[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and inflammation are highly integrated processes in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory events during high fat diet-induced obesity are poorly defined in mouse models of obesity. This work investigated gene activation signals integral to the temporal development of obesity.
Gene expression analysis in multiple organs from obese mice was done with Taqman Low Density Array (TLDA) using a panel of 92 genes representing cell markers, cytokines, chemokines, metabolic, and activation genes. Mice were monitored for systemic changes characteristic of the disease, including hyperinsulinemia, body weight, and liver enzymes. Liver steatosis and fibrosis as well as cellular infiltrates in liver and adipose tissues were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry.
Obese C57BL/6 mice were fed with high fat and cholesterol diet (HFC) for 6, 16 and 26 weeks. Here we report that the mRNA levels of macrophage and inflammation associated genes were strongly upregulated at different time points in adipose tissues (6-16 weeks) and liver (16-26 weeks), after the start of HFC feeding. CD11b+ and CD11c+ macrophages highly infiltrated HFC liver at 16 and 26 weeks. We found clear evidence that signals for IL-1β, IL1RN, TNF-α and TGFβ-1 are present in both adipose and liver tissues and that these are linked to the development of inflammation and insulin resistance in the HFC-fed mice.
Macrophage infiltration accompanied by severe inflammation and metabolic changes occurred in both adipose and liver tissues with a temporal shift in these signals depending upon the duration of HFC feeding. The evidences of gene expression profile, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, and histological data support a progression towards nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis in these HFC-fed mice within the time frame of 26 weeks.
Journal of Inflammation 03/2011; 8:8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) and FABP5 are two closely related FA binding proteins expressed primarily in adipose tissue and/or macrophages. The small-molecule FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 was previously reported to improve insulin sensitivity in leptin-deficient Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) (ob/ob) mice. However, this compound was not extensively characterized in the more physiologically relevant animal model of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Here, we report the discovery and characterization of a novel series of FABP4/5 dual inhibitors represented by Compounds 1-3. Compared with BMS309403, the compounds had significant in vitro potency toward both FABP4 and FABP5. In cell-based assays, Compounds 2 and 3 were more potent than BMS309403 to inhibit lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in primary human adipocytes. They also inhibited MCP-1 release from THP-1 macrophages as well as from primary human macrophages. When chronically administered to DIO mice, BMS309403 and Compound 3 reduced plasma triglyceride and free FA levels. Compound 3 reduced plasma free FAs at a lower dose level than BMS309403. However, no significant change was observed in insulin, glucose, or glucose tolerance. Our results indicate that the FABP4/5 inhibitors ameliorate dyslipidemia but not insulin resistance in DIO mice.
The Journal of Lipid Research 02/2011; 52(4):646-56. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kinetics of metabolic and inflammatory parameters associated with obesity were evaluated in a murine diet-induced obesity (DIO) model using a diet high in fat and cholesterol. Cellular infiltration and mediator production were assessed and shown to be therapeutically modulated by the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone. C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a 45% fat/ 0.12% cholesterol (HF/CH) or Chow diet for 3, 6, 16, or 27 weeks. Flow cytometry was employed to monitor peripheral blood monocytes and adipose tissue macrophages (ATM). Gene expression and protein analysis methods were used to evaluate mediator production from total epididymal fat (EF), stromal vascular fraction (SVF), and sorted SVF cells. To investigate therapeutic intervention, mice were fed a HF/CH diet for 12 weeks and then a diet formulated with rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg) for an additional 6 weeks. A HF/CH diet correlated with obesity and a dramatic proinflammatory state. Therapeutic intervention with rosiglitazone attenuated the HF/CH induced inflammation. In addition, a novel population was found that expressed the highest levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators CCL2 and IL-6.
PPAR Research 01/2010; 2010:970164. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes.
Human neutrophils and monocytes were isolated from human whole blood by using 1-Step Polymorph and RosetteSep Human Monocyte Enrichment Cocktail, respectively. Human GPR41 and GPR43 mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The calcium flux assay was used to examine the biological activities of SCFAs in human neutrophils and monocytes. The effect of SCFAs on human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied by measuring PGE(2), cytokines and chemokines in the supernatant. The effect of SCFAs in vivo was examined by intraplantar injection into rat paws.
Human GPR43 is highly expressed in human neutrophils and monocytes. SCFAs induce robust calcium flux in human neutrophils, but not in human monocytes. In this study, we show that SCFAs can induce human monocyte release of PGE(2) and that this effect can be enhanced in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, we demonstrate that PGE(2) production induced by SCFA was inhibited by pertussis toxin, suggesting the involvement of a receptor-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, SCFAs can specifically inhibit constitutive monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) production and LPS-induced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in human monocytes without affecting the secretion of other cytokines and chemokines examined. Similar activities were observed in human PBMC for the release of PGE(2), MCP-1 and IL-10 after SCFA treatment. In addition, SCFAs inhibit LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma in human PBMC. Finally, we show that SCFAs and LPS can induce PGE(2) production in vivo by intraplantar injection into rat paws (P < 0.01).
SCFAs can have distinct antiinflammatory activities due to their regulation of PGE(2), cytokine and chemokine release from human immune cells.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2009; 15(44):5549-57. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice lacking GPR103A expression display osteopenia. Analysis of mouse quantitative trait loci literature associated with bone mineral density suggested GPR103A ligand P518/Qrfp (chromosome 2qB) as a candidate osteoporosis gene. Promoter and coding regions of mouse P518/Qrfp were sequenced from genomic DNA obtained from the osteoporosis-prone strain SAMP6 and control strains SAMR1, A/J, AKR/J, BALB/c, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in only SAMP6 genomic DNA, g.-1773 T-->C, g.110 A-->G (N37S), g.188 G-->A (R63K), and g.135 T-->C (H45H). The promoter SNP generated a novel neuron-restrictive silencing factor binding site, a repressor that decreases gene expression in nonneuronal tissues. TaqMan analysis demonstrated fivefold lower P518/Qrfp liver expression in SAMP6 versus SAMR1 or C57BL/6J control strains. Tissue distribution of human, mouse, and rat P518/Qrfp and its receptors showed expression in bone and spinal cord. A direct role for P518/Qrfp function in maintaining bone mineral density is suggested.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Work to improve the therapeutic properties of cannabinoid CB(2) receptor-selective inverse agonists has led to the development of Sch.036, an aryl substituted triaryl bis-sulfone with improved oral pharmacokinetic parameters. In this report, we show that this compound blocks in vivo trafficking of various leukocyte populations, a property consistent with other members of this chemical series. This CB(2)-selective compound also shows efficacy in leukocyte recruitment models when added in concert with suboptimal doses of selected anti-inflammatory agents, consistent with its unique function and indicative of its potential therapeutic utility. Finally, studies with Sch.036 show that this cannabinoid CB(2)-specific inverse agonist can ameliorate bone damage in a rat model of relapsing-remitting arthritis. This result suggests that a cannabinoid CB(2)-selective inverse agonist may help ameliorate a particularly harmful property of this inflammatory joint disease.
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 02/2007; 29(3-4):387-401. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of the cannabinoid peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB(2)) receptor on peripheral immune cells suggests that compounds specific for CB(2) might be effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this report, we present the initial biological profiling of a novel triaryl bis-sulfone, Sch.336 (N-[1(S)-[4-[[4-methoxy-2-[(4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]phenyl]-sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]methanesulfonamide), which is selective for the human cannabinoid CB(2) receptor (hCB(2)). Sch.336 is an inverse agonist at hCB(2), as shown by its ability to decrease guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) binding to membranes containing hCB(2), by the ability of GTPgammaS to left-shift Sch.336 binding to hCB(2) in these membranes, and by the compound's ability to increase forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels in CHO cells expressing hCB(2). In these systems, Sch.336 displays a greater potency than that reported for the CB(2)-selective dihydropyrazole, SR144528 (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo [2.2.1]heptan2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-[(4-methylphenyl)methyl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide). In vitro, Sch.336 impairs the migration of CB(2)-expressing recombinant cell lines to the cannabinoid agonist 2-arachidonylglycerol. In vivo, the compound impairs migration of cells to cannabinoid agonist HU210 [(6aR)-trans-3-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-1-hydroxy-6,6-dimethyl-6H-dibenzo [b,d] pyran-9-methanol]. Oral administration of the Sch.336 significantly inhibited leukocyte trafficking in several rodent in vivo models, induced either by specific chemokines or by antigen challenge. Finally, oral administration of Sch.336 blocked ovalbumin-induced lung eosinophilia in mice, a disease model for allergic asthma. We conclude that selective cannabinoid CB(2) inverse agonists may serve as novel immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of a broad range of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders in which leukocyte recruitment is a hallmark of disease pathology.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2006; 316(2):780-8. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have characterized leukocyte migration to the pleural cavity in a methylated-BSA (mBSA)-induced model of murine delayed-type hypersensitivity and evaluated the ability of IL-4 and IL-10 to modulate this response. Neutrophils, macrophages, T cells, and dendritic cells migrated to the pleural cavity in a time-dependent fashion following direct intrapleural antigen challenge, with neutrophils comprising the majority of exudate leukocytes in the cavity within the first 24 h and the number of mononuclear cells increasing at later times. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of infiltrating leukocytes revealed a marked elevation of steady-state mRNA levels of IL-1beta and TNFalpha and the chemokines KC, MIP-2, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4 at 6 h postchallenge, which diminished over time. In contrast, gammaIFN mRNA levels were maximal at 24 h and CCL5 expression was sustained throughout 72 h. ELISA analysis of pleural exudate fluid revealed significant elevations of KC and CCL2 protein levels at 6 h postantigen challenge and a peak increase in gammaIFN protein at 24 h, confirming our mRNA observations. Administration of recombinant murine IL-4 or IL-10 prior to challenge significantly blocked cell trafficking to the pleural cavity as well as peak levels of exudate gammaIFN, with IL-4 being more potent in impairing these responses. IL-4 administration also increased the proportion of naive T cells in the pleural cavity, as judged by CD62L and CD45RB expression. These results indicate that this in vivo model demonstrates a pattern of events associated with Th1-mediated leukocyte trafficking and underscore the potential utility of this in vivo model for evaluating therapeutic inhibitors of leukocyte trafficking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the capacity of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 to block polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation in an ex vivo human model system, and to confirm their effect on neutrophil function in an animal model of arthritis.
The ex vivo phagocytic capacity of cytokine-activated human PMNs was assessed by use of assays for measuring the ingestion of heat-killed yeast and by subsequent hexose-monophosphate shunt activation using nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. The in vivo activity of IL-4 and IL-10 was measured using a rat adjuvant arthritis model in which the mycobacterial antigen concentration was titrated to modify disease intensity.
IL-4 and IL-10 suppressed the ex vivo activation state of interferon-gamma- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-activated human neutrophils. In the rat adjuvant arthritis model, treatment with systemic murine IL-10 (mIL-10) effectively suppressed all disease parameters in rats that received the lower concentrations of mycobacteria, whereas systemic mIL-4 was effective against even the most severe disease. Both cytokines were effective in lowering the absolute PMN cell number recovered and the PMN activation state in the joint synovia. We also observed lower levels of the messenger RNA transcript for CINC protein (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant; a rat homolog for human IL-8) in the synovia.
IL-10 is an effective antiarthritic agent and has a major effect on the presence and function of PMNs in the joint synovia when disease intensity is not severe. IL-4 has an inhibitory profile that is similar to that of IL-10, but is effective in modifying even the most severe disease. Both cytokines reduced the phagocytic activation of human PMNs in response to proinflammatory cytokines. These data demonstrate that IL-4 and IL-10 can exert powerful regulatory effects on neutrophil function that translate into a therapeutic response in a disease model of arthritis. Treatment with these cytokines alone or in combination may therefore be very useful in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have directly compared the in vivo activity of a number of chemokines and phlogistins using a modified murine in vivo sponge model in which gelatin sponges are soaked with chemoattractant and implanted in the peritoneal cavity. Sponges soaked with murine JE/MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) or zymosan promoted the chemotaxis of specific leukocyte populations in a time-dependent manner, as judged by multiparameter flow cytometry, with granulocytes predominating in zymosan-soaked sponges and granulocytes and macrophages present in JE/MCP-1-soaked sponges. Smaller numbers of B, T and dendritic cells were identified as well. Eotaxin selectively chemoattracted eosinophils in this model, while MIG induced significant T cell migration relative to other chemokines. Cell migration was inhibited by administration of methotrexate, piroxicam or dexamethasone, and JE/MCP-1-mediated trafficking was impaired by treatment with anti-JE antibody or with IL-10, suggesting a role for pro-inflammatory factors in amplifying the JE/MCP-1-induced response. This amplification phase involves the production of the chemokine KC, since anti-KC antibody significantly attenuated JE/MCP-1-induced chemotaxis. These results indicate that intraperitoneally implanted chemoattractant-soaked gelatin sponges are capable of inducing a pronounced inflammatory response characterized by the selective migration of leukocyte populations, and suggest that this model may be useful for delineating the activity of novel inhibitors of leukocyte chemotaxis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used a panel of functional assays to compare directly the pattern and potency of GM-CSF and M-CSF on monocyte activity associated with cell-mediated immune defense. GM-CSF and M-CSF were found to be equivalent both in their capacity to stimulate human monocyte functions in vitro and in their pattern of monocyte activation. The two CSFs were effective in inducing monocyte chemotaxis towards either fMLP or LTB4 at equivalent concentrations across a panel of donors. GM-CSF and M-CSF demonstrated equipotency in the induction of monocyte phagocytosis of heat-killed baker's yeast and in the regulation of the hexose-monophosphate shunt (NBT reduction). Both were also found to be equivalent in preventing steroid (dexamethasone)-induced suppression of monocyte anti-bacterial (Candida albicans) and anti-fungal (Staphylococcus aureus) phagocytic capacities. GM-CSF was somewhat more effective than M-CSF in stimulating monocyte C. albicans killing at a lower E:T ratio.
International Journal of Immunopharmacology 06/1995; 17(5):385-92.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A direct comparison of GM-CSF and G-CSF in a panel of in vitro neutrophil-function assays was performed to investigate any differences in activity profiles. In our modified chemotactic assay, GM-CSF rapidly increased the migratory capacity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) to move toward fMLP and LTB4. In contrast, G-CSF only stimulated PMN migration towards fMLP. GM-CSF, but not G-CSF, increased PMN cytotoxic killing of C. albicans blastospores. The expression of PMN surface antigens associated with Fc- and complement-mediated cell-binding (Fc gamma R1, CR-1 and CR-3), and adhesion signalling (ICAM-1), was increased after the exposure of GM-CSF, but not to G-CSF. In contrast these CSFs demonstrated relative equipotency in their ability to induce PMN anti-bacterial phagocytosis, and to restore the Staphylococcus aureus killing capacity of dexamethasone-suppressed neutrophils. The phagocytic activity of PMNs for opsonized yeast, as well as hexose-monophosphate shunt activity, was equivalent following GM-CSF or G-CSF treatment. We discuss the significance of the difference in activity profiles in this article.