Simon Dixon

The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (75)224.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of self-managed computer therapy for people with long-standing aphasia post stroke and to estimate the value of further research. Methods: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of computer therapy in addition to usual stimulation compared with usual stimulation alone was considered in people with long-standing aphasia using data from the CACTUS trial. A model-based approach was taken. Where possible the input parameters required for the model were obtained from the CACTUS trial data, a United Kingdom-based pilot randomized controlled trial that recruited thirty-four people with aphasia and randomized them to computer treatment or usual care. Cost-effectiveness was described using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) together with cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. A value of information analysis was undertaken to inform future research priorities. Results: The intervention had an ICER of £3,058 compared with usual care. The likelihood of the intervention being cost-effective was 75.8 percent at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000 per QALY gained. The expected value of perfect information was £37 million. Conclusions: Our results suggest that computer therapy for people with long-standing aphasia is likely to represent a cost-effective use of resources. However, our analysis is exploratory given the small size of the trial it is based upon and therefore our results are uncertain. Further research would be of high value, particularly with respect to the quality of life gain achieved by people who respond well to therapy.
    International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 10/2013; 29(4):402-9. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Corns are a common foot problem and surveys have indicated that between 14-48% of people suffer from them. Many of these will seek podiatry treatment, however there is little evidence to indicate which current treatments provide long term resolution. This study compared 'usual' treatment (enucleation with a scalpel) with the application of 40% salicylic acid plasters to corns to investigate which is the most effective in terms of clinical, economic and patient-centred outcomes. A parallel-group randomised controlled trial was carried out in two centres where adults who presented with one or more corns and who met the inclusion criteria were allocated to either 'usual' scalpel debridement or corn plaster treatment. All participants had measurements of corn size, pain using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) measures by an independent podiatrist, blind to treatment allocation at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. 202 participants were randomised to receive scalpel debridement or corn plaster treatment (101 in each group). At 3 months 34% (32/95) of corns had completely resolved in the corn plaster group compared with 21% (20/94) in the scalpel group (p = 0.044), and 83% (79/95) had reduced in size in the corn plaster group compared with 56% (53/94) in the scalpel group (p < 0.001). At 12 months, time to corn recurrence was longer in the corn plaster group (p < 0.001). Pain from the corns was significantly lower in the corn plaster group at 3 months (p < 0.001) and EQ-5D scores changed (improved), from baseline, by 0.09 (SD +/-0.31) and 0.01 (SD +/-0.25) points in the corn plaster and scalpel groups respectively (p = 0.056). By month 12, EQ-5D scores had changed by 0.12 and -0.05 in the corn plaster and scalpel groups respectively (p = 0.005). The EQ-5D, VAS scores and the four domains of the Foot Disability Scale were similar in both groups at 3 and 12 months. The economic analysis indicated that corn plasters were a cost effective intervention. The use of corn plasters was associated with a higher proportion of resolved corns, a prolonged time to corn recurrence, less pain and reduced corn size over the first 6 months in comparison with 'usual' scalpel treatment and this intervention was cost effective. Used under supervision of a podiatrist on appropriate patients, corn plasters offer an effective alternative to scalpel debridement.
    Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 09/2013; 6(1):40. · 1.47 Impact Factor
  • Phil Shackley, Simon Dixon
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    ABSTRACT: Willingness to pay (WTP) values derived from contingent valuation surveys are prone to a number of biases. Range bias occurs when the range of money values presented to respondents in a payment card affects their stated WTP values. This paper reports the results of an exploratory study whose aim was to investigate whether the effects of range bias can be reduced through the use of an alternative to the standard payment card method, namely, a random card sort method. The results suggest that the random card sort method is prone to range bias but that this bias may be mitigated by restricting the analysis to the WTP values of those respondents who indicate they are 'definitely sure' they would pay their stated WTP. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Health Economics 08/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: hospital falls place a substantial burden on healthcare systems. There has been limited research into the use of hospital flooring as an intervention against fall-related injuries. to assess the cost-effectiveness of shock-absorbing flooring compared with standard hospital flooring in hospital wards for older people. a cost-utility analysis was undertaken drawing upon data collected in a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial and the wider literature. the trial included eight hospital sites across England. Four sites installed shock-absorbing flooring in one bay, and four maintained their standard flooring. falls and resulting injuries and treatment were reported by hospital staff. Data on destination of discharge were collected. Patients were followed up at 3 months and further resource use data were collected. Health-related quality of life was assessed, allowing quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to be estimated. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the shock-absorbing flooring was assessed compared with the standard hospital flooring. in the base case, the shock-absorbing flooring was cost saving, but generated QALY losses due to an increase in the faller rate reported in the intervention arm. Scenario analysis showed that if the shock-absorbing flooring does not increase the faller rate it is likely to represent a dominant economic strategy-generating cost savings and QALY gains. the shock-absorbing flooring intervention has the potential to be cost-effective but further research is required on whether the intervention flooring results in a higher faller rate than standard flooring.
    Age and Ageing 07/2013; · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess patient preferences for different models of care defined by location of care, frequency of care and principal carer within community-based health-care services for older people. Discrete choice experiment administered within a face-to-face interview. An intermediate care service in a large city within the United Kingdom. The projected sample size was calculated to be 200; however, 77 patients were recruited to the study. The subjects had recently been discharged from hospital and were living at home and were receiving short-term care by a publicly funded intermediate care service. Not applicable. The degree of preference, measured using single utility score, for individual service characteristics presented within a series of potential care packages. Location of care was the dominant service characteristics with care at home being the strongly stated preference when compared with outpatient care (0.003), hospital care (<0.001) and nursing home care (<0.001) relative to home care, although this was less pronounced among less sick patients. Additionally, the respondents indicated a dislike for very frequent care contacts. No particular type of professional carer background was universally preferred but, unsurprisingly, there was evidence that sick patients showed a preference for nurse-led care. Patients have clear preferences for the location for their care and were able to state preferences between different care packages when their ideal service was not available. Service providers can use this information to assess which models of care are most preferred within resource constraints.
    Health expectations: an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy 06/2013; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Structured education programmes are now established as an essential component to assist effective self-management of diabetes. In the case of Type 1 diabetes, the Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme improves both glycaemic control and quality of life. Traditionally delivered over five consecutive days, this format has been cited as a barrier to participation by some patients, such as those who work full-time. Some centres in the UK have organised structured education programmes to be delivered one day a week over several consecutive weeks. This type of format may add benefit by allowing more time in which to practice skills between sessions, but may suffer as a result of weaker peer support being generated compared to that formed over five consecutive days.Methods / DesignWe aim to compare DAFNE delivered over five consecutive days (1 week course) with DAFNE delivered one day a week over five weeks (5 week course) in a randomised controlled trial. A total of 213 patients were randomised to attend either a 1 week or a 5 week course delivered in seven participating centres. Study outcomes (measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months post-course) include HbA1c, weight, self-reported rates of severe hypoglycaemia, psychosocial measures of quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Generalisability was optimised by recruiting patients from DAFNE waiting lists at each centre, and by mailing eligible patients from hospital clinic lists. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were identical to those used to recruit to a standard DAFNE course (e.g., HbA1c <12%, with no lower limit). Qualitative interviews were undertaken with a sub-sample of n=30 patients and their course educators (n=11) to help understand and interpret differences and similarities in outcomes between the two arms, and to identify logistical problems and unanticipated issues arising from the adaptation and delivery of a 5 week course. DISCUSSION: This trial has been designed to test the hypothesis that the benefits of delivering a structured education programme over 5 weeks are comparable to those observed after a 1 week course. The results of the trial and the qualitative sub-study will both inform the design and delivery of future DAFNE courses, and the development of structured education programmes in other fields of medicine.Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov NCT01069393.
    BMC Endocrine Disorders 11/2012; 12(1):28. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Motor neurone disease (MND) is a devastating illness which leads to muscle weakness and death, usually within 2-3 years of symptom onset. Respiratory insufficiency is a common cause of morbidity, particularly in later stages of MND and respiratory complications are the leading cause of mortality in MND patients. Non Invasive Ventilation (NIV) is the current standard therapy to manage respiratory insufficiency. Some MND patients however do not tolerate NIV due to a number of issues including mask interface problems and claustrophobia. In those that do tolerate NIV, eventually respiratory muscle weakness will progress to a point at which intermittent/overnight NIV is ineffective. The NeuRx RA/4 Diaphragm Pacing System was originally developed for patients with respiratory insufficiency and diaphragm paralysis secondary to stable high spinal cord injuries. The DiPALS study will assess the effect of diaphragm pacing (DP) when used to treat patients with MND and respiratory insufficiency. 108 patients will be recruited to the study at 5 sites in the UK. Patients will be randomised to either receive NIV (current standard care) or receive DP in addition to NIV. Study participants will be required to complete outcome measures at 5 follow up time points (2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) plus an additional surgery and 1 week post operative visit for those in the DP group. 12 patients (and their carers) from the DP group will also be asked to complete 2 qualitative interviews. The primary objective of this trial will be to evaluate the effect of Diaphragm Pacing (DP) on survival over the study duration in patients with MND with respiratory muscle weakness. The project is funded by the National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme (project number 09/55/33) and the Motor Neurone Disease Association and the Henry Smith Charity. Trial Registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN53817913. The views and opinions expressed therein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the HTA programme, NIHR, NHS or the Department of Health.
    BMC Neurology 08/2012; 12:74. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial to study the effectiveness of self-managed computer treatment for people with long-standing aphasia after stroke. In this pilot single-blinded, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial participants with aphasia were allocated to self-managed computer treatment with volunteer support or usual care (everyday language activity). The 5-month intervention period was followed by 3 months without intervention to investigate treatment maintenance. Thirty-four participants were recruited. Seventeen participants were allocated to each group. Thirteen participants from the usual care group and 15 from the computer treatment group were followed up at 5 months. An average of 4 hours 43 minutes speech and language therapy time and 4 hours volunteer support time enabled an average of 25 hours of independent practice. The difference in percentage change in naming ability from baseline at 5 months between groups was 19.8% (95% CI, 4.4-35.2; P=0.014) in favor of the treatment group. Participants with more severe aphasia showed little benefit. Results demonstrate early indications of cost-effectiveness of self-managed computer therapy. This pilot trial indicates that self-managed computer therapy for aphasia is feasible and that it will be practical to recruit sufficient participants to conduct an appropriately powered clinical trial to investigate the effectiveness of self-managed computer therapy for people with long-standing aphasia. Clinical Trial Registration- www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN91534629.
    Stroke 07/2012; 43(7):1904-11. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The benefit of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in people with type 2 diabetes on diet or oral agents other than sulphonylureas remains uncertain. Trials of interventions incorporating education about self-monitoring of blood glucose have reported mixed results. A recent systematic review concluded that SMBG was not cost-effective. However, what was unclear was whether a cheaper method of self-monitoring (such as urine glucose monitoring) could produce comparable benefit and patient acceptability for less cost. The DESMOND SMBG trial is comparing two monitoring strategies (blood glucose monitoring and urine testing) over 18 months when incorporated into a comprehensive self-management structured education programme. It is a multi-site cluster randomised controlled trial, conducted across 8 sites (7 primary care trusts) in England, UK involving individuals with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes.The trial has 80% power to demonstrate equivalence in mean HbA1c (the primary end-point) at 18 months of within ± 0.5% assuming 20% drop out and 20% non-consent. Secondary end-points include blood pressure, lipids, body weight and psychosocial measures as well as a qualitative sub-study.Practices were randomised to one of two arms: participants attend a DESMOND programme incorporating a module on self-monitoring of either urine or blood glucose. The programme is delivered by accredited educators who received specific training about equipoise. Biomedical data are collected and psychosocial scales completed at baseline, and 6, 12, and 18 months post programme. Qualitative research with participants and educators will explore views and experiences of the trial and preferences for methods of monitoring. The DESMOND SMBG trial is designed to provide evidence to inform the debate about the value of self-monitoring of blood glucose in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Strengths include a setting in primary care, a cluster design, a health economic analysis, a comparison of different methods of monitoring while controlling for other components of training within the context of a quality assured structured education programme and a qualitative sub-study. ISRCTN: ISRCTN95696668.
    BMC Family Practice 03/2012; 13:18. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of patient reported outcome measures within cost-effectiveness analysis has become commonplace. However, specific measures are required that produce values, referred to as 'utilities', that are capable of generating quality adjusted life years. One such measure - the EQ-5D - has come under criticism due to the inherent limitations of its three-level response scales. In evaluations of chronic pain, the numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) which has eleven levels is routinely used which has a greater measurement range, but which can not be used in cost-effetiveness analyses. This study derived utility values for a series of EQ-5D health states that replace the pain dimensions with the NPRS, thereby allowing a potentially greater range of pain intensities to be captured and included in economic analyses. Interviews were undertaken with 100 member of the general population. Health state valuations were elicited using the time trade-off approach with a ten year time horizon. Additionally, respondents were asked where the EQ-5D response scale descriptors of moderate and extreme pain lay on the 11-point NPRS scale. 625 valuations were undertaken across the study sample with the crude mean health state utilities showing a negative non-linear relationship with respect to increasing pain intensity. Relative to a NPRS of zero (NPRS0), the successive pain levels (NPRS1-10) had mean decrements in utility of 0.034, 0.043, 0.061, 0.121, 0.144, 0.252, 0.404, 0.575, 0.771 and 0.793, respectively. When respondents were asked to mark on the NPRS scale the EQ-5D pain descriptors of moderate and extreme pain, the median responses were '4' and '8', respectively. These results demonstrate the potential floor effect of the EQ-5D with respect to pain and provide estimates of health reduction associated with pain intensity described by the NPRS. These estimates are in excess of the decrements produced by an application of the EQ-5D scoring tariff for both the United States and the United Kingdom.
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 11/2011; 9:96. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Falls are an issue disproportionately affecting older people who are at increased risk of falls and injury. This protocol describes a pilot study investigating shock-absorbing flooring for fall-related injuries in wards for older people. To inform future research by evaluating fall-related injuries on the intervention and existing flooring, assessing the sustainability of the flooring in ward environments, estimating the cost-effectiveness of the floor and assessing how the floor affects patients and other users. This study uses mixed methods a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial, observation via mechanical testing and interviews. Eight participating wards (clusters) are randomised using a computer-generated list. No blinding is incorporated into the study. Each site has a baseline period of approximately 6 months. Then, four sites receive the intervention floor, while four continue using standard floors. Sites are then followed up for approximately 1 year. Any person admitted to a bed in the 'study area' of a participating ward can be entered into the trial. Orientated patients, visitors and any hospital staff who use the floor in a study area are eligible for inclusion in an interview. An 8.3 mm thick vinyl floor covering with polyvinyl chloride foam backing (Tarkett Omnisports EXCEL). The primary outcome is fall-related injuries. Severity of injuries, falls, cost-effectiveness, user views and mechanical performance (shock absorbency and slip resistance) are also being assessed.
    Injury Prevention 09/2011; 17(6):e7. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the increase in the number of inherited metabolic diseases that can be detected at birth using a single dried blood spot sample, the impact of false positive results on parents remains a concern. We used an economic approach - the contingent valuation method - which asks parents to give their maximum willingness to pay for an extension in a screening programme and the degree to which the potential for false positive results diminishes their valuations. 160 parents of a child or children under the age of 16 years were surveyed and given descriptions of the current screening programme in the UK, an extended programme and an extended programme with no false positives. 148 (92.5%) respondents said they would accept the screen for the five extra conditions in an expanded screening programme whilst 10 (6.3%) said they would not and two were unsure. When asked to indicate if they would choose to be screened under an expanded screening programme with no false positive results, 152 (95%) said they would, five (3.1%) said they would not, two were unsure, and there was one non-response. 151 (94.4%) said they preferred the hypothetical test with no false-positives. The mean willingness to pay for the expanded programme was £178 compared to £219 for the hypothetical expanded programme without false positives (p > 0.05). The results suggest that there is widespread parental support for extended screening in the UK and that the number of false-positives is a relatively small issue.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 05/2011; 35(1):169-76. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chest pain due to suspected myocardial infarction (MI) is responsible for many hospital admissions and consumes substantial health care resources. The Randomized Assessment of Treatment using Panel Assay of Cardiac markers (RATPAC) trial showed that diagnostic assessment using a point-of-care (POC) cardiac biomarker panel consisting of CK-MB, myoglobin, and troponin increased the proportion of patients successfully discharged after emergency department (ED) assessment. In this economic analysis, the authors aimed to determine whether POC biomarker panel assessment reduced health care costs and was likely to be cost-effective. The RATPAC trial was a multicenter individual patient randomized controlled trial comparing diagnostic assessment using a POC biomarker panel (CK-MB, myoglobin, and troponin, measured at baseline and 90 minutes) to standard care without the POC panel in patients attending six EDs with acute chest pain due to suspected MI (n = 2,243). Individual patient resource use data were collected from all participants up to 3 months after hospital attendance using self-completed questionnaires at 1 and 3 months and case note review. ED staff and POC testing costs were estimated through a microcosting study of 246 participants. Resource use was valued using national unit costs. Health utility was measured using the EQ-5D self-completed questionnaire, mailed at 1 and 3 months. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated by the trapezium rule using the EQ-5D tariff values at all follow-up points. Mean costs per patient were compared between the two treatment groups. Cost-effectiveness was estimated in terms of probability of dominance and incremental cost per QALY. Point-of-care panel assessment was associated with higher ED costs, coronary care costs, and cardiac intervention costs, but lower general inpatient costs. Mean costs per patient were £1217.14 (standard deviation [SD] ± 3164.93), or $1,987.14 (SD ±$4,939.25), with POC versus £1005.91 (SD ±£1907.55), or $1,568.64 (SD ±$2,975.78), with standard care (p = 0.056). Mean QALYs were 0.158 (SD ± 0.052) versus 0.161 (SD ± 0.056; p = 0.250). The probability of standard care being dominant (i.e., cheaper and more effective) was 0.888, while the probability of the POC panel being dominant was 0.004. These probabilities were not markedly altered by sensitivity analysis varying the costs of the POC panel and excluding intensive care costs. Point-of-care panel assessment does not reduce costs despite reducing admissions and may even increase costs. It is unlikely to be considered a cost-effective use of health care resources.
    Academic Emergency Medicine 05/2011; 18(5):488-95. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to measure health utility and survival in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPO), identify predictors of outcome and determine the effect of initial treatment with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) upon outcomes. A randomised controlled trial was conducted at 26 hospitals in the UK. 1069 adults with ACPO were randomised to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or standard oxygen therapy. The main outcome measures were survival to 1-5 years, health utility measured using the EQ-5D survey at 1, 3 and 6 months, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Median survival was 771 days (95% CI 669 to 875), with no difference between the three treatment groups (p = 0.827). Age (HR 1.042, 95% CI 1.031 to 1.052), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.62), cerebrovascular disease (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.73) and diabetes mellitus (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.63) independently predicted mortality. Mean EQ-5D scores were 0.578, 0.576 and 0.582 at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively, with no significant difference between the treatment groups. Male gender (+0.045 QALYs, 95% CI 0.009 to 0.081) and cerebrovascular disease (-0.080 QALYs, 95% CI -0.131 to -0.029) independently predicted health utility. Patients with ACPO have high mortality and reduced health utility. Initial treatment with CPAP or NIPPV does not alter subsequent survival or health utility.
    Emergency Medicine Journal 10/2010; 28(6):477-82. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes represents a notable burden to health payers. The purpose of this study was to estimate acute hospital care costs of treating people with diabetes with reference to the costs of treating those without. This was a retrospective study. Data from routine hospital practice were available from a large health region (439 000 people), with an estimated prevalence of diabetes of 3.4%. Common records were identified using probabilistic record linkage. Cost estimates were attributed to admissions using healthcare resource group software. Outpatient costs were attributed using published values. Data described are for 2004, and prices in pounds sterling for 2005. Standardised cost ratios were estimated to compare the costs observed in the diabetes population with those expected from the non-diabetic reference population. The total annual cost of admissions was pound28 944 811 per 100 000 people, of which pound3 650 869 per 100 000 (12.6%) was diabetes related. The standardised cost rate of inpatient treatment was 2.9. The total cost of outpatient attendances was pound6 589 971 per 100 000, of which pound711 431 per 100 000 (10.8%) was diabetes related. The standardised cost ratio for outpatient care was 4.1. The total cost of hospital care for patients with diabetes was pound11 206 986 per 100 000, or 12.3% of acute hospital expenditure. The combined standardised cost ratio was 3.1. Costs of care for inpatient treatment increased from 8.7% of revenue in 1994 to 12.3% in 2004. The costs of acute hospital care for treating people with diabetes increased markedly over a decade, and now exceed 12% of revenue.
    Diabetic Medicine 09/2010; 27(9):1066-73. · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • BMJ Clinical Research 01/2010; 341(7778). · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between skill mix, patient outcomes, length of stay and service costs in older peoples' intermediate care services in England. We undertook multivariate analysis of data collected as part of the National Evaluation of Intermediate Care Services. Data were analysed on between 337 and 403 older people admitted to 14 different intermediate care teams. Independent variables were the numbers of different types of staff within a team and the ratio of support staff to professionally qualified staff within teams. Outcome measures include the Barthel index, EQ-5D, length of service provision and costs of care. Increased skill mix (raising the number of different types of staff by one) is associated with a 17% reduction in service costs (p = 0.011). There is weak evidence (p = 0.090) that a higher ratio of support staff to qualified staff leads to greater improvements in EQ-5D scores of patients. This study provides limited evidence on the relationship between multidisciplinary skill mix and outcomes in intermediate care services.
    BMC Health Services Research 01/2010; 10:221. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the long term clinical and cost effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) intervention compared with usual care in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. We undertook a cost-utility analysis that used data from a 12 month, multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial and, using the Sheffield type 2 diabetes model, modelled long term outcomes in terms of use of therapies, incidence of complications, mortality, and associated effect on costs and health related quality of life. A further cost-utility analysis was also conducted using current "real world" costs of delivering the intervention estimated for a hypothetical primary care trust. Primary care trusts in the United Kingdom. Patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. A six hour structured group education programme delivered in the community by two professional healthcare educators. Incremental costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. On the basis of the data in the trial, the estimated mean incremental lifetime cost per person receiving the DESMOND intervention is pound209 (95% confidence interval - pound704 to pound1137; euro251, -euro844 to euro1363; $326, -$1098 to $1773), the incremental gain in QALYs per person is 0.0392 (-0.0813 to 0.1786), and the mean incremental cost per QALY is pound5387. Using "real world" intervention costs, the lifetime incremental cost of the DESMOND intervention is pound82 (- pound831 to pound1010) and the mean incremental cost per QALY gained is pound2092. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that the likelihood that the DESMOND programme is cost effective at a threshold of pound20 000 per QALY is 66% using trial based intervention costs and 70% using "real world" costs. Results from a one way sensitivity analysis suggest that the DESMOND intervention is cost effective even under more modest assumptions that include the effects of the intervention being lost after one year. Our results suggest that the DESMOND intervention is likely to be cost effective compared with usual care, especially with respect to the real world cost of the intervention to primary care trusts, with reductions in weight and smoking being the main benefits delivered.
    BMJ (online) 01/2010; 341:c4093. · 17.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether non-invasive ventilation reduces mortality and whether there are important differences in outcome by treatment modality. Multicentre open prospective randomised controlled trial. Patients presenting with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in 26 emergency departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were age > 16 years, clinical diagnosis of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, pulmonary oedema on chest radiograph, respiratory rate > 20 breaths per minute, and arterial hydrogen ion concentration > 45 nmol/l (pH < 7.35). Patients were randomised to standard oxygen therapy, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (5-15 cmH2O) or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) (inspiratory pressure 8-20 cmH2O, expiratory pressure 4-10 cmH2O) on a 1:1:1 basis for a minimum of 2 hours. The primary end point for the comparison between NIPPV or CPAP and standard therapy was 7-day mortality. The composite primary end point for the comparison of NIPPV and CPAP was 7-day mortality and tracheal intubation rate. Secondary end points were breathlessness, physiological variables, intubation rate, length of hospital stay and critical care admission rate. Economic evaluation took the form of a cost-utility analysis, taken from an NHS (and personal social services) perspective. In total, 1069 patients [mean age 78 (SD 10) years; 43% male] were recruited to standard therapy (n = 367), CPAP [n = 346; mean 10 (SD 4) cmH2O] or NIPPV [n = 356; mean 14 (SD 5)/7 (SD 2) cmH2O]. There was no difference in 7-day mortality for standard oxygen therapy (9.8%) and non-invasive ventilation (9.5%; p = 0.87). The combined end point of 7-day death and intubation rate was similar, irrespective of non-invasive ventilation modality (CPAP 11.7% versus NIPPV 11.1%; p = 0.81). Compared with standard therapy, non-invasive ventilation was associated with greater reductions (treatment difference, 95% confidence intervals) in breathlessness (visual analogue scale score 0.7, 0.2-1.3; p = 0.008) and heart rate (4/min, 1-6; p = 0.004) and improvement in acidosis (pH 0.03, 0.02-0.04; p < 0.001) and hypercapnia (0.7 kPa, 0.4-0.9; p < 0.001) at 1 hour. There were no treatment-related adverse events or differences in other secondary outcomes such as myocardial infarction rate, length of hospital stay, critical care admission rate and requirement for endotracheal intubation. Economic evaluation showed that mean costs and QALYs up to 6 months were 3023 pounds and 0.202 for standard therapy, 3224 pounds and 0.213 for CPAP, and 3208 pounds and 0.210 for NIPPV. Modelling of lifetime costs and QALYs produced values of 15,764 pounds and 1.597 for standard therapy, 17,525 pounds and 1.841 for CPAP, and 17,021 pounds and 1.707 for NIPPV. These results suggest that both CPAP and NIPPV accrue more QALYs but at higher cost than standard therapy. However, these estimates are subject to substantial uncertainty. Non-invasive ventilatory support delivered by either CPAP or NIPPV safely provides earlier improvement and resolution of breathlessness, respiratory distress and metabolic abnormality. However, this does not translate into improved short- or longer-term survival. We recommend that CPAP or NIPPV should be considered as adjunctive therapy in patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in the presence of severe respiratory distress or when there is a failure to improve with pharmacological therapy. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN07448447.
    Health technology assessment (Winchester, England). 08/2009; 13(33):1-106.
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    ABSTRACT: A scheme to train paramedics to undertake a greater role in the care of older people following a call for an emergency ambulance was developed in a large city in the UK. To assess the cost effectiveness of the paramedic practitioner (PP) scheme compared with usual emergency care. A cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken of PP compared with usual care. Weeks were allocated to the study group at random to the PP scheme either being active (intervention) or inactive (control). Resource use data were collected from routine sources, and from patient-completed questionnaires for events up to 28 days. EQ-5D data were also collected at 28 days. Whereas the intervention group received more PP contact time, it reduced the proportion of emergency department (ED) attendances (53.3% vs 84.0%) and time in the ED (126.6 vs 211.3 minutes). There was also some evidence of increased use of health services in the days following the incident for patients in the intervention group. Overall, total costs in the intervention group were 140 UK pounds lower when routine data were considered (p = 0.63). When the costs and QALY were considered simultaneously, PP had a greater than 95% chance of being cost effective at 20 000 UK pounds per QALY. Several changes in resource use are associated with the use of PP. Given these economic results in tandem with the clinical, operational and patient-related benefits, the wider implementation and evaluation of similar schemes should be considered.
    Emergency Medicine Journal 07/2009; 26(6):446-51. · 1.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

991 Citations
224.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2013
    • The University of Sheffield
      • School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR)
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2006
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Mathematics
      Cardiff, WLS, United Kingdom
    • Queensland University of Technology
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2005
    • University of Wales
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom