[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a common echocardiographic finding that has been related to adverse outcome under various clinical scenarios. Nevertheless, evidence supporting its prognostic value in heart failure (HF) is scarce, and, in most cases, contradictory. We evaluated the association of TR grade with 1-year all-cause mortality in acute HF (AHF).Methods and Results:We included 1,842 consecutive patients admitted for AHF. Mean age was 72.8±11.3 years, 51% were female and 45.5% had LVEF <50%. The severity of TR was graded in non-TR, mild (1), moderate (2), moderate-severe (3) and severe (4). At 1-year follow-up, 370 patients (20.1%) had died. In patients with LVEF ≥50%, a significant and positive association between TR severity and mortality was noted. Indeed, the HR for mortality for TR 3 and 4 vs. no TR/TR 1 were as follows: hazard ratios (HR), 1.68; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.08-2.60, P=0.02; and HR, 2.87; 95% CI: 1.61-5.09, P<0.001, respectively. In contrast, no association between TR grade and mortality (P=0.650) was observed in patients with LVEF <50% (P-value for interaction=0.033).
A differential prognostic effect of TR severity on 1-year mortality was observed for LVEF HF status. The association was significant only in patients with LVEF ≥50%, with increasing mortality risk as TR became more severe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally, procalcitonin (PCT) is considered a diagnostic marker of bacterial infections. However, slightly elevated levels of PCT have also been found in patients with heart failure. In this context, it has been suggested that PCT may serve as a proxy for underrecognized infection, endotoxemia, or heightened proinflammatory activity. Nevertheless, the clinical utility of PCT in this setting is scarce. We aimed to evaluate the association between PCT and the risk of long-term outcomes.
European Journal of Internal Medicine 01/2015; 26(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2014.12.009 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Fluid overload is a hallmark in acute heart failure (AHF). Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a noninvasive method for quantifying patients' hydration. We aimed to evaluate the effect of BIVA hydration status (BHS) measured before discharge on mortality and rehospitalization for AHF. Methods: We included 369 consecutive patients discharged from the cardiology department from a third-level hospital with a diagnosis of AHF. On the basis of BHS, patients were grouped into three categories: hyper-hydration (>74.3%), normo-hydration (72.7-74.3%) and dehydration (<72.7%). Appropriate survival techniques were used to evaluate the association between BHS and the risk of death and readmission for AHF. Results: At a median follow-up of 12 months (interquartile range, IQR: 5-19), 80 (21.7%) deaths and 93 (25.2%) readmissions for AHF were registered. The mortality and readmission rates for the BHS categories were hyper-hydration (3.28 and 3.83 per 10 persons-years); normo-hydration (1.43 and 2.68 per 10 persons-years); and dehydration (2.24 and 2.53 per 10 persons-years) (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). In an adjusted analysis, BHS displayed a significant association with mortality (P = 0.004), with a higher mortality risk in those with hyperhydration. Likewise, BHS showed to linearly predict AHF-readmission risk [hazard ratio 1.06 (1.03-1.10); P = 0.001 per increase in 1%]. Conclusion: In patients admitted with AHF, BHS assessed before discharge was independently associated with the risk of death and AHF-readmission. Copyright
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 10/2014; DOI:10.2459/JCM.0000000000000208 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The changes in renal function that occurred in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are prevalent, and have multifactorial etiology and dissimilar prognosis. To what extent the prognostic role of such changes may vary according to the presence of renal insufficiency at admission is not clear. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether early creatinine changes (ΔCr) (admission to 48-72 hours) had an effect on 1-year mortality relative to the presence of renal insufficiency at admission.
European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care 07/2014; DOI:10.1177/2048872614540094
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Tissue Doppler–derived transmitral to mitral annular early diastolic velocity ratio (E/Ea), as a noninvasive estimation of left ventricular (LV) filling pressures, is a strong prognosticator in various cardiac scenarios including chronic heart failure; nevertheless, its utility for risk stratification in the whole spectrum of acute heart failure (AHF) patients remains elusive. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the association between E/Ea ratio and 1-year mortality in nonselected patients with AHF.Methods
The study included 417 consecutive patients admitted for AHF. Twenty-two patients were excluded due to nonaccurate Ea measurements, leaving the final sample to be 395 patients. E-wave, septal, and lateral Ea velocities were measured following initial stabilization and according to current recommendations. The association of mean E/Ea ratio with all-cause mortality was assessed using Cox regression analysis.ResultsAt a median follow-up of 306 days (interquartile range, 118–564), 89 deaths (22.5%) were registered. Mean age and E/Ea ratio were 72 ± 11.5 and 20 ± 3. Proportion of LV ejection fraction ≥50% was 47%. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for well-known prognostic factors, including natriuretic peptides, E/Ea ratio was linearly associated with an increase risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03–1.05; P < 0.001, per increase in one unit of E/Ea). The threshold of risk was identified above 20. No significant interactions among the most important subgroups were found.Conclusion
In AHF patients, tissue Doppler imaging derived E/Ea ratio is independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of loop diuretics in acute heart failure (AHF) is largely empirical and has been associated with renal function impairment by reducing renal perfusion but also renal improvement by decreasing renal venous congestion. Antigen carbohydrate 125 (CA125) has emerged as a proxy for fluid overload. We sought to evaluate whether the early changes in creatinine (ΔCr) induced by intravenous furosemide doses (ivFD) differ among clinical groups defined by overload status (CA125) and creatinine on admission (Cr).
We included 526 consecutive patients admitted for AHF. All patients received intravenous furosemide for the first 48hours. CA125 and Cr were dichotomized at 35 U/ml and 1.4mg/dl, respectively, and grouped as follows: C1 [Cr <1.4, CA125 ≤35 (n=151)]; C2 [Cr <1.4, CA125 >35 (n=241)]; C3 [Cr ≥1.4, CA125 ≤35 (n=45)]; and C4 [Cr ≥1.4, CA125 >35 (n=89)]. Clinicians in charge of the management of patients were blind to CA125 values. ΔCr was estimated as the absolute difference in Cr between admission and 48-72 hours. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used for modeling purposes. The adjusted analysis showed a differential effect of ivFD on ΔCr. Per increase in 20mg/day of ivFD, the mean ΔCr was 0.010mg/dl (p=0.464) in C1, 0.002mg/dl (p=0.831) in C2, 0.045mg/dl (p=0.032) in C3, and -0.045mg/dl (p<0.001) in C4 (omnibus p<0.001). A similar pattern of response was observed in a validation cohort.
In patients with AHF, the magnitude and direction of ΔCr attributable to ivFD were differentially associated with values of CA125 and Cr on admission.
International journal of cardiology 04/2014; 174(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.04.113 · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been found to be an independent predictor for adverse outcome in patients with heart failure (HF), but there are no data on the association of longitudinal RDW with all-cause mortality and occurrence of anemia. Methods and Results: 1,702 patients discharged from a previous admission for acute HF (AHF) were included. RDW was measured during the available longitudinal history of the patient. Joint modeling and Multistate Markov were used for the analysis. The median RDW at baseline was 15.0% (IQR: 14.0-16.5), and 45.6% of patients had anemia. At a median follow-up of 1.5 years (IQR: 0.45-3.25), 713 patients died. The last RDW-trajectory value and cumulative RDW-trajectory mean were predictive of mortality (HR, 1.18; 95% CI: 1.12-1.24; and HR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.08-1.16, respectively; P<0.001 for both). This effect, however, varied according the anemia status (P for interaction<0.001), being more pronounced in absence of anemia [HR=1.31 (95% CI: 1.22-1.42) and HR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.33-1.64)] compared to those with anemia [HR=1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.13), 1.12 (95% CI: 1.06-1.18)]. Longitudinal RDW (per 1% increasing) was also independently associated with incident anemia [HR=1.10 (95% CI: 1.03-1.18) P=0.002]. Conclusions: Following an admission for AHF, higher longitudinal RDW values over time were associated to an increased risk for both developing anemia and dying. The effect on mortality was more pronounced among non-anemic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, there has been a proliferation of new biomarkers with potential prognostic implication in heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, most of them do not fulfill the required criteria for being used in daily clinical practice. Tumor marker antigen carbohydrate 125 (CA125), a glycoprotein widely used for ovarian cancer monitoring, is synthesized by epithelial serous cells in response to fluid accumulation and/or cytokine stimuli. This glycoprotein has been emerged as a potential biomarker in HF. Plasma CA125 correlates with clinical, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic parameters related to the severity of the disease. High levels have shown to be present in the majority of acutely decompensated patients, and in this setting, it has shown to be independently related to mortality or subsequent admission for acute HF. In addition, certain characteristics such as wide availability and the close correlation between plasma changes with disease severity and clinical outcomes have increased the interest of researchers about the potential of this glycoprotein for monitoring and guiding therapy in HF. In this article, we have reviewed the available evidence supporting the potential role of CA125 as a biomarker in HF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -Infarct size (IS) determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has proven an additional value, on top of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), in prediction of adverse arrhythmic cardiovascular events (AACE) in chronic ischemic heart disease. Its value soon after an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unknown. Our aim was to determine whether early CMR can improve AACE risk prediction after acute STEMI.
-Patients admitted for a first non-complicated STEMI were prospectively followed-up. A total of 440 patients were included. All of them underwent CMR 1 week after admission. CMR-derived LVEF and IS (g/m(2)) were quantified. AACE included post-discharge sudden death, sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and/or ventricular fibrillation (VF) either documented on ECG or recorded via an implantable cardiac-defibrillator (ICD). Within 2-years median follow-up, 11 AACE (2.5%) were detected: 5 sudden deaths (1.1%) and 6 spontaneous VT/VF. In the whole group AACE associated with more depressed LVEF (Adjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.90 [0.83-0.97], p< 0.01) and larger IS (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 1.06 [1.01-1.12], p= 0.01). According to the corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, LVEF ≤36% and IS ≥23.5g/m(2) best predicted AACE. The vast majority of AACE (10/11) occurred in patients with simultaneous depressed LVEF≤36% and IS≥23.5g/m(2) (n=39).
-In the era of reperfusion therapies, occurrence of AACE in patients with an in-hospital non-complicated first STEMI is low. In this setting, assessment of an early CMR-derived IS could be useful for further optimization of AACE risk prediction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectiveHospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) occur mostly in elderly patients. We describe the characteristics and treatment of elderly patients hospitalized for COPD in Internal Medicine Services, compared with the younger age group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Peritoneal dialysis has been proposed as a therapeutic alternative for patients with refractory congestive heart failure. The objective of this study was to assess its effect on long-term clinical outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure and renal dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 62 patients with advanced heart failure (class III/IV), renal dysfunction (glomerular filtration<60mL/min/1.73 m(2)), persistent fluid congestion despite loop diuretic treatment and at least 2 previous hospitalizations for heart failure were invited to participate in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis program. Of these, 34 patients were excluded and adjudicated as controls. The most important reasons for exclusion were refusal to participate, inability to perform the technique and abdominal wall defects. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality and the composite of death/readmission for heart failure. To account for baseline imbalance, a propensity score was estimated and used as a weight in all analyses. RESULTS: The peritoneal dialysis (n=28) and control groups (n=34) were alike in all baseline covariates. During a median follow-up of 16 months, 39 (62.9%) died, 21 (33.9%) patients were rehospitalization for heart failure, and 42 (67.8%) experienced the composite endpoint. In the propensity score-adjusted models, peritoneal dialysis (vs control group) was associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of mortality using complete follow-up (hazard ratio=0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.75; P=.005), mortality using days alive and out of hospital (hazard ratio=0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.74; P=.004) and the composite endpoint (hazard ratio=0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.61; P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: In refractory congestive heart failure with concomitant renal dysfunction, peritoneal dialysis was associated with long-term improvement in clinical outcomes. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 08/2012; 65(11):986-995. DOI:10.1016/j.recesp.2012.05.013 · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent observations in chronic stable heart failure suggest that high-dose loop diuretics (HDLDs) have detrimental prognostic effects in patients with high blood urea nitrogen (BUN), but recent findings have also indicated that diuretics may improve renal function. Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) has been shown to be a surrogate of systemic congestion. We sought to explore whether BUN and CA125 modulate the mortality risk associated with HDLDs following a hospitalization for acute heart failure (AHF).
We analysed 1389 consecutive patients discharged for AHF. CA125 and BUN were measured at a mean of 72 ± 12 h after admission. HDLDs (≥120 mg/day in furosemide equivalent dose) were interacted to a four-level variable according to CA125 (>35 U/mL) and BUN (above the median), and related to all-cause mortality. At a median follow-up of 21 months, 561 (40.4%) patients died. The use of HDLDs was independently associated with increased mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.50], but this association was not homogeneous across CA125-BUN categories (P for interaction <0.001). In patients with normal CA125, use of HDLDs was associated with high mortality if BUN was above the median (HR 2.29, 95% 1.51-3.46), but not in those with BUN below the median (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.73-2.04). Conversely, in patients with high CA125, HDLDs showed an association with increased survival if BUN was above the median (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.98) but was associated with increased mortality in those with BUN below the median (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.36-2.76).
The risk associated with HDLDs in patients after hospitalization for AHF was dependent on the levels of BUN and CA125. The information provided by these two biomarkers may be helpful in tailoring the dose of loop diuretics at discharge for AHF.
European Journal of Heart Failure 06/2012; 14(9):974-84. DOI:10.1093/eurjhf/hfs090 · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) has been proposed as an additional therapeutic resource for patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF). The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic role of CAPD, in terms of surrogate endpoints, in the management of patients with advanced CHF and renal dysfunction.
A total of 57 candidates with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV CHF, renal dysfunction (glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), persistent fluid congestion despite loop diuretic treatment, and at least two previous hospitalizations for acute heart failure (AHF) were invited to be included in the CAPD programme; however, 25 patients were finally included. The primary outcome was evaluated by the change at 6 and 24 weeks for the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLWHFQ), the 6 min walk test (6MWT), NYHA class, serum natriuretic peptides [brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP)], serum carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), and hospitalization rates for AHF. CAPD was associated with a substantial improvement in the MLWHFQ (-21.3, P < 0.001; and -20.4, P < 0.001), the 6MWT (54.0, P < 0.001; and 45.6, P = 0.023), and NYHA class (-1.0, P < 0.001; and -1.4, P < 0.001) at 6 and 24 weeks, respectively. The Ln(CA125) decreased markedly (-0.8, P = 0.003; and -0.98, P = 0.003), with no effect on BNP and NT-proBNP. There was a marked reduction in the number of days hospitalized for AHF (6 month post-CAPD vs. 6 months pre-CAPD: -84%; P < 0.001).
In advanced CHF and renal dysfunction, CAPD was associated with short/mid-term improvement in severity parameters, with an acceptable rate of side effects.
European Journal of Heart Failure 02/2012; 14(5):540-8. DOI:10.1093/eurjhf/hfs013 · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and objectivesThe prognostic benefit of statins in patients with heart failure is a topic of controversy. Under the hypothesis that statins may provide greater benefit in a subgroup of patients with heightened inflammatory activity, we sought to explore whether statins are associated with a decreased risk of long-term mortality in patients with acute heart failure based on elevated levels of carbohydrate antigen 125, a biomarker related to systemic congestion and proinflammatory status.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 12/2011; DOI:10.1016/j.recesp.2011.05.029 · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FUNDAMENT AND OBJECTIVES: The early readmission after a hospitalization for acute heart failure (AHF) is frequent; however, factors associated are not clearly established. Plasma levels of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) have shown to be associated with the presence of systemic congestion and increased risk of death in patients with AHF. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between CA125 levels (during hospitalization, at the first outpatient visit or their changes) and readmission for AHF at 6 months follow up.
We analyzed 293 consecutive patients hospitalized for AHF in which CA125 was determined during the index hospitalization (T1) and the first outpatient visit after discharge (T2) (median 31 days). We examined the relationship between CA125 levels, both isolated determinations as their serial changes (absolute, relative or categorical) and readmission for AHF by Cox regression analysis adjusted for competing events. The reclassification technique integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) index was used to assess the additional discriminative power of this biomarker over the final multivariate model.
At 6 months follow up, we identified 32 (10.9%) and 54 (18.4%) deaths and readmissions for AHF, respectively. CA125 categorical changes [decrease and normalization (C1, n=153), decrease but no normalization at T2 (C2, n=72) and increase, with high levels at T2 (>35 U/ml) (C3, n=68)], followed by the isolated determination of CA125 at T2, showed the best discriminative accuracy. Thus, with respect to patients in the C1 category, patients in categories C2 and C3 showed a higher risk of readmission for AHF: C2 vs. C1: HR=3.48, 95% CI:1.84-6.59, p<0.001; C3 vs. C1: HR=3.18, 95% CI:1.62-6.21, p=0.001. On the other hand, patients with elevated levels of CA125 in T2 (>35 U/ml) (41%) tripled the risk of readmission for AHF at 6 months compared with those with normal levels of CA125 at T2: HR=3.06, 95% CI:1.79-5.23, p<0.001. The addition of the categories of serial measurements of CA125 and the presence of elevated levels of CA125 at T2 showed a significant increase in the discriminating power of 6.27% and 6.17% in the IDI index, respectively.
After an episode of AHF, the elevation of CA125 levels (>35 U/ml) after the first weeks of admission is associated with an increased risk of readmission for AHF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decision making in chest pain of uncertain origin is challenging.
To evaluate the predictive value of simple characteristics of pain presentation in patients coming to the emergency department with chest pain and without electrocardiogram ischaemia or raised troponin.
789 patients were studied. The following categorical pain characteristics were collected: effort related pain, pressing character, radiation, associated symptoms, and ≥ 2 episodes in 24 h. Additionally, a predefined semi-quantitative pain score including seven items (Geleijnse score) was completed. Risk factors and co-morbidities were also recorded. The primary and secondary endpoints were cardiac events at 30 days and at 1 year.
After adjusting for risk factors and co-morbidites, the pain characteristics associated with the primary and secondary endpoints were effort related pain (HR=2.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.0, p=0.0001; HR=1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5, p=0.0003) and ≥ 2 episodes in 24 h (HR=2.4, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.5, p=0.0001; HR=2.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.2, p=0.0001). Both variables retained their predictive value in women, diabetics and elderly (>70 years) patients. The discriminatory capacity of the predictive models including these two pain characteristics for the primary and secondary endpoints (C-statistic 0.76 and 0.76) was better than using the complex semi-quantitative pain score (C-statistic 0.69 and 0.71).
In patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain and without electrocardiogram ischaemia or raised troponin, effort related pain and ≥ 2 episodes in 24 h are the main characteristics to be considered for decision making.
Emergency Medicine Journal 10/2011; 28(10):847-50. DOI:10.1136/emj.2010.098160 · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognostic benefit of statins in patients with heart failure is a topic of controversy. Under the hypothesis that statins may provide greater benefit in a subgroup of patients with heightened inflammatory activity, we sought to explore whether statins are associated with a decreased risk of long-term mortality in patients with acute heart failure based on elevated levels of carbohydrate antigen 125, a biomarker related to systemic congestion and proinflammatory status.
We analysed 1222 consecutive patients admitted with acute heart failure in a single teaching center during a median follow-up of 20 months. carbohydrate antigen 125 was measured during index hospitalization and dichotomized according to the established reference cut-off (>35 U/mL).
Increased levels of carbohydrate antigen 125 (>35 U/mL) were observed in 793 (64.9%) and prescription of statins registered in 455 (37.2%) patients. In patients with carbohydrate antigen 125 >35 U/mL, mortality was lower in statin-treated patients (1.89 vs 2.80 per 10 patient-years of follow-up, P <.001). Conversely, in those with carbohydrate antigen 125 in normal range, mortality did not differ (1.76 vs 1.63 per 10 patient-years of follow-up, P = .862). After covariate adjustment, this differential effect persisted (P for interaction = .024) and statin use was associated with a significant mortality reduction in patients with elevated values of carbohydrate antigen 125 (hazard ratio=0.65, 95% confidence interval: 0.51-0.82; P <.001), but not in those with values equal to or below 35 U/mL (hazard ratio=1.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.74-1.41; P = .907).
Elevation of carbohydrate antigen 125 (>35 U/mL) identified a subset of patients with acute heart failure who could benefit from statin treatment in regard to total mortality.
Revista Espa de Cardiologia 09/2011; 64(12):1100-8. DOI:10.1016/j.rec.2011.05.033 · 3.34 Impact Factor