[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review illustrates how an innovative psychoneuroendocrine approach to endocrine patients may improve their management. Important psychological issues pertain to all the different phases of an endocrine disorder. Before disease onset, stressful life events may play a pathogenetic role and, together with chronic stress, may contribute to a cumulative burden also called allostatic load; psychological and psychiatric symptoms are common both in the prodromal and in the active phase of illness; after cure or remission, there could be residual symptoms and impaired quality of life that deserve attention. All these aspects should be taken into consideration and introduced in current endocrine care and practice.
The journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 04/2015; 45(1):55-59. DOI:10.4997/JRCPE.2015.113
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The psychosocial implications of PCOS phenotypes have been investigated in different patient populations, but little attention was paid to adolescent and young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychosocial correlates of PCOS and other hyperandrogenic states in a population of late adolescent and young females, and to provide a psychological characterization of specific clinical hyperandrogenic phenotypes.
This was a cross-sectional study.
High school female students, aged 16-19 years.
The study protocol was designed with three possible levels of participation characterized by an increased level of commitment. For the specific purposes of this investigation, we focused on the subsamples of students whose clinical state was assessed by medical examination (n=835) and for whom additional laboratory tests were available (n=394). Psychological evaluation encompassed psychological distress, levels of stress, well-being, illness behavior, and quality of life (as measured by the Symptom Questionnaire, the Psychosocial Index and the Psychological Well-Being scales).
Significantly higher levels of psychological distress and impaired well-being and quality of life were found among late adolescent and young women with isolated clinical hyperandrogenism compared to their normal counterparts. Furthermore, females with PCOS showed significantly greater hostility/irritability compared to healthy control subjects.
These findings highlight the importance of early recognizing and adequately managing psychological distress in such patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Affective disturbances involving alterations of mood, anxiety and irritability may be early symptoms of medical illnesses. The aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the literature with qualitative data synthesis.
MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Science were systematically searched from inception to February 2014. Search terms were 'prodrome/early symptom', combined using the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'anxiety/depression/mania/hypomania/irritability/irritable mood/hostility', combined with the Boolean 'AND' operator with 'medical illness/medical disorder'. PRISMA guidelines were followed.
A total of 21 studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Depression was found to be the most common affective prodrome of medical disorders and was consistently reported in Cushing's syndrome, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic and lung cancer, myocardial infarction, Wilson's disease, and AIDS. Mania, anxiety and irritability were less frequent.
Physicians may not pursue medical workup of cases that appear to be psychiatric in nature. They should be alerted that disturbances in mood, anxiety and irritability may antedate the appearance of a medical disorder.
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 12/2014; 84(1):22-29. DOI:10.1159/000367913 · 9.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this critical review was to outline emerging trends and perspectives of clinical pharmacopsychology, an area of clinical psychology that is concerned with the psychological effects of medications. The historical development of clinical pharmacopsychology (Kraepelin, Pichot, Kellner, Di Mascio, Shader, Bech) is outlined, with critical review of its most representative expressions and reference to current challenges of clinical research. Clinical pharmacopsychology is concerned with the application of clinimetric methods to the assessment of psychotropic effects of medications (including behavioral toxicity and iatrogenic comorbidity) and the interaction of drugs with specific and non-specific treatment ingredients. Clinical pharmacopsychology offers a unifying framework for the understanding of clinical phenomena in medical and psychiatric settings. Research in this area deserves high priority.
Rivista di Psichiatria 09/2014; 49(5):251-4. DOI:10.1708/1668.18270 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Demoralization has been described as a psychological state characterized by helplessness, hopelessness, a sense of failure and the inability to cope.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review with qualitative data analysis following PRISMA criteria with the following aims: to review validated assessment instruments of the demoralization syndrome, report main findings regarding demoralization as measured by validated instruments that emerge in the literature, compare and report evidence for the clinical utility of the identified instruments. Utilizing the key word ‘demoralization’ in PubMed and PsycINFO databases, an electronic search was performed, supplemented by Web of Science and manual searches. Study selection criteria included the assessment of medical patients and use of instruments validated to assess demoralization. Seventy-four studies were selected.
Results: Four instruments emerged in the literature. Main findings concern prevalence rates of demoralization, evidence of discriminant validity from major depression, factors associated with demoralization and evidence of clinical utility. The instruments vary in their definition, the populations they aim to assess, prevalence rates they estimate and their ability to discriminate between different conditions. Nonetheless, demoralization appears to be a distinctive psychological state characterized by helplessness, hopelessness, giving up and subjective incompetence. It is not limited to life-threatening diseases such as cancer, but may occur in any type of clinical situation. It is associated with stress and adverse health outcomes.
Conclusions: Studies addressing the incremental value of demoralization in psychiatry and psychology are needed. However, demoralization appears to entail specific clinical features and may be a distinct condition from major depression.
Psychological Medicine 07/2014; 45(04):1-19. DOI:10.1017/S0033291714001597 · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The term "iatrogenic comorbidity" refers to unfavorable modifications in the course of an illness, with regard to its characteristics and responsiveness, which may be related to previous treatments. Some iatrogenic adverse events arising from either pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy cannot be subsumed under the traditional rubric of adverse effects and require careful evaluation. Children and adolescents are generally more likely to experience adverse health consequences after drug treatment. The use of antidepressant drugs in this age group may cause potential long-term detrimental effects, such as mood elevation that does not subside when drugs are discontinued and may predispose to the development of a bipolar disorder. The concept of iatrogenic comorbidity in children and adolescents has heuristic value in weighing potential benefits and risks associated particularly with psychotropic treatments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Series: Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology, Vol. 8 ▶ Discusses a neglected aspect in psychotherapy research: cultural diversity ▶ Presents and examines many therapies and interventions in a variety of settings ▶ Approaches the topic from biological, psychological, and social perspectives This volume deals with strategies aimed at increasing psychological well-being in both clinical and non-clinical settings, with a special focus on the impact of cross-cultural influences on these processes. Consisting of two parts, the book first examines clinical interventions for increasing well-being and positive functioning in adult populations. It looks at cultural differences in the experience of psychological well-being, presents an analysis of the concept of psychological well-being and discusses various interventions, including Well-Being Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Other concepts discussed are post-traumatic growth, wisdom and motivation. The second part of the book deals with psychological interventions in childhood and adolescence and has a strong emphasis on educational settings. It provides an overview of the main evidence-based psychotherapies for affective disorders in youths, and looks at the importance and impact of positive education, resilience, and hope. The book presents models for intervention and discusses several therapies in detail. Order online at springer.com ▶ or for the Americas call (toll free) 1-800-SPRINGER ▶ or email us at: email@example.com. ▶ For outside the Americas call +49 (0) 6221-345-4301 ▶ or email us at: firstname.lastname@example.org. The first € price and the £ and $ price are net prices, subject to local VAT. Prices indicated with * include VAT for books; the €(D) includes 7% for Germany, the €(A) includes 10% for Austria. Prices indicated with ** include VAT for electronic products; 19% for Germany, 20% for Austria. All prices exclusive of carriage charges. Prices and other details are subject to change without notice. All errors and omissions excepted.