D Trichopoulos

Hellenic Health Foundation, Athínai, Attica, Greece

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Publications (507)3540.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There is limited evidence on the association between dietary folate intake and the risk of breast cancer (BC) by hormone receptor expression in the tumors. We investigated the relationship between dietary folate and BC risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 367993 women age 35 to 70 years were recruited in 10 European countries. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 11575 women with BC were identified. Dietary folate intake was estimated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify the association between dietary variables and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. Subgroup analyses were performed by menopausal status and alcohol intake. Intake of other B vitamins was considered. All statistical tests were two-sided. A borderline inverse association was observed between dietary folate and BC risk (hazard ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile [HRQ5-Q1] = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.01, P trend = .037). In premenopausal women, we observed a statistically significant trend towards lower risk in estrogen receptor-negative BC (HRQ5-Q1 = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.96, P trend = .042) and progesterone receptor-negative BC (HRQ5-Q1 = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.97, P trend = .021). No associations were found in postmenopausal women. A 14% reduction in BC risk was observed when comparing the highest with the lowest dietary folate tertiles in women having a high (>12 alcoholic drinks/week) alcohol intake (HRT3-T1 = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.98, P interaction = .035). Higher dietary folate intake may be associated with a lower risk of sex hormone receptor-negative BC in premenopausal women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 01/2015; 107(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of bladder cancer identified a genetic marker rs8102137 within the 19q12 region as a novel susceptibility variant. This marker is located upstream of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes cyclin E, a cell-cycle protein. We performed genetic fine-mapping analysis of the CCNE1 region using data from two bladder cancer GWAS (5,942 cases and 10,857 controls). We found that the original GWAS marker rs8102137 represents a group of 47 linked SNPs (with r(2) ≥ 0.7) associated with increased bladder cancer risk. From this group, we selected a functional promoter variant rs7257330, which showed strong allele-specific binding of nuclear proteins in several cell lines. In both GWASs, rs7257330 was associated only with aggressive bladder cancer, with a combined per-allele OR = 1.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.27, P = 4.67 × 10(-5)] versus OR = 1.01 (95% CI, 0.93-1.10, P = 0.79) for nonaggressive disease, with P = 0.0015 for case-only analysis. Cyclin E protein expression analyzed in 265 bladder tumors was increased in aggressive tumors (P = 0.013) and, independently, with each rs7257330-A risk allele (Ptrend = 0.024). Overexpression of recombinant cyclin E in cell lines caused significant acceleration of cell cycle. In conclusion, we defined the 19q12 signal as the first GWAS signal specific for aggressive bladder cancer. Molecular mechanisms of this genetic association may be related to cyclin E overexpression and alteration of cell cycle in carriers of CCNE1 risk variants. In combination with established bladder cancer risk factors and other somatic and germline genetic markers, the CCNE1 variants could be useful for inclusion into bladder cancer risk prediction models. Cancer Res; 74(20); 5808-18. ©2014 AACR.
    Cancer Research 10/2014; 74(20):5808-18. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35-70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases.Results:During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n=430) and non-aggressive (n=413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.91; P-trend=0.009) and lignans (HRQ5-Q1 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96; P-trend=0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC.Conclusions:Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 14 August 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.459 www.bjcancer.com.
    Cancer 08/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an excess risk of pancreatic cancer, but the magnitude of the risk and the time-risk relationship are unclear, and there is limited information on the role of antidiabetic medications.
    Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology / ESMO. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: High blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with elevated risk of colorectal cancer in several prospective studies including the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), but it is unknown whether these observations reflect a causal relationship. We aimed to investigate whether CRP genetic variants associated with lifelong higher CRP concentrations translate into higher colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case–control study within EPIC including 727 cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2003 and 727 matched controls selected according to an incidence-density sampling protocol. Baseline CRP concentrations were measured in plasma samples by a high sensitivity assay. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene (rs1205, rs1800947, rs1130864, rs2808630, rs3093077) were identified via HapMap. The causal effect of CRP on colorectal cancer risk was examined in a Mendelian Randomization approach utilizing multiple CRP genetic variants as instrumental variables. The SNPs rs1205, rs1800947, rs1130864 and rs3093077 were significantly associated with CRP concentrations and were incorporated in a CRP allele score which was associated with 13% higher CRP concentrations per allele count (95% confidence interval 8–19%). Using the CRP-score as instrumental variable, genetically twofold higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.06–2.85). Similar observations were made using alternative definitions of instrumental variables. Our findings give support to the hypothesis that elevated circulating CRP may play a direct role in the etiology of colorectal cancer.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least ten distinct cancers to a small region of 63,000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (ASSET) across six distinct cancers in 34,248 cases and 45,036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): five in the TERT gene (region 1: rs7726159, P=2.10x10-39; region 3: rs2853677, P=3.30x10-36 and PConditional=2.36x10-8; region 4: rs2736098, P=3.87x10-12 and PConditional=5.19x10-6, region 5: rs13172201, P=0.041 and PConditional=2.04x10-6; and region 6: rs10069690, P=7.49x10-15 and PConditional=5.35x10-7) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (region 2: rs451360; P=1.90x10-18 and PConditional=7.06x10-16). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Suboptimal intakes of the micronutrient selenium (Se) are found in many parts of Europe. Low Se status may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We assessed Se status by measuring serum levels of Se and Selenoprotein P (SePP) and examined the association with CRC risk in a nested case-control design (966 CRC cases; 966 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Se was measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and SePP by immunoluminometric sandwich assay. Multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Respective mean Se and SePP levels were 84.0 μg/L and 4.3 mg/L in cases and 85.6 μg/L and 4.4 mg/L in controls. Higher Se concentrations were associated with a non-significant lower CRC risk (IRR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.03 per 25 μg/L increase). However, sub-group analyses by sex showed a statistically significant association for women (ptrend = 0.032; per 25 μg/L Se increase, IRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97) but not for men. Higher SePP concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk (ptrend = 0.009; per 0.806 mg/L increase, IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.98) with the association more apparent in women (ptrend = 0.004; IRR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94 per 0.806 mg/L increase) than men (ptrend = 0.485; IRR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 per 0.806 mg/L increase). The findings indicate that Se status is suboptimal in many Europeans and suggest an inverse association between CRC risk and higher serum Se status, which is more evident in women.
    International Journal of Cancer 07/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Three prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk: for overall EC, for type-I EC, and in never smokers and never users of oral contraceptives (OCs). Smoking is a source of acrylamide, and OC use is a protective factor for EC risk.Methods:Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Acrylamide intake was estimated from the EU acrylamide monitoring database, which was matched with EPIC questionnaire-based food consumption data. Acrylamide intake was energy adjusted using the residual method.Results:No associations were observed between acrylamide intake and overall EC (n=1382) or type-I EC risk (n=627). We observed increasing relative risks for type-I EC with increasing acrylamide intake among women who both never smoked and were non-users of OCs (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; likelihood ratio test (LRT) P-value: 0.01, n=203).Conclusions:Dietary intake of acrylamide was not associated with overall or type-I EC risk; however, positive associations with type I were observed in women who were both non-users of OCs and never smokers.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 17 June 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.328 www.bjcancer.com.
    British journal of cancer. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that prolactin might play a role in the etiology of breast cancer. We analyzed the relationship of pre-diagnostic circulating prolactin levels with the risk of breast cancer by menopausal status, use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at blood donation, and by estrogen and progesterone receptor-status of the breast tumors. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the data from a case-control study nested within the prospective European EPIC cohort, including 2250 invasive breast cancer and their matched control subjects. Statistically significant heterogeneity in the association of prolactin levels with breast cancer risk between women who were either pre- or postmenopausal at the time of blood donation was observed (Phet=0.04). Higher serum levels of prolactin were associated with significant increase in risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women (ORQ4-Q1=1.29 [95%CI 1.05-1.58], Ptrend=0.09); however this increase in risk seemed to be confined to women who used postmenopausal HRT at blood donation (ORQ4-Q1=1.45 [95%CI 1.08-1.95], Ptrend=0.01), whereas no statistically significant association was found for the non-users of HRT (ORQ4-Q1 =1.11 [95%CI 0.83-1.49], Ptrend=0.80) (Phet=0.08). Among premenopausal women, a statistically non-significant inverse association was observed (ORQ4-Q1 =0.70 [95%CI 0.48-1.03], Ptrend=0.16). There was no heterogeneity in the prolactin-breast cancer association by hormone receptor status of the tumor. Our study indicates that higher circulating levels of prolactin among the postmenopausal HRT users at baseline may be associated with increased breast cancer risk.
    Annals of Oncology 04/2014; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) may be called an "orphan" disease, because it is diagnosed when metastases are detected while the primary tumor typically remains undetected, and because little research has been done on its primary causes. So far, few epidemiological studies, if any, have addressed possible risk factors for CUP. We analyzed data from the European EPIC cohort (N = 476,940). During prospective follow-up, a total of 651 cases of incident cases of CUP were detected (ICD-O-2 code C809). Proportional hazards models were conducted to examine the associations of lifetime history of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, levels of education and anthropometric indices of adiposity with risk of being diagnosed with CUP. Risk of being diagnosed with CUP was strongly related to smoking, with a relative risk of 3.66 [95% C.I., 2.24 - 5.97] for current, heavy smokers (26+ cigarettes/day) compared to never smokers (adjusted for alcohol consumption, BMI, waist circumference, and level of education), and a relative risk of 5.12 [3.09 - 8.47] for cases with CUP who died within 12 months. For alcohol consumption and level of education, weaker associations were observed but attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjusting for smoking and indices of obesity. Finally, risk of CUP was increased by approximately 30 per cent for subjects in the highest vs. lowest quartiles of waist circumference. Our analyses provide further documentation, in addition autopsy studies, that a substantial proportion of cancers of unknown primary site may have their origin in smoking-related tumors, in particular. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 04/2014; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased physical activity (PA) is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers. PA may reduce cancer risk by changing endogenous hormones levels, but relatively little research has focused on this topic. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relation between PA and endogenous hormone concentrations. A cross-sectional analysis of 798 pre- and 1,360 post-menopausal women included as controls in case-control studies on endogenous hormones (steroids, progesterone, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and growth factors) levels, and cancer risk nested within European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was performed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare geometric mean levels of hormones and SHBG by categories of PA. In pre-menopausal women, active women had 19 % significantly lower concentrations of androstenedione, 14 % lower testosterone, and 20 % lower free testosterone than inactive women, while no differences were observed for estrogens, progesterone, SHBG, and growth factors. In post-menopausal women, active women had 18 % significantly lower estradiol and 20 % lower free estradiol concentrations than inactive women, while no differences were observed for the other hormones and SHBG. More vigorous forms of physical activity were associated with higher insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations. Adjustment for body mass index did not alter the associations. Overall, the percentage of variance in hormone concentrations explained by PA levels was <2 %. Our results support the hypothesis of an influence, although small in magnitude, of PA on sex hormone levels in blood, independent of body size.
    Cancer Causes and Control 10/2013; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of diet in the prevention of diabetes remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate two different dietary aspects, i.e. adherence to the Mediterranean diet and glycaemic load (GL), in relation to diabetes occurrence. We analysed data from the Greek cohort of the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). From a total of 22,295 participants, actively followed for a median of 11.34 years, 2,330 cases of incident type 2 diabetes were recorded. All participants completed a validated, interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at enrolment. From this information, we calculated a ten point Mediterranean diet score (MDS), reflecting adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet, as well as the dietary GL. We estimated HRs and the corresponding 95% CIs of diabetes using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A higher MDS was inversely associated with diabetes risk (HR 0.88 [95% CI 0.78, 0.99] for MDS ≥6 vs MDS ≤3). GL was positively associated with diabetes (HR 1.21 [95% CI 1.05, 1.40] for the highest vs the lowest GL quartile). A significant protection of about 20% was found for a diet with a high MDS and a low GL. A low GL diet that also adequately adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean diet may reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetologia 08/2013; · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 1994, acrylamide (AA) was classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, AA was discovered at relatively high concentrations in some starchy, plant-based foods cooked at high temperatures. A prospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the dietary intake of AA and ductal adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreatic cancer (PC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort using Cox regression modeling. EPIC includes >500 000 men and women aged 35-75 at enrollment from 10 European countries. AA intake was estimated for each participant by combining questionnaire-based food consumption data with a harmonized AA database derived from the EU monitoring database of AA levels in foods, and evaluated in quintiles and continuously. After a mean follow-up of 11 years, 865 first incident adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas were observed and included in the present analysis. At baseline, the mean dietary AA intake in EPIC was 26.22 µg/day. No overall association was found between continuous or quintiles of dietary AA intake and PC risk in EPIC (HR:0.95, 95%CI:0.89-1.01 per 10 µg/day). There was no effect measure modification by smoking status, sex, diabetes, alcohol intake or geographic region. However, there was an inverse association (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.88 per 10 µg/day) between AA intake and PC risk in obese persons as defined using the body mass index (BMI, ≥30 kg/m(2)), but not when body fatness was defined using waist and hip circumference or their ratio. Dietary intake of AA was not associated with an increased risk of PC in the EPIC cohort.
    Annals of Oncology 07/2013; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Benign breast disease (BBD), particularly proliferative BBD, is an established breast cancer risk factor. However, there has been no systematic attempt to compare the hormonal profiles of the two conditions. In a case-control investigation in Athens, Greece, we compared levels of estrogens, testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), as well as their principal binding proteins, between breast cancer patients, women with BBD by histological type (proliferative and nonproliferative) and women with no breast pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 466 women with incident breast cancer, 704 women with BBD and 244 healthy women. We used multiple regression to compare log-transformed serum hormone levels of breast cancer patients with those of healthy women and women with BBD by histological type (proliferative and nonproliferative BBD). RESULTS: The hormonal profile of breast cancer in our study was in line with the generally accepted hormonal profile of this disease, as reported from large cohort studies. Compared with healthy women, breast cancer patients tended to have higher levels of steroid hormones. The evidence was strong for estrone (difference 21.5%, P < 0.001), weaker for testosterone (difference 15.8%, P = 0.07) and weaker still for estradiol (difference 12.0%, P = 0.18). Also compared with healthy women, breast cancer patients had barely higher levels of IGF-1 (difference 2.0%, P = 0.51), but had significantly lower levels of IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) (difference -6.7%, P = 0.001). Compared with women with BBD, breast cancer patients had nonstatistically significantly lower levels of steroid hormones, but they had higher levels of IGF-1 [difference 5.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7% to 10.6%] and lower levels of IGFBP-3 (difference -3.7%, 95% CI -6.7% to -0.7%). Differences were more pronounced when breast cancer patients were contrasted to women with proliferative BBD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high levels of IGF-1 may be an important factor toward the evolution of BBD to breast cancer.
    Annals of Oncology 05/2013; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. METHODS: The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested case-control subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. RESULTS: HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.66-1.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50-1.09, respectively) in a nested case-control subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk.
    Annals of Oncology 05/2013; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence suggests the Mediterranean diet (MD) could reduce risk of breast cancer (BC). Since evidence from prospective studies is still scarce and conflicting, we investigated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of BC among 335,062 women recruited from 1992-2000, in 10 European countries, and followed for 11 years on average. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted relative Mediterranean diet (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for BC risk factors. A total of 9,009 postmenopausal and 1,216 premenopausal first primary incident invasive BC were identified (5,862 estrogen or progesterone receptor positive (ER+/PR+) and 1,018 estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-)). The arMED was inversely associated with risk of BC overall and in postmenopausal women (high versus low arMED score; HR 0.94 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.00) p(trend) =0.048, and HR 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.99) p(trend) =0.037, respectively). The association was more pronounced in ER-PR- tumors (HR 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.99) p(trend) =0.043). The arMED score was not associated with BC in premenopausal women. Our findings show that adherence to a MD excluding alcohol was related to a modest reduced risk of BC in postmenopausal women, and this association was stronger in receptor negative tumors. The results support the potential scope for BC prevention through dietary modification. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 11/2012; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Limited information exists about the endocrine milieu of benign breast disease (BBD), a documented breast cancer risk factor. We compared blood levels of estrogens, testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) between BBD patients by histological type and women without breast pathology.Methods:We studied 578 BBD patients and 178 healthy women in Athens, Greece, who provided blood samples, and completed interviewer-administered questionnaires.Results:Of the BBD patients, 254 had non-proliferative disease, 268 proliferative disease without atypia and 56 atypical hyperplasia. Comparing BBD patients with healthy women, the per cent differences (and 95% confidence intervals) for blood hormones, among pre-menopausal and peri/post-menopausal women, respectively, were: 22.4% (-4.0%, 56.1%) and 32.0% (5.6%, 65.1%) for estradiol; 26.2% (10.1%, 44.8%) and 30.9% (16.8%, 46.6%) for estrone; 19.5% (3.1%, 38.4%) and 16.5% (-5.0%, 42.9%) for testosterone; and -5.2% (-13.8%, 4.4%) and -12.1% (-19.8%, -3.6%) for IGF-1. Steroid hormones tended to be higher in proliferative compared with non-proliferative BBD.Conclusions:Circulating steroid hormones tend to be higher among women with BBD than women with no breast pathology and higher in proliferative than non-proliferative disease; these patterns are more evident among peri/post-menopausal women. In peri/post-menopausal women IGF-1 was lower among women with BBD compared with healthy women.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.493www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 11/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Smoking is not associated with prostate cancer incidence in most studies, but associations between smoking and fatal prostate cancer have been reported.Methods:During 1992 and 2000, lifestyle information was assessed via questionnaires and personal interview in a cohort of 145 112 European men. Until 2009, 4623 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 1517 cases of low-grade, 396 cases of high grade, 1516 cases of localised, 808 cases of advanced disease, and 432 fatal cases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking duration with the risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer.Results:Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.97), which was statistically significant for localised and low-grade disease, but not for advanced or high-grade disease. In contrast, heavy smokers (25+ cigarettes per day) and men who had smoked for a long time (40+ years) had a higher risk of prostate cancer death (RR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.11-2.93; RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87, respectively).Conclusion:The observation of an increased prostate cancer mortality among heavy smokers confirms the results of previous prospective studies.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.520www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 11/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populations.Subjects/methods:A nested case-control study (1269 cases matched to 2107controls by sex, age, study centre and date of blood collection) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the impact of rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7) and rs441 (ALDH2) polymorphisms on CRC risk. Using the wild-type variant of each polymorphism as reference category, CRC risk estimates were calculated using conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for matching factors.Results:Individuals carrying one copy of the rs1229984(A) (ADH1B) allele (fast metabolizers) showed an average daily alcohol intake of 4.3 g per day lower than subjects with two copies of the rs1229984(G) allele (slow metabolizers) (P(diff)<0.01). None of the polymorphisms was associated with risk of CRC or cancers of the colon or rectum. Heavy alcohol intake was more strongly associated with CRC risk among carriers of the rs1573496(C) allele, with odds ratio equal to 2.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.59) compared with wild-type subjects with low alcohol consumption (P(interaction)=0.07).Conclusions:The rs1229984(A) (ADH1B) allele was associated with a reduction in alcohol consumption. The rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7) and rs441 (ALDH2) polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk overall in Western-European populations. However, the relationship between alcohol and CRC risk might be modulated by the rs1573496 (ADH7) polymorphism.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 November 2012; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.173.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 11/2012; · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While previous studies on tobacco and alcohol and the risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers have clearly shown dose-response relations with the frequency and duration of tobacco and/or alcohol, studies on addiction to tobacco itself as a risk factor for UADT cancer have not been published, to our knowledge. The aim of this report is to assess whether smoking addiction is a risk factor for UADT SCC risk in the multicenter case-control study (ARCAGE) in Western Europe independent of tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking intensity or duration. The analyses included 1,905 ever smoking UADT SCC cases (871 oral cavity/oropharynx, 814 hypopharynx/larynx, 127 esophagus, and 93 overlapping oral cavity/pharynx) and 1,489 ever smoking controls. The addiction variables included first cigarette after waking up, difficulty refraining from smoking in places where it is forbidden, and cigarettes per day. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for UADT cancers with addiction variables were estimated with unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for center, age, sex, education level, alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking. Among current smokers, 76.47% of cases were categorized in the highest addiction level, whereas 54.69% of controls were in that category. The participants who smoked their first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking up were two times more likely to develop UADT SCC (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.57-3.15) than those who smoked 60 minutes after waking up. A higher modified Fagerstram score, reflecting greater tobacco addiction, was associated with an increased risk of UADT SCC among current smokers, but not among former smokers. We observed that time to first cigarette after waking up was associated with UADT SCC risk, regardless of heavy smoking or alcohol drinking behaviors. These results are consistent with residual effect of smoking that was not captured by the questionnaire responses alone.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 03/2012; 21(3):560-1. · 4.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

19k Citations
3,540.83 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2014
    • Hellenic Health Foundation
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
    • Tufts Medical Center
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Eginition Hospital Athens
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
    • University of Oxford
      • Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1991–2014
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • The University of Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1991–2013
    • Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1988–2013
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • • Division of Hygiene - Epidemiology
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      • • Division of Pathophysiology
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
  • 2012
    • Harokopion University of Athens
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 1995–2012
    • International Agency for Research on Cancer
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • 401 GSNA
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 2011
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 1996–2011
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • • Department of Cancer Biology
      • • Cancer Center
      Worcester, MA, United States
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1990–2010
    • Harvard University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Nutrition
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1977–2010
    • Athens State University
      Athens, Alabama, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • German Institute of Human Nutrition
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 1992–2006
    • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–2003
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      Beverly, Massachusetts, United States
    • Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
      • Department of Community and Family Medicine
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
  • 1996–2003
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • • International Public Health Unit
      • • Department of Medicine
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1995–2001
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • • Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      • • Institutet för miljömedicin - IMM
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 1999–2000
    • Epidemiology International, Inc.
      Maryland, United States
  • 1996–2000
    • Εθνική Σχολή Δημόσιας Υγείας
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
  • 1990–1996
    • Uppsala University Hospital
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1993–1995
    • Hippokration General Hospital, Athens
      Athínai, Attica, Greece
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994
    • General Hospital of Attica KAT
      Kēfissia, Attica, Greece
    • Riley Hospital for Children
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1984
    • University of Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia