Young-Wook Lee

Yonsei University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (136)1020.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence for the presence of multiple red giant branches (RGBs) in the color-magnitude diagrams of massive globular clusters (GCs). In order to investigate the origin of this split on the RGB, we have performed new narrow-band Ca photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy for M22, NGC 1851, and NGC 288. We find significant differences (more than 4 sigma) in calcium abundance from the spectroscopic HK' index for M22 and NGC 1851. We also find more than 8 sigma differences in CN band strength between the Ca-strong and Ca-weak subpopulations for these GCs. For NGC 288, however, a large difference is detected only in the CN strength. The calcium abundances of RGB stars in this GC are identical to within the errors. This is consistent with the conclusion from our new Ca photometry, where the RGB splits are confirmed in M22 and NGC 1851, but not in NGC 288. We also find interesting differences in CN-CH correlations among these GCs. While CN and CH are anti-correlated in NGC 288, they show positive correlation in M22. NGC 1851, however, shows no difference in CH between the two groups of stars with different CN strengths. We suggest that all of these systematic differences would be best explained by how strongly type II supernovae enrichment has contributed to the chemical evolution of these GCs.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Globular cluster (GC) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are reasonably well understood in terms of standard stellar evolution. However, there are still some open issues, such as fully accounting for the horizontal branch (HB) morphology in terms of chemical and dynamical parameters. Mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) shapes the mass distribution of the HB stars, and the color distribution in turn. The physical mechanisms driving mass loss are still unclear, as direct observations fail to reveal a clear correlation between mass-loss rate and stellar properties. The HB mass distribution is further complicated by helium-enhanced multiple stellar populations due to differences in the evolving mass along the HB. We present a simple analytical mass-loss model based on tidal stripping through Roche-Lobe overflow during stellar encounters. Our model naturally results in a non-Gaussian mass-loss distribution with high skewness and contains only two free parameters. We fit it to the HB mass distribution of four Galactic GCs, as obtained from fitting the CMD with zero age HB models. The best-fit model accurately reproduces the observed mass distribution. If confirmed on a wider sample of GCs, our results would account for the effects of dynamics in RGB mass-loss processes and provide a physically motivated procedure for synthetic CMDs of GCs. Our physical modeling of mass loss may result in the ability to disentangle the effects of dynamics and helium-enhanced multiple populations on the HB morphology and is instrumental in making HB morphology a probe of the dynamical state of GCs, leading to an improved understanding of their evolution.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 789(1):28. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Sohee Jang, Young-Wook Lee, Seok-Joo Joo, Chongsam Na
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of multiple populations is now well-established in most globular clusters in the Milky Way. In light of this progress, here we suggest a new model explaining the origin of the Sandage period-shift and the difference in mean period of type ab RR Lyrae variables between the two Oosterhoff groups. In our models, the instability strip in the metal-poor group II clusters, such as M15, is populated by second generation stars (G2) with enhanced helium and CNO abundances, while the RR Lyraes in the relatively metal rich group I clusters like M3 are mostly produced by first generation stars (G1) without these enhancements. This population shift within the instability strip with metallicity can create the observed period-shift between the two groups, since both helium and CNO abundances play a role in increasing the period of RR Lyrae variables. The presence of more metal-rich clusters having Oosterhoff-intermediate characteristics, such as NGC 1851, as well as of most metal-rich clusters having RR Lyraes with longest periods (group III) can also be reproduced, as more helium-rich third and later generations of stars (G3) penetrate into the instability strip with further increase in metallicity. Therefore, for the most general cases, our models predict that the RR Lyraes are produced mostly by G1, G2, and G3, respectively, for the Oosterhoff groups I, II, and III.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent spectroscopic observations of the outer halo globular cluster (GC) NGC 2419 show that it is unique among GCs, in terms of chemical abundance patterns, and some suggest that it was originated in the nucleus of a dwarf galaxy. Here we show, from the Subaru narrow-band photometry employing a calcium filter, that the red giant-branch (RGB) of this GC is split into two distinct subpopulations. Comparison with spectroscopy has confirmed that the redder RGB stars in the $hk$[=(Ca$-b)-(b-y)$] index are enhanced in [Ca/H] by $\sim$0.2 dex compared to the bluer RGB stars. Our population model further indicates that the calcium-rich second generation stars are also enhanced in helium abundance by a large amount ($\Delta$Y = 0.19). Our photometry, together with the results for other massive GCs (e.g., $\omega$ Cen, M22, and NGC 1851), suggests that the discrete distribution of RGB stars in the $hk$ index might be a universal characteristic of this growing group of peculiar GCs. The planned narrow-band calcium photometry for the Local Group dwarf galaxies would help to establish an empirical connection between these GCs and the primordial building blocks in the hierarchical merging paradigm of galaxy formation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 778(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Stellar collision rates in globular clusters (GCs) do not appear to correlate with horizontal branch (HB) morphology, sug- gesting that dynamics does not play a role in the second-parameter problem. However, core densities and collision rates derived from surface-brightness may be significantly underestimated as the surface-brightness profile of GCs is not necessarily a good indicator of the dynamical state of GC cores. Core-collapse may go unnoticed if high central densities of dark remnants are present. Aims. We test whether GC HB morphology data supports a dynamical contribution to the so-called second-parameter effect. Methods. To remove first-parameter dependence we fitted the maximum effective temperature along the HB as a function of metal- licity in a sample of 54 Milky Way GCs. We plotted the residuals to the fit as a function of second-parameter candidates, namely dynamical age and total luminosity. We considered dynamical age (i.e. the ratio between age and half-light relaxation time) among possible second-parameters. We used a set of direct N-body simulations, including ones with dark remnants to illustrate how core density peaks, due to core collapse, in a dynamical-age range similar to that in which blue HBs are overabundant with respect to the metallicity expectation, especially for low-concentration initial conditions. Results. GC total luminosity shows nonlinear behavior compatible with the self-enrichment picture. However, the data are amenable to a different interpretation based on a dynamical origin of the second-parameter effect. Enhanced mass-stripping in the late red-giant- branch phase due to stellar interactions in collapsing cores is a viable candidate mechanism. In this picture, GCs with HBs bluer than expected based on metallicity are those undergoing core-collapse.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2013; 768(2):138. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mean color of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies is in general bluer than the integrated color of halo field stars in host galaxies. Metal-rich GCs often appear more associated with field stars than metal-poor GCs, yet show bluer colors than their host galaxy light. Motivated by the discovery of multiple stellar populations in Milky Way GCs, we present a new scenario in which the presence of second-generation (SG) stars in GCs is responsible for the color discrepancy between metal-rich GCs and field stars. The model assumes that the SG populations have enhanced helium abundance as evidenced by observations, and it gives a good explanation of the bluer optical colors of metal-rich GCs than field stars as well as strong Balmer lines and blue UV colors of metal-rich GCs. Ours may be complementary to the recent scenario suggesting the difference in stellar mass functions (MFs) as an origin for the GC-to-star color offset. A quantitative comparison is given between the SG and MF models.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2013; 769(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present wide-field multiband photometry of globular cluster (GC) systems in NGC 1399, NGC 1404, and NGC 1387 located at the central region of the Fornax galaxy cluster. Observation was carried out through U, B, V, and I bands, which marks one of the widest and deepest U-band studies on extragalactic GC systems. The present U-band photometry enables us to significantly reduce the contamination by a factor of two for faint sources (Vo~23.5). The main results based on some 2000 GC candidates around NGC 1399, NGC 1404, and NGC 1387 are as follows: (1) the GC system in each galaxy exhibits bimodal color distributions in all colors examined, but the shape of color histograms varies systematically depending on colors; (2) NGC 1399 shows that the mean colors of both blue and red GCs become bluer with increasing galactocentric radius; (3) NGC 1399 shows overabundance of GCs in the directions of NGC 1404 and NGC 1387, indicating their ongoing interactions; and (4) NGC 1399 also exhibits a ~0.5' offset between the center of the inner GC distribution and the galaxy's optical center, suggesting that NGC 1399 is not yet dynamically relaxed and may be undergoing merger events.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 763(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Seok-Joo Joo, Young-Wook Lee
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that some massive globular clusters (GCs) host multiple stellar populations having different heavy element abundances enriched by supernovae. They usually accompany multiple red giant branches (RGBs) in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and are distinguished from most of the other GCs which display variations only in light element abundances. In order to investigate the star formation histories of these peculiar GCs, we have constructed synthetic CMDs for \omega\ Cen, M22, and NGC 1851. Our models are based on the updated versions of Yonsei-Yale (Y^2) isochrones and horizontal branch (HB) evolutionary tracks which include the cases of enhancements in both helium and the total CNO abundances. To estimate ages and helium abundances of subpopulations in each GC, we have compared our models with the observations on the Hess diagram by employing a \chi^2 minimization technique. We find that metal-rich subpopulations in each of these GCs are also enhanced in helium abundance, and the age differences between the metal-rich and metal-poor subpopulations are fairly small (~0.3-1.7 Gyr), even in the models with the observed variations in the total CNO content. These are required to simultaneously reproduce the observed extended HB and the splits on the main sequence, subgiant branch, and RGB. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these GCs are the relics of more massive primeval dwarf galaxies that merged and disrupted to form the proto-Galaxy.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 762(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a series of papers on the year-2012 version of Yonsei Evolutionary Population Synthesis (YEPS) model which is constructed on over 20 years of heritage. This first paper delineates the spectroscopic aspect of integrated light from stellar populations older than 1 Gyr. The standard YEPS is based on the most up-to-date Yonsei-Yale stellar evolutionary tracks and BaSel 3.1 flux libraries, and provides absorption line indices of the Lick/IDS system and high-order Balmer lines for simple stellar populations as functions of stellar parameters, such as metallicity, age and {\alpha}-element mixture. Special care has been taken to incorporate systematic contribution from horizontal-branch stars which alters the temperature-sensitive Balmer lines significantly, resulting in up to 5 Gyr difference in age estimation of old, metal-poor stellar populations. We also find that the horizontal branches exert an appreciable effect not only on the Balmer lines but also on the metallicity-sensitive lines including the magnesium index. This is critical to explain the intriguing bimodality found in index distributions of globular clusters in massive galaxies and to derive spectroscopic metallicities accurately from various indices. A full set of the spectroscopic and photometric YEPS model data of the entire parameter space is currently downloadable at http://web.yonsei.ac.kr/cosmic/data/YEPS.htm
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 10/2012; 204(1). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present GALEX data for 44 Galactic globular clusters obtained during 3 GALEX observing cycles between 2004 and 2008. This is the largest homogeneous data set on the UV photometric properties of Galactic globular clusters ever collected. The sample selection and photometric analysis are discussed, and color-magnitude diagrams are presented. The blue and intermediate-blue horizontal branch is the dominant feature of the UV color-magnitude diagrams of old Galactic globular clusters. Our sample is large enough to display the remarkable variety of horizontal branch shapes found in old stellar populations. Other stellar types that are obviously detected are blue stragglers and post core-He burning stars. The main features of UV color-magnitude diagrams of Galactic globular clusters are briefly discussed. We establish the locus of post-core He burning stars in the UV color-magnitude diagram and present a catalog of candidate AGB-manqu \'e, post early-AGB, and post-AGB stars within our cluster sample.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2012; 143(5). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    Chul Chung, Suk-Jin Yoon, Young-Wook Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Recent observations and modeling of globular clusters with multiple populations strongly indicate the presence of super helium-rich subpopulations in old stellar systems. Motivated by this, we have constructed new population synthesis models with and without helium-enhanced subpopulations to investigate their impact on the UV-upturn phenomenon of quiescent early-type galaxies. We find that our models with helium- enhanced subpopulations can naturally reproduce the strong UV-upturns observed in giant elliptical galaxies assuming an age similar to that of old globular clusters in the Milky Way. The major source of far-UV (FUV) flux, in this model, is relatively metal- poor and helium-enhanced hot horizontal branch stars and their progeny. The Burstein et al. (1988) relation of the F U V - V color with metallicity is also explained either by the variation of the fraction of helium-enhanced subpopulations or by the spread in mean age of stellar populations in early-type galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 09/2011; 740(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the presence of two distinct red giant branches (RGBs) in the globular cluster NGC 288 from the narrowband calcium and Strömgren b and y photometry obtained at the CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope. The RGB of NGC 288 is clearly split into two in the hk [=(Ca – b) – (b – y)] index, while the split is not shown in the b – y color. Unlike other globular clusters with multiple populations reported thus far, the horizontal branch of NGC 288 is only mildly extended. Our stellar population models show that this and the presence of two distinct RGBs in NGC 288 can be reproduced if slightly metal-rich (Δ[m/H] 0.16) second generation stars are also enhanced in helium by small amount (ΔY 0.03) and younger by ~1.5 Gyr. The RGB split in the hk index is most likely indicating that the second generation stars were affected by supernovae enrichment, together with the pollution of lighter elements by intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch stars or fast-rotating massive stars. In order to confirm this, however, spectroscopy of stars in the two distinct RGB groups is urgently required.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2011; 733(2):L45. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and optical integrated photometry of the hosts of seventeen luminous supernovae (LSNe, having peak M_V < -21) and compare them to a sample of 26,000 galaxies from a cross-match between the SDSS DR4 spectral catalog and GALEX interim release 1.1. We place the LSNe hosts on the galaxy NUV-r versus M_r color magnitude diagram (CMD) with the larger sample to illustrate how extreme they are. The LSN hosts appear to favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low luminosity end. From the UV-optical photometry, we estimate the star formation history of the LSN hosts. The hosts have moderately low star formation rates (SFRs) and low stellar masses (M_*) resulting in high specific star formation rates (sSFR). Compared with the larger sample, the LSN hosts occupy low-density regions of a diagram plotting sSFR versus M_* in the area having higher sSFR and lower M_*. This preference for low M_*, high sSFR hosts implies the LSNe are produced by an effect having to do with their local environment. The correlation of mass with metallicity suggests that perhaps wind-driven mass loss is the factor that prevents LSNe from arising in higher-mass, higher-metallicity hosts. The massive progenitors of the LSNe (>100 M_sun), by appearing in low-SFR hosts, are potential tests for theories of the initial mass function that limit the maximum mass of a star based on the SFR. Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables, accepted to ApJ, amended references and updated SN designations
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2010; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the UV-optical color dependence of galaxy clustering in the local universe. Using the clean separation of the red and blue sequences made possible by the NUV - r color-magnitude diagram, we segregate the galaxies into red, blue and intermediate "green" classes. We explore the clustering as a function of this segregation by removing the dependence on luminosity and by excluding edge-on galaxies as a means of a non-model dependent veto of highly extincted galaxies. We find that \xi (r_p, \pi) for both red and green galaxies shows strong redshift space distortion on small scales -- the "finger-of-God" effect, with green galaxies having a lower amplitude than is seen for the red sequence, and the blue sequence showing almost no distortion. On large scales, \xi (r_p, \pi) for all three samples show the effect of large-scale streaming from coherent infall. On scales 1 Mpc/h < r_p < 10 Mpc/h, the projected auto-correlation function w_p(r_p) for red and green galaxies fits a power-law with slope \gamma ~ 1.93 and amplitude r_0 ~ 7.5 and 5.3, compared with \gamma ~ 1.75 and r_0 ~ 3.9 Mpc/h for blue sequence galaxies. Compared to the clustering of a fiducial L* galaxy, the red, green, and blue have a relative bias of 1.5, 1.1, and 0.9 respectively. The w_p(r_p) for blue galaxies display an increase in convexity at ~ 1 Mpc/h, with an excess of large scale clustering. Our results suggest that the majority of blue galaxies are likely central galaxies in less massive halos, while red and green galaxies have larger satellite fractions, and preferentially reside in virialized structures. If blue sequence galaxies migrate to the red sequence via processes like mergers or quenching that take them through the green valley, such a transformation may be accompanied by a change in environment in addition to any change in luminosity and color. Comment: accepted by MNRAS
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2010; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wide-field deep g'r'i' images obtained with the Megacam of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope are used to investigate the spatial configuration of stars around five metal-poor globular clusters M15, M30, M53, NGC 5053, and NGC 5466, in a field-of-view ~3°. Applying a mask filtering algorithm to the color-magnitude diagrams of the observed stars, we sorted cluster's member star candidates that are used to examine the characteristics of the spatial stellar distribution surrounding the target clusters. The smoothed surface density maps and the overlaid isodensity contours indicate that all of the five metal-poor globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of extratidal overdensity features over their tidal radii, in the form of extended tidal tails around the clusters. The orientations of the observed extratidal features show signatures of tidal tails tracing the clusters' orbits, inferred from their proper motions, and effects of dynamical interactions with the Galaxy. Our findings include detections of a tidal bridge-like feature and an envelope structure around the pair of globular clusters M53 and NGC 5053. The observed radial surface density profiles of target clusters have a deviation from theoretical King models, for which the profiles show a break at 0.5-0.7rt , extending the overdensity features out to 1.5-2rt . Both radial surface density profiles for different angular sections and azimuthal number density profiles confirm the overdensity features of tidal tails around the five metal-poor globular clusters. Our results add further observational evidence that the observed metal-poor halo globular clusters originate from an accreted satellite system, indicative of the merging scenario of the formation of the Galactic halo.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2010; 139(2):606. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a growing body of evidence for the presence of multiple stellar populations in some globular clusters, including NGC 1851. For most of these peculiar globular clusters, however, the evidence for the multiple red giant branches (RGBs) having different heavy elemental abundances as observed in ω Centauri is hitherto lacking, although spreads in some lighter elements are reported. It is therefore not clear whether they also share the suggested dwarf galaxy origin of ω Cen or not. Here we show from the CTIO 4 m UVI photometry of the globular cluster NGC 1851 that its RGB is clearly split into two in the U – I color. The two distinct RGB populations are also clearly separated in the abundance of heavy elements as traced by calcium, suggesting that the Type II supernovae enrichment is also responsible, in addition to the pollutions of lighter elements by intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch stars or fast-rotating massive stars. The RGB split, however, is not shown in the V – I color, as indicated by previous observations. Our stellar population models show that this and the presence of bimodal horizontal-branch distribution in NGC 1851 can be naturally reproduced if the metal-rich second generation stars are also enhanced in helium.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2009; 707(2):L190. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use multi-wavelength, matched aperture, integrated photometry from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the RC3 to estimate the physical properties of 166 nearby galaxies hosting 168 well-observed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The ultraviolet (UV) imaging of local SN Ia hosts from GALEX allows a direct comparison with higher-redshift hosts measured at optical wavelengths that correspond to the rest-frame UV. Our data corroborate well-known features that have been seen in other SN Ia samples. Specifically, hosts with active star formation produce brighter and slower SNe Ia on average, and hosts with luminosity-weighted ages older than 1 Gyr produce on average more faint, fast, and fewer bright, slow SNe Ia than younger hosts. New results include that in our sample, the faintest and fastest SNe Ia occur only in galaxies exceeding a stellar mass threshold of ~1010 M ☉, leading us to conclude that their progenitors must arise in populations that are older and/or more metal rich than the general SN Ia population. A low host extinction subsample hints at a residual trend in peak luminosity with host age, after correcting for light-curve shape, giving the appearance that older hosts produce less-extincted SNe Ia on average. This has implications for cosmological fitting of SNe Ia, and suggests that host age could be useful as a parameter in the fitting. Converting host mass to metallicity and computing 56Ni mass from the supernova light curves, we find that our local sample is consistent with a model that predicts a shallow trend between stellar metallicity and the 56Ni mass that powers the explosion, but we cannot rule out the absence of a trend. We measure a correlation between 56Ni mass and host age in the local universe that is shallower and not as significant as that seen at higher redshifts. The details of the age-56Ni mass correlations at low and higher redshift imply a luminosity-weighted age threshold of ~3 Gyr for SN Ia hosts, above which they are less likely to produce SNe Ia with 56Ni masses above ~0.5 M ☉.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2009; 707(2):1449. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One possible channel for the formation of dwarf galaxies involves birth in the tidal tails of interacting galaxies. We report the detection of a bright UV tidal tail and several young tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates in the post-merger galaxy NGC 4922 in the Coma cluster. Based on a two-component population model (combining young and old stellar populations), we find that the light of tidal tail predominantly comes from young stars (a few Myr old). The Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet data played a critical role in the parameter (age and mass) estimation. Our stellar mass estimates of the TDG candidates are ~106–7 M ☉, typical for dwarf galaxies.
    The Astronomical Journal 11/2009; 138(6):1911. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The most massive globular cluster in the Milky Way, omega Centauri, is thought to be the remaining core of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, as expected within the model of hierarchical merging. It contains several stellar populations having different heavy elemental abundances supplied by supernovae-a process known as metal enrichment. Although M 22 appears to be similar to omega Cen, other peculiar globular clusters do not. Therefore omega Cen and M 22 are viewed as exceptional, and the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in other clusters is seen as 'pollution' from the intermediate-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars expected in normal globular clusters. Here we report Ca abundances for seven globular clusters and compare them to omega Cen. Calcium and other heavy elements can only be supplied through numerous supernovae explosions of massive stars in these stellar systems, but the gravitational potentials of the present-day clusters cannot preserve most of the ejecta from such explosions. We conclude that these globular clusters, like omega Cen, are most probably the relics of more massive primeval dwarf galaxies that merged and disrupted to form the proto-Galaxy.
    Nature 11/2009; 462(7272):480-2. · 38.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,020.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • Yonsei University
      • Center for Space Astrophysics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2009
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
    • Sejong University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008
    • Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2004–2008
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
      Pasadena, CA, United States
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Space Sciences Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2002
    • Swinburne University of Technology
      • Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1990
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, CT, United States