Samira Asma

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (61)152.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND This study assessed the construct validity of a measure of nicotine dependence that was used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).METHODS Using 2007-2009 data from the GYTS, subjects from 6 countries were used to assess current smokers' odds of reporting time to first cigarette or craving positive (TTFC/C+) by the number of cigarette smoking days per month (DPM) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD).RESULTSThe percentage of GYTS smokers who reported TTFC/C+ ranged from 58.0% to 69.7%. Compared with students who smoked on 1-2 DPM, those who smoked on 3-9 DPM had 3 times the adjusted odds of reporting TTFC/C+. The adjusted odds of reporting TTFC/C+ were 3 to 7 times higher among those who smoked 10-29 DPM and 6 to 20 times higher among daily smokers. Similarly, the adjusted odds of TTFC/C+ were 3-6 times higher among those who smoked 2-5 CPD and 6 to 20 times higher among those who smoked >6 CPD, compared to those who smoked <1 CPD.CONCLUSION Associations of TTFC/C+ prevalence with both frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking provide a construct validation of the GYTS question used to assess respondents' TTFC/C status.
    Journal of School Health 09/2014; 84(9). · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 05/2014; 63(21):457-61.
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    ABSTRACT: During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers. Manufactured cigarettes account for 96% of all tobacco sales worldwide. From 1880 to 2009, annual global consumption of cigarettes increased from an estimated 10 billion cigarettes to approximately 5.9 trillion cigarettes, with five countries accounting for 58% of the total consumption: China (38%), Russia (7%), the United States (5%), Indonesia (4%), and Japan (4%). Among the estimated 1 billion smokers worldwide, men outnumber women by four to one. In 14 countries, at least 50% of men smoke, whereas in more than half of these same countries, fewer than 10% of women smoke. If current trends persist, an estimated 500 million persons alive today will die from use of tobacco products. By 2030, tobacco use will result in the deaths of approximately 8 million persons worldwide each year. Yet, every death from tobacco products is preventable.
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 04/2014; 63(13):277-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence on the relationship between cigarette prices and adult smoking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is relatively limited. This study offers new descriptive evidence on this relationship using data from a set of 13 LMICs. We use Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) cross-country data from approximately 200,000 participants aged 15 and older. Estimates on the relationship between prices and adult smoking were obtained from logit models of smoking participation and ordinary least squares models of conditional cigarette demand. Higher prices were associated with lower demand across countries, in terms of both smoking prevalence and daily number of cigarettes smoked among smokers. Our estimates suggest that the total price elasticity of cigarette demand in LMICs is approximately -0.53. We find that higher socioeconomic status (SES), represented through wealth and education effects is associated with lower chance of smoking overall, but among existing smokers, it may be associated with a larger number of cigarettes smoked. After controlling for a set of individual demographic and country characteristics, cigarette prices retain a significant role in shaping cigarette demand across LMICs. Because higher SES is associated with a reduced chance of smoking overall but also with increased daily consumption among current smokers, optimal tobacco tax policies in LMICs may face an added need to accommodate to shifting SES structures within the populations of these countries.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 01/2014; 16 Suppl 1:S10-5. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Nicotine & Tobacco Research 01/2014; 16 Suppl 1:S1-2. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction:We assessed the differences in exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among adults at home, in indoor workplaces, and in various public places in the Philippines across various socio-demographic groups.Methods:Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in 2009 in the Philippines were used. The data consist of survey answers from 9705 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older. We considered that respondents were exposed to SHS if during the previous 30 days they reported that they lived in a home, worked in a building, or visited a public place where people smoked. The public places included in our analysis were indoor workplaces, public transportation vehicles, restaurants, government buildings or offices, and healthcare facilities. The differences in various socioeconomic and demographic groups' exposure to SHS in these places were also examined.Results:Of respondents who reported working indoors, 36.8% were exposed to SHS. Men (43.3% [95% CI 39.7-46.9]) were more likely than women (28.8% [95% CI 25.4-32.4]) to be exposed to SHS (p < 0.001). Of those working in sites where smoking was not allowed, 13.9% were exposed to SHS, whereas 66.5% were exposed where smoking is allowed in some enclosed areas, and 90.7% were exposed where smoking is allowed everywhere. During the 30 days preceding the survey, more than 50% of those who took public transportation were exposed to SHS; exposure for those who visited public buildings was 33.6% in restaurants, 25.5% in government buildings or offices, and 7.6% in healthcare facilities.Conclusion:Despite a national law passed and several local government ordinances that have promulgated smoke-free workplaces, schools, government offices, and healthcare facilities, our findings show that a large proportion of adults were exposed to SHS at work and in public places, which offers opportunities to strengthen and improve enforcement of the smoke-free initiatives and ordinances in the Philippines.
    Global Health Promotion 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction:In 2008, Turkey became one of 26 countries with a complete ban on all forms of direct and indirect tobacco marketing. We assessed the level of exposure to anti- and pro-cigarette advertising and to cigarette promotions and sponsorships among various demographic groups in Turkey.Methods:We used the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in November 2008 in Turkey. The data consist of answers to GATS questions by 9030 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults 15 years of age or older. To find differences in exposure to the advertising by sex, age, education level and smoking status, we analyzed responses to GATS questions about cigarette advertisements and anti-cigarette smoking information in various forms and through various advertising channels, during the 30 days before the survey, using bivariate analysis.Results:Overall, 13.3% of respondents aged 15 years or older noticed some type of cigarette marketing during the 30 days before the survey: 7.1% saw advertisements, 5.3% saw promotions and 3.3% saw sports sponsorships. Men were more likely than women to have seen cigarette promotions (7.8% versus 3.0%) and sports sponsorships (5.3% versus 1.4%). Respondents aged 15-24 years were more likely than those aged 25 years or older to have seen cigarette advertisements (10.2% versus 6.2%), promotions (8.7% versus 4.4%) and sponsorships (6.6% versus 2.3%), respectively. Respondents were most likely to have seen cigarette advertisements on television (3.4%) or in shops (2.7%). In addition, 2.8% of respondents reported seeing a clothing item with a brand name or logo, 2.5% reported that they received free samples of cigarettes and 0.3% received gifts along with the purchase of cigarettes. Almost 9 of 10 survey respondents (88.8%) reported having noticed some anti-cigarette information during the 30 days before the survey. Most anti-cigarette information was seen on television (85.5%). The anti-cigarette information was seen by slightly more cigarette smokers (91.6%) than nonsmokers (87.6%). Persons with less than a primary education were less likely to notice anti-cigarette information than those with a higher level of education, in all examined media channels.Conclusions:Our findings showed a low prevalence of noticing cigarette marketing, which indicates high compliance with the Turkish law banning such marketing. GATS data provide an in-depth understanding of the level of exposure to pro- and anti-cigarette information in 2008 and they are of practical assistance to those who implement policies to reduce the demand for tobacco. The challenge now is to maintain rigorous enforcement. To do so requires ongoing surveillance to produce data on the effectiveness of the enforcement efforts.
    Global Health Promotion 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction:We assessed the differences in overall use of tobacco and in the use of various tobacco products, by sex and by frequency of use across various demographic groups.Methods:We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2009 in Egypt. The data consist of answers to GATS by 20,924 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older from all regions of Egypt. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco products, either daily or occasionally. We analyzed the differences in current cigarette, shisha, and smokeless tobacco use by sex and frequency of use (daily or occasional); and by demographic characteristics that included age, region, education level and employment status.Results:Overall, 19.7% of the Egyptian population currently use some form of tobacco. Men (38.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 36.8-39.4]) are much more likely than women (0.6% [95% CI 0.4-0.9]) to use tobacco. Almost 96% of men who use tobacco, do so daily. Men are more likely to use manufactured cigarettes (31.8% [95% CI 30.6-33.1]) than shisha (6.2% [95% CI 5.6-6.9]) or smokeless tobacco (4.1% [95% CI 3.4-4.8]). Few women use tobacco (cigarettes (0.2%), shisha (0.3%) and smokeless tobacco (0.3%)); however, all women who currently smoke shisha, do so daily. Lower educational status, being between ages 25-64 and being employed predicted a higher use of tobacco.Conclusion:Egypt has implemented several initiatives to reduce tobacco use. The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER technical package, which aims to reverse the tobacco epidemic, is implemented at various levels throughout the country. Our findings show that there is significant variation in the prevalence of tobacco use and types of tobacco used by adult men and women in Egypt. GATS data can be used to better understand comparative patterns of tobacco use by adults, which in turn can be used to develop interventions.
    Global Health Promotion 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER is a technical package of six tobacco control measures that assist countries in meeting their obligations of the WHO Framework Convention Tobacco Control and are proven to reduce tobacco use. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) systematically monitors adult tobacco use and tracks key tobacco control indicators. Methods: GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults aged 15 and older, using a standard and consistent protocol across countries; it includes information on the six WHO MPOWER measures. GATS Phase I was conducted from 2008–2010 in 14 high-burden low- and middle-income countries. We selected one key indicator from each of the six MPOWER measures and compared results across 14 countries. Results: Current tobacco use prevalence rates ranged from 16.1% in Mexico to 43.3% in Bangladesh. We found that the highest rate of exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace was in China (63.3%). We found the highest ‘smoking quit attempt’ rates in the past 12 months among cigarette smokers in Viet Nam (55.3%) and the lowest rate was in the Russian Federation (32.1%). In five of the 14 countries, more than one-half of current smokers in those 5 countries said they thought of quitting because of health warning labels on cigarette packages. The Philippines (74.3%) and the Russian Federation (68.0%) had the highest percentages of respondents noticing any cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Manufactured cigarette affordability ranged from 0.6% in Russia to 8.0% in India. Conclusions Monitoring tobacco use and tobacco control policy achievements is crucial to managing and implementing measures to reverse the epidemic. GATS provides internationally-comparable data that systematically monitors and tracks the progress of the other five MPOWER measures
    Global Health Promotion 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol.
    Global Health Promotion 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Evidence shows that smoking tobacco using a waterpipe is significantly associated with diseases. Despite this, waterpipe use seems to be increasing worldwide, though nationally representative data are not widely available. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) provides an opportunity to measure various indicators of waterpipe use from nationally representative surveys. METHODS: Data were obtained for adults 15 years of age or older from 13 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam) who completed GATS from 2008-2010. The GATS questionnaire collected data on current waterpipe use, including daily/less than daily prevalence and number of sessions per day/week. An optional waterpipe module measured former use, age of initiation, and level of consumption during a session. RESULTS: GATS was successful in producing nationally representative data on waterpipe use from 13 countries, many of which for the first time. The prevalence of waterpipe use among men was highest in Vietnam (13.0%) and Egypt (6.2%); among women, waterpipe use was highest in Russia (3.2%) and Ukraine (1.1%). While over 90% of adults in Ukraine thought smoking tobacco causes serious illness, only 31.4% thought smoking tobacco using a waterpipe causes serious illness. CONCLUSIONS: GATS data provide the ability to analyse waterpipe use within a country and across countries. Monitoring of waterpipe use at a national level will better enable countries to target tobacco control interventions such as education campaigns about the negative health effects of waterpipe use.
    Tobacco control 06/2013; · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antismoking mass media campaigns can help reduce the prevalence of smoking by discouraging young persons from initiating smoking and by encouraging current smokers to quit (1,2). Smoking cessation is a multistage process; intention to quit smoking precedes quit attempts (3). To assess whether awareness of anti-cigarette smoking information in four mass media channels (television, radio, billboards, and newspapers or magazines) was significantly associated with a current cigarette smoker’s intention to quit, CDC analyzed data from 17 countries that participated in the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between awareness of antismoking messages and intent to quit smoking; odds ratios were adjusted to control for demographic factors, awareness of warning labels on cigarette packages, and awareness of tobacco advertisements. In nine of 17 countries, intent to quit was significantly associated with awareness of antismoking messages in a single media channel versus no awareness, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 1.9. In 14 countries, intent to quit was significantly associated with awareness of mes- sages in multiple channels versus no awareness, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.5 to 3.2. Antismoking information in mass media channels can help reduce tobacco consumption by encouraging smokers to contemplate quitting and might be more effective when presented in multiple channels.
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 05/2013; 62(21):1.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current smoking prevalence in Thailand decreased from 1991 to 2004 and since that time the prevalence has remained flat. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that the prevalence of current smoking in Thailand has stopped decreasing is due to the use of RYO cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of users of manufactured and RYO cigarettes and dual users in Thailand, in order to determine whether there are differences in the characteristics of users of the different products. METHODS: The 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS Thailand) provides detailed information on current smoking patterns. GATS Thailand used a nationally and regionally representative probability sample of 20,566 adults (ages 15 years and above) who were chosen through stratified three-stage cluster sampling and then interviewed face-to-face. RESULTS: The prevalence of current smoking among Thai adults was 45.6% for men and 3.1% for women. In all, 18.4% of men and 1.0% of women were current users of manufactured cigarettes only, while 15.8% of men and 1.7% of women were current users of RYO cigarettes only. 11.2% of men and 0.1% of women used both RYO and manufactured cigarettes. Users of manufactured cigarettes were younger and users of RYO were older. RYO smokers were more likely to live in rural areas. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes appeared to be more knowledgeable about the health risks of tobacco use. However, the difference was confounded with age and education; when demographic variables were controlled, the knowledge differences no longer remained. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes were more likely than dual users and those who used only RYO to report that they were planning on quitting in the next month. Users of RYO only appeared to be more addicted than the other two groups as measured by time to first cigarette. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a need for product targeted cessation and prevention efforts that are directed toward specific population subgroups in Thailand and include information on manufactured and RYO cigarettes.
    BMC Public Health 03/2013; 13(1):277. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 01/2013; 62(46):920-927.
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Tobacco use by health professionals reflects the failure of healthcare systems in protecting not only beneficiaries of the system but also those involved in health care delivery. Aim: The aim of this study was to report findings from the Global Health Professions Students Survey (GHPSS) conducted in medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy schools in India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Indian dental and medical schools (in 2009), nursing (in 2007), and pharmacy (in 2008) schools. Materials and Methods: Anonymous, self-administered GHPSS questionnaire covering demographics, tobacco use prevalence, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, desire to quit smoking and training received to provide cessation counseling to patients was used. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and prevalence were computed using SUDAAN and SPSS 15.0. Results: Current cigarette smoking and other tobacco use ranged from 3.4-13.4% and 4.5-11.6% respectively, in the four health professional schools, with the highest numbers for medical schools and males. Enforcement of smoking ban in medical schools was low (53%) compared to nursing (86.4%), pharmacy (85.5%), and dental (90.8%) schools. Ninety percent students thought health professionals have a role in giving smoking cessation advice to their patients. Three out of five current smokers wanted to quit. However, one out of two reported receiving help/advice to quit. Although all expressed the need, 29.1-54.8% students received cessation training in their schools. Conclusion: Tobacco control policy, cessation training and initiatives to help students quit smoking should be undertaken.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 10/2012; 49(4):425-30. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Medical and Dental Global Health Professions Student Surveys (GHPSS) are surveys based in schools that collect self-administered data from students on the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and tobacco cessation training, among the third-year medical and dental students. Materials and Methods: Two rounds of medical and dental GHPSS have been conducted in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, among the third-year medical and dental students, between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011. Results: The prevalence of any tobacco use among third-year male and female medical students did not change in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011; however, it reduced significantly among females in Myanmar (3.3% in 2006 to 1.8% in 2009) and in Sri Lanka (2.5% in 2006 to 0.6% in 2011). The prevalence of any tobacco use among third-year male dental students did not change in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Thailand between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011; however, in Myanmar, the prevalence increased significantly (35.6% in 2006 to 49.5% in 2009). Among the third-year female students, a significant increase in prevalence was noticed in Bangladesh (4.0% in 2005 to 22.2% in 2009) and Thailand (0.7% in 2006 to 2.1% in 2011). It remained unchanged in the other three countries. Prevalence of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) both at home and in public places, among medical students, decreased significantly in Myanmar and Sri Lanka between 2006 and 2009 and in 2011. Among dental students, the prevalence of SHS exposure at home reduced significantly in Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar, and in public places in India. However, there was an increase of SHS exposure among dental students in Nepal, both at home and in public places, between 2005 and 2011. Medical students in Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka reported a declining trend in schools, with a smoking ban policy in place, between 2005 and 2006 and 2009 and 2011, while proportions of dental students reported that schools with a smoking ban policy have increased significantly in Bangladesh and Myanmar. Ever receiving cessation training increased significantly among medical students in Sri Lanka only, whereas, among dental students, it increased in India, Nepal, and Thailand. Conclusion: Trends of tobacco use and exposure to SHS among medical and dental students in most countries of the South-East Asia Region had changed only relatively between the two rounds of GHPSS (2005-2006 and 2009-2011). No significant improvement was observed in the trend in schools with a policy banning smoking in school buildings and clinics. Almost all countries in the SEA Region that participated in GHPSS showed no significant change in ever having received formal training on tobacco cessation among medical and dental students.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 10/2012; 49(4):379-86. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: To examine predictors of current tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among the adult population in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: We used data from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in Bangladesh consisting of 9,629 adults aged ΃15 years. Differences in and predictors of prevalence for both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were analyzed using selected socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that included gender, age, place of residence, education, occupation, and an index of wealth. Results: The prevalence of smoking is high among males (44.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.5-47.0) as compared to females (1.5%, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), whereas the prevalence of smokeless tobacco is almost similar among both males (26.4%, 95% CI: 24.2-28.6) and females (27.9%, 95% CI: 25.9-30.0). Correlates of current smoking are male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 41.46, CI = 23.8-73.4), and adults in older age (ORs range from 1.99 in 24-35 years age to 5.49 in 55-64 years age), less education (ORs range from 1.47 in less than secondary to 3.25 in no formal education), and lower socioeconomic status (ORs range from 1.56 in high wealth index to 2.48 in lowest wealth index. Predictors of smokeless tobacco use are older age (ORs range from 2.54in 24-35 years age to 12.31 in 55-64 years age), less education (ORs range from 1.44 in less than secondary to 2.70 in no formal education), and the low (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.0-1.7) or lowest (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.1-1.9) socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Implementation of tobacco control strategies needs to bring special attention on disadvantaged group and cover all types of tobacco product as outlined in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and WHO MPOWER to protect people's health and prevent premature death.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 10/2012; 49(4):387-92. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Individuals who use both smoked and smokeless tobacco products (dual tobacco users) form a special group about which little is known. This group is especially relevant to India, where smokeless tobacco use is very common. The aim of this study was to characterise the profile of dual users, study their pattern of initiation to the second product, their attitudes toward quittingas well as their cessation profile. Methods and Materials: The GATS dataset for India was analyzed using SPSS; . Results: In India, dual tobacco users (42.3 million; 5.3% of all adults; 15.4% of all tobacco users) have a profile similar to that of smokers. Some 52.6% of dual users started both practices within 2 years. The most prevalent product combination was bidi-khaini (1.79%) followed by bidi-gutka (1.50%), cigarette-khaini (1.28%), and cigarette-gutka (1.22%). Among daily users, the correlation between the daily frequencies of the use of each product was very high for most product combinations. While 36.7% of dual users were interested in quitting, only 5.0% of dual users could do so. The prevalence of ex-dual users was 0.4%. Conclusion: Dual users constitute a large, high-risk group that requires special attention.
    Indian Journal of Cancer 10/2012; 49(4):393-400. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of two primary determinants of cigarette consumption: cigarette affordability and the range of prices paid for cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in a set of 15 countries. From this cross-country comparison, identify places where opportunities may exist for reducing consumption through tax adjustments. DATA: Self-response data from 45,838 smokers from 15 countries, obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2008-2011. DESIGN: Using self-response data on individual cigarette expenditure and consumption, we construct a measure of the average cigarette price smokers pay for manufactured cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in 15 countries. We use these prices to evaluate cigarette affordability and the range of prices available in each country. These survey-derived measures of cigarette price and affordability are uniquely suited for cross-country comparison because they represent each country's distinctive mix of individual consumption characteristics such as brand choice, intensity of consumption, and purchasing behavior. RESULTS: In this sample of countries, cigarettes are most affordable in Russia, which has the most room for tobacco tax increase. Affordability is also relatively high in Brazil and China for cigarettes, and in India and Bangladesh for bidis. Although the affordability of cigarettes in India is relatively low, the range of cigarette prices paid is relatively high, providing additional evidence to support the call for simplifying the existing tax structure and reducing the width of price options. China has both high affordability and wide price ranges, suggesting multiple opportunities for reducing consumption through tax adjustments.
    Tobacco control 08/2012; · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Between Oct 1, 2008, and March 15, 2010, GATS used nationally representative household surveys with comparable methods to obtain relevant information from individuals aged 15 years or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam). We compared weighted point estimates and 95% CIs of tobacco use between these 14 countries and with data from the 2008 UK General Lifestyle Survey and the 2006-07 US Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. All these surveys had cross-sectional study designs. In countries participating in GATS, 48·6% (95% CI 47·6-49·6) of men and 11·3% (10·7-12·0) of women were tobacco users. 40·7% of men (ranging from 21·6% in Brazil to 60·2% in Russia) and 5·0% of women (0·5% in Egypt to 24·4% in Poland) in GATS countries smoked a tobacco product. Manufactured cigarettes were favoured by most smokers (82%) overall, but smokeless tobacco and bidis were commonly used in India and Bangladesh. For individuals who had ever smoked daily, women aged 55-64 years at the time of the survey began smoking at an older age than did equivalently aged men in most GATS countries. However, those individuals who had ever smoked daily and were aged 25-34-years when surveyed started to do so at much the same age in both sexes. Quit ratios were very low (<20% overall) in China, India, Russia, Egypt, and Bangladesh. The first wave of GATS showed high rates of smoking in men, early initiation of smoking in women, and low quit ratios, reinforcing the view that efforts to prevent initiation and promote cessation of tobacco use are needed to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Bloomberg Philanthropies' Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Brazilian and Indian Governments.
    The Lancet 08/2012; 380(9842):668-79. · 39.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

755 Citations
152.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
      • • Office on Smoking and Health
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
  • 2012
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Community Health and Health Behavior
      Buffalo, NY, United States
  • 2009
    • Taipei Medical University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2008
    • Mahidol University
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
    • Ministarstvo odbrane Republike Srbije
      Beograd, Central Serbia, Serbia
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Hamad Medical Corporation
      Ad Dawḩah, Ad Dawḩah, Qatar
    • Brazilian National Cancer Institute
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2004
    • Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
      Mumbai, Mahārāshtra, India