Lang Wang

Renmin University of China, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (24)83.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8), a transcriptional regulator in the IRF family, has been implicated in innate immunity, immune cell differentiation and tumour cell apoptosis. In the present study, we found that IRF8 is constitutively expressed in the brain and suppressed after cerebral ischaemia in a time-dependent manner. IRF8 knockout (IRF8-KO) mice, wild type (WT) mice, neuron-specific IRF8 transgenic (TG) mice and NTG mice were used in a transient cerebral ischaemic model. The IRF8 knockout mice exhibited aggravated apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative injury in the ischaemic brain, eventually leading to poorer stroke outcomes, whereas neuron-specific IRF8 transgenic mice showed a marked inhibition of apoptosis and improved stroke outcomes. To model ischaemia/reperfusion conditions in vitro, primary cortical neurons were cultured and subjected to transient oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) for 60 min. Similar to the in vivo study, IRF8 knockdown by Ad-shIRF8 resulted in increased apoptosis, whereas IRF8 over-expression by Ad-IRF8 significantly decreased neuronal apoptosis. These data indicate that IRF8 is strongly protective in ischaemic stroke by regulating neuronal apoptosis, the inflammatory response and oxidative stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2014; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is a leading global cause of mortality and disability. Less than 5% of patients are able to receive tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis within the necessary timeframe. Focusing on the process of neuronal apoptosis in the penumbra, which lasts from hours to days after ischaemia, appears to be promising. Here we report that tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) expression is markedly induced in wild-type mice 6 h after stroke onset. Using genetic approaches, we demonstrate that increased neuronal TRAF1 leads to elevated neuronal death and enlarged ischaemic lesions, whereas TRAF1 deficiency is neuroprotective. In addition, TRAF1-mediated neuroapoptosis correlates with the activation of the JNK pro-death pathway and inhibition of the Akt cell survival pathway. Finally, TRAF1 is found to exert pro-apoptotic effects via direct interaction with ASK1. Thus, ASK1 positively and negatively regulates the JNK and Akt signalling pathways, respectively. Targeting the TRAF1/ASK1 pathway may provide feasible therapies for stroke long after onset.
    Nature Communications 11/2013; 4:2852. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) is an adaptor protein of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor superfamily and plays important roles in regulating multiple signaling pathways. The role of TRAF5 in the context of brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not yet been examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was performed on TRAF5 knockout mice (KO), neuron-specific TRAF5 transgene (TG) and the appropriate controls. Compared with the WT mice, the TRAF5 KO mice showed lower infarct volumes and better outcomes in the neurological tests. A low neuronal apoptosis level, an attenuated blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption and an inhibited inflammatory response were exhibited in TRAF5 KO mice. TRAF5 TG mice exhibited an opposite phenotype. Moreover, the Akt/FoxO1 signaling pathway was enhanced in the ischemic brains of the TRAF5 KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: TRAF5 KO mice exhibited minor infarctions, low levels of neuronal apoptosis, an attenuated BBB disruption and an inhibited inflammatory response following cerebral I/R injury. These data demonstrate that TRAF5 is a critical mediator of I/R injury in an experimental stroke model. The Akt /FoxO1 signaling pathway probably plays an important role in the biological function of TRAF5 in this model. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry, J. Neurochem. (2013) 10.1111/jnc.12207.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second leading cause of death among adults worldwide. Mindin is an ECM protein that plays important roles in regulating inflammation, angiogenesis and neuronal outgrowth. The role of mindin in the context of brain ischemia has not been examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was performed on mindin knockout (KO) mice, mice that carried a neuron-specific constitutively active mindin transgene (TG) and the appropriate controls. The outcome of the ischemia was evaluated by examination of the infarct and edema volumes and by neurological score assessments. The brains were collected 24 hours or 3 days following the induced stroke. Compared with the control mice, the mindin KO mice exhibited lower infarct volumes and better outcomes in the neurological tests. Mindin-deficient mice exhibited low expression levels of stroke-induced inflammatory mediators, an attenuated recruitment of inflammatory cells, and inhibited activation of NF-κB. The neuronal apoptosis levels were also lower in the brains of the mindin KO mice than in those of the control mice. The mice that expressed a neuron-specific, constitutively active mindin transgene exhibited effects following the cerebral ischemic injury that were the opposite of those that were observed in the mindin KO mice. Moreover, Akt signaling activation was elevated in the ischemic brains of mindin KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: Mindin KO mice exhibited minor infarctions, an attenuated inflammatory response and low levels of neuronal apoptosis following an ischemic insult. These data demonstrate that mindin is a critical mediator of ischemic brain injury in an experimental stroke model. Akt signaling most likely mediates the biological function of mindin in this model of cerebral ischemia.
    Experimental Neurology 01/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of baicalein on metabolic syndrome induced by a high-fat diet in mice. The mice developed obesity, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, diabetes and insulin resistance. These disorders were effectively normalized in baicalein-treated mice. Further investigation revealed that the inhibitory effect on inflammation and insulin resistance was mediated by inhibition of the MAPKs pathway and activation of the IRS1/PI3K/Akt pathway. The lipid-lowering effect was attributed to the blocking of synthesis way mediated by SERBP-1c, PPARγ and the increased fatty acid oxidation. All of these effects depended on AMPKα activation. These results were confirmed in the primary hepatocytes from wild type and AMPKα2−/− mice. However, the IRS-1/PI3K/AKT pathway showed no change, which may be due to the time of stimulation and concentration. Thus, these data suggested that baicalein protects mice from metabolic syndrome through an AMPKα2-dependent mechanism involving multiple intracellular signaling pathways.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 10/2012; 362(s 1–2):128–138. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sinomenine, a pure alkaloid extract from Sinomenium acutum, has anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory functions. This study investigated the efficiency and the signalling pathways involved in the effect of sinomenine on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dedifferentiation in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB stimulation and vascular injury. VSMCs were isolated from rat aorta and preincubated with sinomenine before being stimulated with PDGF-BB. WST and BrdU incorporation assays were used to evaluate VSMC proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis was performed for testing the cell cycle progression. The cell migration of VSMCs were analysed using a Transwell system. The expression of VSMC specific genes and signalling proteins were tested by Western blot. For the animal study, C57/BL6 mice were fed either normal rodent chow diets or sinomenine chow diets that supplemented with 0.09 % sinomenine (w/w) in the normal chows for 14 days before carotid artery wire injury. PDGF-BB activated the dedifferentiation of VSMCs characterised by decreased expression of SMA, Smoothelin and SM22α. However, sinomenine treatment preserved the dedifferentiation in response to PDGF-BB. The activations of mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinases, Akt, GSK3β and STAT3 induced by PDGF-BB were also inhibited in sinomenine-treated VSMCs. In vivo evidence with wire-injured mice exhibited a reduction in neointimal area and an increase in smooth muscle-specific gene expression in the sinomenine-treated group. In this study, we found that sinomenine-suppressed VSMC phenotype switching induced by PDGF-BB in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo. Therefore, sinomenine is a potential candidate to be used in the treatment of vascular proliferative disease.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 10/2012; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation plays a critical role in the development of vascular diseases. In the present study, we tested the efficacy and the mechanisms of action of gastrodin, a bioactive component of the Chinese herb Gastrodia elata Bl, in relation to platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-dependent cell proliferation and neointima formation after acute vascular injury. Cell experiments were performed with VSMCs isolated from rat aortas. WST and BrdU incorporation assays were used to evaluate VSMC proliferation. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were used for the animal experiments. Gastrodin (150 mg/kg/day) was administered in the animal chow for 14 days, and the mice were subjected to wire injury of the left carotid artery. Our data demonstrated that gastrodin attenuated the VSMC proliferation induced by PDGF-BB, as assessed by WST assay and BrdU incorporation. Gastrodin influenced the S-phase entry of VSMCs and stabilised p27Kip1 expression. In addition, pre-incubation with sinomenine prior to PDGF-BB stimulation led to increased smooth muscle-specific gene expression, thereby inhibiting VSMC dedifferentiation. Gastrodin treatment also reduced the intimal area and the number of PCNA-positive cells. Furthermore, PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, Akt and GSK3β was suppressed by gastrodin. Our results suggest that gastrodin can inhibit VSMC proliferation and attenuate neointimal hyperplasia in response to vascular injury. Furthermore, the ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and Akt/GSK3β signalling pathways were found to be involved in the effects of gastrodin.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 08/2012; 30(5):1034-40. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect and associated cell signaling mechanisms of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and neointima formation in a carotid injury model. Our data demonstrated that I3C inhibited PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner without causing cell cytotoxicity, as assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and WST-1 assays. Further studies revealed that the antiproliferative effect of I3C was caused by the arrest of cells in both the G0/G1 and S phases. Moreover, I3C treatment inhibited migration of VSMCs and partly reversed the expression of smooth-muscle-specific contractile markers. We also demonstrated that I3C-induced growth inhibition was associated with an inhibition of the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, as well as an increase in p27(Kip1) levels in PDGF-stimulated VSMCs. These beneficial effects of I3C on VSMCs appeared to be at least partly mediated by the inhibition of Akt and the subsequent activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β. Furthermore, using a mouse carotid artery injury model, we found that treatment with 150 mg/kg I3C resulted in a significant reduction of the neointima/media ratio and cells positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. These results demonstrate that I3C can suppress the proliferation and migration of VSMCs and neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury via inhibition of the Akt/GSK3β pathway and suggest that this might be feasible as part of a therapeutic strategy for vascular proliferative diseases.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 07/2012; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase substrate-1 (SHPS-1), also known as Signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) or SIRPA is a transmembrane protein that is predominantly expressed in neurons, dendritic cells, and macrophages. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SHPS-1 in the oxidative stress and brain damage induced by acute focal cerebral ischemia. Wild-type (WT) and SHPS-1 mutant (MT) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (60 min) followed by reperfusion. SHPS-1 MT mice had significantly reduced infarct volumes and improved neurological function after brain ischemia. In addition, neural injury and oxidative stress were inhibited in SHPS-1 MT mice. The mRNA and protein levels of the antioxidant genes nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 were up-regulated in SHPS-1 MT mice. The SHPS-1 mutation suppressed the phosphorylation of SHP-1 and SHP-2 and increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β. These results provide the first demonstration that SHPS-1 plays an important role in the oxidative stress and brain injury induced by acute cerebral ischemia. The activation of Akt signaling and the up-regulation of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase 1 likely account for the protective effects that were observed in the SHPS-1 MT mice.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2012; 122(4):834-43. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3,3'Diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural phytochemical, has shown inhibitory effects on the growth and migration of a variety of cancer cells; however, whether DIM has similar effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of DIM on the proliferation and migration of cultured VSMCs and neointima formation in a carotid injury model, as well as the related cell signaling mechanisms. DIM dose-dependently inhibited the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs without cell cytotoxicity. This inhibition was caused by a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis. We also showed that DIM-induced growth inhibition was associated with the inhibition of the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 as well as an increase in p27(Kip1) levels in PDGF-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, DIM was also found to modulate migration of VSMCs and smooth muscle-specific contractile marker expression. Mechanistically, DIM negatively modulated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-recptorβ (PDGF-Rβ) and the activities of downstream signaling molecules including Akt/glycogen synthase kinase(GSK)3β, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Our in vivo studies using a mouse carotid arterial injury model revealed that treatment with 150 mg/kg DIM resulted in significant reduction of the neointima/media ratio and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, without affecting apoptosis of vascular cells and reendothelialization. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was also inhibited by DIM administration. These results demonstrate that DIM can suppress the phenotypic modulation of VSMCs and neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury. These beneficial effects on VSMCs were at least partly mediated by the inhibition of PDGF-Rβ and the activities of downstream signaling pathways. The results suggest that DIM has the potential to be a candidate for the prevention of restenosis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34957. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal proliferation, migration, and phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are critical factors in neointima formation during restenosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and possible cell signaling mechanisms of apigenin in VSMC activation induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and injury-induced neointima formation. Our data revealed a dose-dependent apigenin inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs by arresting cells in G0/G1-phase of the cell cycle as determined using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and flow cytometry. This was associated with the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4,6 expression and an increase in p27Kip1 levels in PDGF-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, apigenin was also found to regulate PDGF-induced migration and expression of smooth-muscle-specific contractile markers. Mechanistically, the PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-receptor β (PDGF-Rβ), Akt/glycogen synthase kinase(GSK)3β, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is negatively modulated by apigenin. For the in vivo studies using a mouse carotid arterial injury model, the administration of apigenin resulted in a significant inhibition of the neointima/media ratio and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells. These results demonstrate that apigenin can suppress PDGF-induced VSMC activation and neointima hyperplasia after vascular injury; these beneficial effects are probably the result of the blockade of PDGF-Rβ phosphorylation and its downstream signal transduction, including the Akt/GSK-3β, ERK1/2, and STAT3 pathways. The results suggest that apigenin may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the prevention of restenosis.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 11/2011; 113(4):1198-207. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to promote neovascularization in ischemic diseases. Recent evidence from our group suggested that CREB-binding protein (CBP) plays an important role in thrombin-induced EPCs migration. However, whether CBP could regulate EPCs angiogenic properties is unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether CBP silencing could inhibit thrombin-induced EPCs angiogenesis. EPCs isolated from the bone marrow of Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured and identified, and then were treated by thrombin alone or combined with CBP-shRNA lentivirus. The effect of CBP silencing on EPCs proliferation was assessed using BrdU incorporation assay. Cell adhesion and tube formation were detected to evaluate the angiogenic functions. Finally, mRNA and protein expression of relevant angiogenic genes were examined by real-time PCR, western-blot, and enzyme-linked immunoassay respectively. Luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to evaluate NF-κB activity. Administration of thrombin significantly promoted EPCs proliferation and adhesion. Thrombin also increased the tube formation in Matrigel assay. However, these effects of thrombin were abolished by CBP gene silencing. CBP silencing also abrogated thrombin-induced increases of integrin β2 expression. In thrombin-induced EPCs, CBP silencing significantly decreased the secretion of VEGF, IL-6 and suppressed NF-κB activity. In conclusion, thrombin-induced EPCs proliferation, adhesion, and tube formation were inhibited by CBP silencing, indicating that CBP plays an important role in thrombin-induced EPCs neovascularization.
    Molecular Biology Reports 06/2011; 39(3):2773-9. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombin acts as a potent mitogenic factor for ECs (endothelial cells) by the release of several growth factors, including PDGF-B (platelet-derived growth factor-B). CBP (CREB-binding protein), which functions as a transcriptional coactivator, links the changes in the extracellular stimuli with alterations in gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that CBP could mediate thrombin-induced proliferation of ECs via PDGF-B-dependent way. Short hairpin RNA was used to down-regulate the expression of CBP in ECs. CBP and PDGF-B levels were analysed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. To evaluate ECs proliferation, cell cycle and DNA synthesis were analysed by flow cytometry and BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) incorporation assay, respectively. PDGF-B was involved in the mitogenic effect of thrombin on ECs. Down-regulation of CBP attenuated ECs proliferation and inhibited cell cycle progression induced by thrombin. Silencing CBP expression also suppressed thrombin-induced PDGF-B expression in ECs. Mitogenic activity of thrombin was impaired by silencing CBP expression in ECs. This inhibitory effect was, in part, related to the inability to up-regulate PDGF-B expression in ECs. CBP could be regarded as a potential therapeutic target for vascular injury.
    Cell Biology International 12/2010; 34(12):1155-61. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 11/2010; 49(8):1323.
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    ABSTRACT: Breviscapine is a mixture of flavonoid glycosides extracted from the Chinese herbs. Previous studies have shown that breviscapine possesses comprehensive pharmacological functions. However, very little is known about whether breviscapine have protective role on cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of the present study was to determine whether breviscapine attenuates cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in vitro and pressure-overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice in vivo. Our data demonstrated that breviscapine (2.5-15 microM) dose-dependently blocked cardiac hypertrophy induced by Ang II (1 microM) in vitro. The results further revealed that breviscapine (50 mg/kg/day) prevented cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic banding as assessed by heart weight/body weight and lung weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic parameters, and gene expression of hypertrophic markers. The inhibitory effect of breviscapine on cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by disrupting PKC-alpha-dependent ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling. Further studies showed that breviscapine inhibited inflammation by blocking NF-kappaB signaling, and attenuated fibrosis and collagen synthesis through abrogating Smad2/3 signaling. Therefore, these findings indicate that breviscapine, which is a potentially safe and inexpensive therapy for clinical use, has protective potential in targeting cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through suppression of PKC-alpha-dependent signaling.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/2010; 109(6):1158-71. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetrandrine, a well-known naturally occurring calcium antagonist with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-fibrogenetic activities, has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and arrhythmia. However, little is known about the effect of tetrandrine on cardiac hypertrophy. The aims of the present study were to determine whether tetrandrine could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Tetrandrine (50 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) was administered by oral gavage three times a day for one week and then the mice were subjected to either chronic pressure overload generated by aortic banding (AB) or sham surgery (control group). Cardiac function was determined by echocardiography. Tetrandrine attenuated the cardiac hypertrophy induced by AB, as assessed by heart weight/body weight and lung weight/body weight ratios, cardiac dilatation and the expression of genes of hypertrophic markers. Tetrandrine also inhibited fibrosis and attenuated the inflammatory response. The cardioprotective effects of tetrandrine were mediated by blocking the increased production of reactive oxygen species and the activation of ERK1/2-dependent nuclear factor-kappaB and nuclear factor of activated T cells that occur in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Taken together, our results suggest that tetrandrine can improve cardiac function and prevent the development of cardiac hypertrophy by suppressing the reactive oxygen species-dependent ERK1/2 signalling pathway.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2010; 159(4):970-81. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Since allicin suppresses oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo, we hypothesized that allicin would inhibit cardiac hypertrophy through blocking oxidative stress-dependent signaling. We examined this hypothesis using primary cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts and one well-established animal model of cardiac hypertrophy. Our results showed that allicin markedly inhibited hypertrophic responses induced by Ang II or pressure overload. The increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase activity were significantly suppressed by allicin. Our further investigation revealed this inhibitory effect on cardiac hypertrophy was mediated by blocking the activation of ROS-dependent ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways. Additional experiments demonstrated allicin abrogated inflammation and fibrosis by blocking the activation of nuclear factor-κB and Smad 2/3 signaling, respectively. The combination of these effects resulted in preserved cardiac function in response to cardiac stimuli. Consequently, these findings indicated that allicin protected cardiac function and prevented the development of cardiac hypertrophy through ROS-dependent mechanism involving multiple intracellular signaling.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 02/2010; 21(12):1238-50. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important role in the development and progression of diabetes and related vascular complications. Therefore, blocking the production of ROS will be able to improve hyperglycemia-induced vascular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) could protect against hyperproliferation of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by high glucose (HG) and determine the related molecular mechanisms. Our data demonstrated that GSPs markedly inhibited rat VSMCs proliferation as well as ROS generation and NAPDH oxidase activity induced by HG treatment. Further studies revealed that HG treatment resulted in phosphorylation and membrane translocation of Rac1, p47phox, and p67phox subunits leading to NADPH oxidase activation. GSPs treatment remarkably disrupted the phosphorylation and membrane translocation of Rac1, p47phox, and p67phox subunits. More importantly, our data further revealed that GSPs significantly disrupted HG-induced activation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and PI3K/AKT/GSK3beta as well as NF-kappaB signalings, which were dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Rac1 activation. In addition, our results also demonstrated that HG-induced cell proliferation and excess ROS production was dependent on the activation of PI3 kinase subunit p110alpha. Collectively, these results suggest that HG-induced VSMC growth was attenuated by grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPs) treatment through blocking PI3 kinase-dependent signaling pathway, indicating that GSPs may be useful in retarding intimal hyperplasia and restenosis in diabetic vessels.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 02/2010; 223(3):713-26. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Cell Biology International - CELL BIOL INT. 01/2010; 34(8).
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    ABSTRACT: LIM domain proteins are important regulators in cell growth, cell fate determination, cell differentiation, and remodeling of the cell cytoskeleton. LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1 (Lmcd1) is a novel protein that contain 2 LIM domains with regular spacing in the carboxy-terminal region. However, its roles in cardiac growth remain unknown. Here, we investigated whether Lmcd1 regulates cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We used primary cultured cardiac myocytes and cardiac-specific Lmcd1 transgenic mice. In wild-type mice subjected to the aortic banding, cardiac hypertrophy was evident at 8 weeks. In transgenic mice, however, cardiac hypertrophy was significantly greater than that in wild-type mice, as estimated by heart weight:body weight ratio, cardiomyocyte area, and echocardiographic measurements, as well as cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide mRNA and protein levels. Our results further showed that cardiac fibrosis observed in wild-type aortic banding mice was augmented in transgenic aortic banding mice. Importantly, calcineurin activity and nuclear factor of activated T cells activation level were increased more in transgenic mice than those in wild-type mice after 8-week aortic banding. In vitro experiments in cardiac myocytes further revealed that angiotensin II-induced calcineurin activity and nuclear factor of activated T cells activation were enhanced by overexpression but blunted by downregulation of Lmcd1. In conclusion, our results suggest that Lmcd1 plays a critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy via activation of calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling pathway.
    Hypertension 12/2009; 55(2):257-63. · 6.87 Impact Factor