[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disease, with 30% to 40% of patients failing to be cured with available primary therapy. microRNAs (miRNAs) are RNA molecules that attenuate expression of their mRNA targets. To characterize the DLBCL miRNome, we sequenced miRNAs from 92 DLBCL and 15 benign centroblast fresh frozen samples and from 140 DLBCL formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples for validation.
We identify known and candidate novel miRNAs, 25 of which are associated with survival independently of cell-of-origin and International Prognostic Index scores, which are established indicators of outcome. Of these 25 miRNAs, six miRNAs are significantly associated with survival in our validation cohort. Abundant expression of miR-28-5p, miR-214-5p, miR-339-3p, and miR-5586-5p is associated with superior outcome, while abundant expression of miR-324-5p and NOVELM00203M is associated with inferior outcome. Comparison of DLBCL miRNA-seq expression profiles with those from other cancer types identifies miRNAs that were more abundant in B-cell contexts. Unsupervised clustering of miRNAs identifies two clusters of patients that have distinct differences in their outcomes. Our integrative miRNA and mRNA expression analyses reveal that miRNAs increased in abundance in DLBCL appear to regulate the expression of genes involved in metabolism, cell cycle, and protein modification. Additionally, these miRNAs, including one candidate novel miRNA, miR-10393-3p, appear to target chromatin modification genes that are frequent targets of somatic mutation in non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Our comprehensive sequence analysis of the DLBCL miRNome identifies candidate novel miRNAs and miRNAs associated with survival, reinforces results from previous mutational analyses, and reveals regulatory networks of significance for lymphomagenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: “The statistician knows...that in nature there never was a normal distribution, there never was a straight line, yet with normal and linear assumptions, known to be false, he can often derive results which match, to a useful approximation, those found in the real world.”1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drosophila melanogaster plays an important role in molecular, genetic and genomic studies of heredity, development, metabolism, behavior and human disease. The initial reference genome sequence reported more than a decade ago had a profound impact on progress in Drosophila research, and improving the accuracy and completeness of this sequence continues to be important to further progress. We previously described improvement of the 117 Mb sequence in the euchromatic portion of the genome and 21 Mb in the heterochromatic portion, using a whole genome shotgun assembly, BAC physical mapping, and clone-based finishing. Here, we report an improved reference sequence of the single-copy and middle-repetitive regions of the genome, produced using cytogenetic mapping to mitotic and polytene chromosomes, clone-based finishing and BAC fingerprint verification, ordering of scaffolds by alignment to cDNA sequences, incorporation of other map and sequence data, and validation by whole genome optical restriction mapping. These data substantially improve the accuracy and completeness of the reference sequence, and the order and orientation of sequence scaffolds into chromosome arm assemblies. Representation of the Y chromosome and other heterochromatic regions is particularly improved. The new 143.9 Mb reference sequence, designated Release 6, effectively exhausts clone-based technologies for mapping and sequencing. Highly repeat-rich regions including large satellite blocks and functional elements such as the ribosomal RNA genes and the centromeres are largely inaccessible to current sequencing and assembly methods and remain poorly represented. Further significant improvements will require sequencing technologies that do not depend on molecular cloning and that produce very long reads.
Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Genome Research 01/2015; 25(3). DOI:10.1101/gr.185579.114 · 14.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
In 2011, the BioVis symposium of the IEEE VisWeek conferences inaugurated a new variety of data analysis contest. Aimed at fostering collaborations between computational scientists and biologists, the BioVis contest provided real data from biological domains with emerging visualization needs, in the hope that novel approaches would result in powerful new tools for the community. In 2011 and 2012 the theme of these contests was expression Quantitative Trait Locus analysis, within and across tissues respectively. In 2013 the topic was updated to protein sequence and mutation visualization.
The contest was framed in the context of a real protein with numerous mutations that had lost function, and the question posed "what minimal set of changes would you propose to rescue function, or how could you support a biologist attempting to answer that question?". The data was grounded in actual experimental results in triosephosphate isomerase(TIM) enzymes. Seven teams composed of 36 individuals submitted entries with proposed solutions and approaches to the challenge. Their contributions ranged from careful analysis of the visualization and analytical requirements for the problem through integration of existing tools for analyzing the context and consequences of protein mutations, to completely new tools addressing the problem.
Judges found valuable and novel contributions in each of the entries, including interesting ways to hierarchicalize the protein into domains of informational interaction, tools for simultaneously understanding both sequential and spatial order, and approaches for conveying some types of inter-residue dependencies. In this manuscript we document the problem presented to the contestants, summarize the biological contributions of their entries, and suggest opportunities that this work has highlighted for even more improved tools in the future.
BMC proceedings 08/2014; 8(Suppl 2 Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Symposium on Biologica):S1. DOI:10.1186/1753-6561-8-S2-S1