 in a patient.
Clinical samples were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing from a patient during a 34-day hospitalization. The presence of blaNDM-1 was detected by PCR and sequencing. Plasmids of interest were sequenced. Medical records were reviewed for evidence of association between the administration of antibiotics and the acquisition of the NDM-1 resistance.
A NDM-1 positive Raoultella planticola was isolated from blood on the ninth day of hospitalization without administration of any carbapenem antibiotics and a NDM-1 positive Escherichia coli was isolated from feces on the 29th day of hospitalization and eight days after imipenem administration. The blaNDM-1 was carried by a 280 kb plasmid pRpNDM1-1 in R. planticola and a 58 kb plasmid pEcNDM1-4 in E. coli. The two plasmids shared a 4812 bp NDM-1-ISCR1 element which was found to be excisable from the plasmid as a free form and transferrable in vitro to a NDM-1 negative plasmid from E. coli.
blaNDM-1 was embedded in an ISCR1 complex class 1 integron as a novel 4812 bp NDM-1-ISCR1 element. The element was found to be able to self excise to become a free form, which may provide a new vehicle for NDM-1 dissemination. This mechanism could greatly accelerate the spread of NDM-1 mediated broad spectrum β-lactam resistance.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e89893. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The sequences of the 16S rRNA genes extracted from fecal samples provide insights into the dynamics of fecal microflora. This potentially gives valuable etiological information for patients whose conditions have been ascribed to unknown pathogens, which cannot be accomplished using routine culture methods. We studied 33 children with diarrhea who were admitted to the Children's Hospital in Shanxi Province during 2006. RESULTS: Nineteen of 33 children with diarrhea could not be etiologically diagnosed by routine culture and polymerase chain reaction methods. Eleven of 19 children with diarrhea of unknown etiology had Streptococcus as the most dominant fecal bacterial genus at admission. Eight of nine children whom three consecutive fecal samples were collected had Streptococcus as the dominant fecal bacterial genus, including three in the Streptococcus bovis group and three Streptococcus sp., which was reduced during and after recovery. We isolated strains that were possibly from the S. bovis group from feces sampled at admission, which were then identified as Streptococcus lutetiensis from one child and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus from two children. We sequenced the genome of S. lutetiensis and identified five antibiotic islands, two pathogenicity islands, and five unique genomic islands. The identified virulence genes included hemolytic toxin cylZ of Streptococcus agalactiae and sortase associated with colonization of pathogenic streptococci. CONCLUSIONS: We identified S. lutetiensis and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus from children with diarrhea of unknown etiology, and found pathogenic islands and virulence genes in the genome of S. lutetiensis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a well-known pathogen as a cause of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used to determine genetic relatedness and epidemiological relationship of O157:H7. Little is known of genetic diversity of Chinese O157:H7 isolates and their relationships with global isolates. The minimum sets of 32 SNPs each from Manning et al. and Clawson et al. were used to type 325 Chinese O157:H7 isolates. The 64 SNPs divided the Chinese O157:H7 isolates into 5 SNP genotypes (SG-1 to SG-5). The most common SGs were SG-5 (79.69%) and SG-1 (14.46%). Human isolates concentrated in SG-1 and SG-5, and there is only 1 human isolates in SG-3. The 47 isolates in SG-1 were further divided by an additional SNP sourced from Xuzhou21 genome into 2 subtypes (SG-1.1 and SG-1.2). Strains in SG-1.1 caused the 1999 Xuzhou deadly outbreak. Our Chinese isolates have been found to belong to a limited number of SNP genotypes and are represented by distantly related clades in Manning et al. and lineages in Claswon et al., suggesting parallel spread of these SNP genotypes in China.
Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 03/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shigella flexneri is the major human pathogen causing shigellosis. O-antigens of all S. flexneri serotypes (except for serotype 6) share the →2)-α-L-Rhap(III)-(1→2)-α-L-Rhap(II)-(1→3)-α-L-Rhap(I)-(1→3)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→ basic O-unit, whereas differences between the serotypes are conferred by phage-encoded glucosylation and/or O-acetylation at various positions. Recently, in serotype X and 4a variants called Xv and 4av, respectively, O-antigen modification with phosphoethanolamine (PEtN) has been identified, which is encoded by a plasmid-borne gene (lpt-O) for a PEtN-transferase and confers the MASF IV-1 determinant to the bacteria. In this study, we elucidated the O-antigen structure of serotype Yv, another MASF IV-1-positive novel variant of S. flexneri. The serotype Yv O-antigen has the same basic carbohydrate backbone structure as that of the 'classical' serotype Y but differs in the presence of PEtN at position 3 of Rha(III) (major) or both Rha(II) and Rha(III) (minor). This pattern is similar to that of serotype 4av but different from the pattern of serotype Xv, which is characterized by major PEtN modification on Rha(II). In serotype Yv, mono- and bis-phosphorylated O-units generate a block-copolymeric structure, the former being partially O-acetylated at position 6 of GlcNAc and the latter lacking O-acetylation. Functional analysis revealed a correlation between the serotype-specific PEtN modification pattern and the lpt-O variation in different serotypes: lpt-O(RII) in serotype Xv is better tuned for phosphorylation of Rha(II) and lpt-O(RIII) in serotypes Yv and 4av for phosphorylation of Rha(III). These data enhance our knowledge on S. flexneri serotype conversion mechanisms and will help understanding the biosynthesis process of the new O-antigen variants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important food-borne pathogen that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. pO157_Sal, a novel conjugative plasmid is present in a Chinese O157:H7 outbreak strain Xuzhou21. Here we investigated the phenotypic and transcriptional differences between the wild type strain Xuzhou21 and the pO157_Sal cured mutant strain Xuzhou21m. RNA-Seq analysis found that all 52 ORFs encoded on pO157_Sal were transcribed. One hundred and sixty eight chromosomal and pO157 genes were differentially expressed (≥2 fold difference) between Xuzhou21 and Xuzhou21m. Sixty-seven and 101 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated respectively by pO157_Sal including genes related to stress response, adaption and virulence. The plasmid-cured mutant Xuzhou21m grew slower than wild type Xuzhou21 and pO157_Sal plasmid complemented strain Xuzhou21c in M9 medium under the condition of high NaCl or presence of sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), corroborating with the RNA-Seq data. Seven differentially expressed genes are associated with NaDC resistance, including the adenine-specific DNA-methyltransferase gene (dam), multidrug efflux system subunit gene mdtA, hyperosmotically inducible periplasmic protein gene osmY and oxidation-reduction related genes while two differentially expressed genes (osmY and pspD) are likely to be related to resistance to osmotic pressure. A number of differentially expressed genes were virulence associated including four genes encoding T3SS effectors from the chromosome and ehxD from pO157. Through complementation of Xuzhou21m with a plasmid construct carrying the pO157_Sal hha homolog we further showed that the pO157_Sal hha represses the expression of T3SS effectors. These findings demonstrated that the plasmid pO157_Sal affects the transcription of the chromosomal and pO157 plasmid genes and contributes to the enhanced ability to resist stress. We conclude that pO157_Sal plays an important role in regulating global gene expression and affects the virulence and adaptation of E. coli O157:H7.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e65466. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as important human pathogens of public health concern. Many animals are the sources of STEC. In this study we determined the occurrence and characteristics of the STEC in yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. A total of 728 yak fecal samples was collected from June to August, 2012 and was screened for the presence of the stx 1 and stx 2 genes by TaqMan real-time PCR after the sample was enriched in modified Tryptone Soya Broth. Of the 138 (18.96%) stx 1 and/or stx 2-positive samples, 85 (61.59%) were confirmed to have at least 1 STEC isolate present by culture isolation, from which 128 STEC isolates were recovered. All STEC isolates were serotyped, genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and characterized for the presence of 16 known virulence factors. Fifteen different O serogroups and 36 different O:H serotypes were identified in the 128 STEC isolates with 21 and 4 untypable for the O and H antigens respectively. One stx 1 subtype (stx 1a) and 5 stx 2 subtypes (stx 2a, stx 2b, stx 2c, stx 2d and stx 2g) were present in these STEC isolates. Apart from lpfA O157/OI-141, lpfA O157/OI-154, lpfA O113, katP and toxB which were all absent, other virulence factors screened (eaeA, iha, efa1, saa, paa, cnf1, cnf2, astA, subA, exhA and espP) were variably present in the 128 STEC isolates. PFGE were successful for all except 5 isolates and separated them into 67 different PFGE patterns. For the 18 serotypes with 2 or more isolates, isolates of the same serotypes had the same or closely related PFGE patterns, demonstrating clonality of these serotypes. This study was the first report on occurrence and characteristics of STEC isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China, and extended the genetic diversity and reservoir host range of STEC.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65537. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a major cause of zoonotic food- and water-borne intestinal infections worldwide with clinical consequences ranging from mild diarrhoea to hemolytic uraemic syndrome. The genome of EHEC O157:H7 contains many regions of unique DNA that are referred to as O islands including the Shiga toxin prophages and pathogenicity islands encoding key virulence factors. However many of these O islands are of unknown function. In this study, genetic analysis was conducted on OI-172 which is a 44,434 bp genomic island with 27 open reading frames. Comparative genome analysis showed that O1-72 is a composite island with progressive gain of genes since O157:H7 evolved from its ancestral O55:H7. A partial OI-172 island was also found in 2 unrelated E. coli strains and 2 Salmonella strains. OI-172 encodes several putative helicases, one of which (Z5898) is a putative DEAH box RNA helicase. To investigate the function of Z5898, a deletion mutant (EDL933ΔZ5898) was constructed in the O157:H7 strain EDL933. Comparative proteomic analysis of the mutant with the wild-type EDL933 found that flagellin was down-regulated in the Z5898 mutant. Motility assay showed that EDL933ΔZ5898 migrated slower than the wild-type EDL933 and electron microscopy found no surface flagella. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that the fliC expression of EDL933ΔZ5898 was significantly lower while the expression of its upstream regulator gene, fliA, was not affected. Using a fliA and a fliC promoter - green fluorescent protein fusion contruct, Z5898 was found to affect only the fliC promoter activity. Therefore, Z5898 regulates the flagella based motility by exerting its effect on fliC. We conclude that OI-172 is a motility associated O island and hereby name it the MAO island.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e64211. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plesiomonas shigelloides is one of the causative agents of human gastroenteritis, with increasing number of reports describing such infections in recent years. In this study, the hugA gene was chosen as the target to design loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of P. shigelloides. The performance of the assay with reference plasmids and spiked human stools as samples was evaluated and compared with those of quantitative PCR (qPCR). No false-positive results were observed for the 32 non-P. shigelloides strains used to evaluate assay specificity. The limit of detection for P. shigelloides was approximately 20 copies per reaction in reference plasmids and 5×10(3) CFU per gram in spiked human stool, which were more sensitive than the results of qPCR. When applied in human stool samples spiked with 2 low levels of P. shigelloides, the LAMP assays achieved accurate detection after 6-h enrichment. In conclusion, the LAMP assay developed in this study is a valuable method for rapid, cost-effective, and simple detection of P. shigelloides in basic clinical and field laboratories in the rural areas of China.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e41978. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The role of EHEC O157:H7-enterohemolysin (Ehx) in the pathogenesis of infections remains poorly defined. In this study, we used gene deletion and complement methods to confirm its putative functions. Results demonstrated that, in THP-1 cells, EHEC O157:H7-Ehx is associated with greater production of extracellular interleukin (IL)-1β than other cytokines. The data also showed that EHEC O157:H7-Ehx contributed to cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells, causing the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Although we observed a positive correlation between IL-1β production and cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells infected with different EHEC O157:H7 strains, our immunoblot results showed that the majority of IL-1β in the supernatant was mature IL-1β and not the pro-IL-1β that can be released after cell death. However, EHEC O157:H7-Ehx had no detectable effect on biologically inactive pro-IL-1β at the mRNA or protein synthesis levels. Neither did it affect the expression of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, or NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). RNA interference experiments showed that EHEC O157:H7-induced IL-1β production required the involvement of ASC, caspase-1, and NLRP3 expression in THP-1 cells. Our results demonstrate that Ehx plays a crucial role in EHEC O157:H7-induced IL-1β production and its cytotoxicity to THP-1 cells. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is also involved in EHEC O157:H7-stimulated IL-1β release.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50288. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrobacter freundii is an infrequent but established cause of diarrhea in humans. However, little is known of its genetic diversity and potential for virulence. We analyzed 26 isolates, including 12 from human diarrheal patients, 2 from human fecal samples of unknown diarrheal status, and 12 from animals, insects, and other sources. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis using XbaI allowed us to divide the 26 isolates into 20 pulse types, while multi-locus sequence typing using 7 housekeeping genes allowed us to divide the 26 isolates into 6 sequence types (STs) with the majority belonging to 4 STs. We analyzed adhesion and cytotoxicity to HEp-2 cells in these 26 strains. All were found to adhere to HEp-2 cells. One strain, CF74, which had been isolated from a goat, showed the strongest aggregative adhesion pattern. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released from HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of cytotoxicity, averaging 7.46%. Strain CF74 induced the highest level of LDH, 24.3%, and caused >50% cell rounding, detachment, and death. We named strain CF74 "cytotoxic and aggregative C. freundii." Genome sequencing of CF74 revealed that it had acquired 7 genomic islands, including 2 fimbriae islands and a type VI secretion system island, all of which are potential virulence factors. Our results show that aggregative adherence and cytotoxicity play an important role in the pathogenesis of C. freundii.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33054. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak in China in 1999 caused 177 deaths due to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Sixteen outbreak associated isolates were found to belong to a new clone, sequence type 96 (ST96), based on multilocus sequence typing of 15 housekeeping genes. Whole genome sequencing of an outbreak isolate, Xuzhou21, showed that the isolate is phylogenetically closely related to the Japan 1996 outbreak isolate Sakai, both of which share the most recent common ancestor with the US outbreak isolate EDL933. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced by Xuzhou21 and Sakai were significantly higher than that induced by EDL933. Xuzhou21 also induced a significantly higher level of IL-8 than Sakai while both induced similar levels of IL-6. The expression level of Shiga toxin 2 in Xuzhou21 induced by mitomycin C was 68.6 times of that under non-inducing conditions, twice of that induced in Sakai (32.7 times) and 15 times higher than that induced in EDL933 (4.5 times). Our study shows that ST96 is a novel clone and provided significant new insights into the evolution of virulence of E. coli O157:H7.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e36144. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surveys were carried out to better understand the tick vector ecology and genetic diversity of Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV) in both regions of endemicity and regions of nonendemicity. Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were dominant in regions of endemicity, while Rhipicephalus microplus is more abundant in regions of nonendemicity. HYSV RNA was found in human and both tick species, with greater prevalence in H. longicornis and lesser prevalence in R. microplus. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that HYSV is a novel species of the genus Phlebovirus.
Journal of Virology 12/2011; 86(5):2864-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic fever-like illness caused by a novel Bunyavirus, Huaiyangshan virus (HYSV, also known as Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia virus [SFTSV] and Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome [FTLS]), has recently been described in China.
Patients with laboratory-confirmed HYSV infection who were admitted to Union Hospital or Zhongnan Hospital between April 2010 and October 2010 were included in this study. Clinical and routine laboratory data were collected and blood, throat swab, urine, or feces were obtained when possible. Viral RNA was quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Blood levels of a range of cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins were assayed.
A total of 49 patients with hemorrhagic fever caused by HYSV were included; 8 (16.3%) patients died. A fatal outcome was associated with high viral RNA load in blood at admission, as well as higher serum liver transaminase levels, more pronounced coagulation disturbances (activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time), and higher levels of acute phase proteins (phospholipase A, fibrinogen, hepcidin), cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, interferon-γ), and chemokines (IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1b). The levels of these host parameters correlated with viral RNA levels. Blood viral RNA levels gradually declined over 3-4 weeks after illness onset, accompanied by resolution of symptoms and laboratory abnormalities. Viral RNA was also detectable in throat, urine, and fecal specimens of a substantial proportion of patients, including all fatal cases assayed. CONCLUSIONS. Viral replication and host immune responses play an important role in determining the severity and clinical outcome in patients with infection by HYSV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From April to July in 2009 and 2010, unexplained severe hemorrhagic fever-like illnesses occurred in farmers from the Huaiyangshan mountains range.
Clinical specimens (blood, urine, feces, and throat swabs) from suspected patients were obtained and stored. Mosquitoes and ticks in affected regions were collected. Virus was isolated from 2 patients and characterized by whole genome sequencing. Virus detection in additional patients and arthropods was done by virus-specific reverse transcription (RT) PCR. Clinical and epidemiological data of RT-PCR confirmed patients were analyzed.
An unknown virus was isolated from blood of two patients and from Haemaphysalis ticks collected from dogs. Whole genome sequence analysis identified the virus as a novel member of the family Bunyaviridae, most closely related to the viruses of the genus Phlebovirus within which it forms a separate lineage. Subsequently, infection was confirmed by RT-PCR in 33 of 58 suspected patients. The illness in these patients was characterized by fever, severe malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Prominent laboratory findings included low white cell- and platelet counts, coagulation disturbances, and elevation of liver enzymes. Hemorrhagic complications were observed in 3 cases, 5 (15%) patients died.
A novel tick-borne Bunyavirus causing life-threatening hemorrhagic fever in humans has emerged in the Huaiyangshan mountain areas of China. Further studies are needed to determine the epidemiology, geographic distribution and vertebrate animal ecology of this virus.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 03/2011; 32(3):209-20.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to the large virulence plasmid pO157, a novel 38-kb conjugative plasmid, pO157_Sal, was identified and sequenced from an Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak-associated Chinese isolate that shares high similarity with a plasmid in Salmonella enterica serovar Agona. The plasmid was found in 15 of 326 isolates, 12 of which were of the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type.
Journal of clinical microbiology 02/2011; 49(4):1594-7. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system serves to translocate folded proteins, including periplasmic enzymes that bind redox cofactors in bacteria. The Tat system is also a determinant of virulence in some pathogenic bacteria, related to pleiotropic effects including growth, motility, and the secretion of some virulent factors. The contribution of the Tat pathway to Vibrio cholerae has not been explored. Here we investigated the functionality of the Tat system in V. cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera.
In V. cholerae, the tatABC genes function in the translocation of TMAO reductase. Deletion of the tatABC genes led to a significant decrease in biofilm formation, the ability to attach to HT-29 cells, and the ability to colonize suckling mouse intestines. In addition, we observed a reduction in the output of cholera toxin, which may be due to the decreased transcription level of the toxin gene in tatABC mutants, suggesting an indirect effect of the mutation on toxin production. No obvious differences in flagellum biosynthesis and motility were found between the tatABC mutant and the parental strain, showing a variable effect of Tat in different bacteria.
The Tat system contributes to the survival of V. cholerae in the environment and in vivo, and it may be associated with its virulence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) systems transport folded proteins across the plasma membrane. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, we studied the assembly and spatiotemporal distribution of the Vibrio cholerae Tat translocase. The N-terminal (vn) and C-terminal (vc) fragments of yellow fluorescent protein were fused to TatB and TatC, respectively. Expression of TatB-vn and TatC-vc resulted in reconstitution of fluorescence and restored the Tat function of tat mutants. Immunoblots revealed that the TatB-vn and TatC-vc formed a stable complex. A TatC point mutation abolished the Tat function but did not impair formation of the TatB-vn-TatC(P49A)-vc complex. In contrast, deletion of 10 residues of TatC affected both Tat function and formation of the TatB-vn-TatC(Delta(52-61))-vc complex. Time-lapse experiments and deconvolution image analysis revealed that the functional TatB-vn-TatC-vc complexes distributed as dynamic foci with tendentious localization close to poles or a septum. This distribution is different from the reported cellular localization of the Sec translocase.
Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2008; · 3.91 Impact Factor