[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Centromere protein A (CENP-A), an essential centromere protein, has been associated with high grade cancers. This study was undertaken to determine if CENP-A is a prognostic factor for breast cancer patients not receiving systemic therapy or predictive of response to tamoxifen or neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
mRNA levels of CENP-A and CENP-B, a centromere protein that binds independently of CENP-A, were measured in breast cancer specimens from 484 patients receiving no systemic therapy, 276 patients receiving tamoxifen, and 233 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Associations between CENP-A, CENP-B, Ki-67, relapse, and chemotherapy response were determined.
CENP-A but not CENP-B was higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors than ER-positive tumors and positively correlated with Ki-67 expression. Among patients with ER-positive disease who received no systemic therapy or tamoxifen, higher levels of CENP-A were associated with lower rates of 5-year distant relapse free survival (DRFS). On multivariate analyses including Ki-67, high CENP-A expression had a hazard ratio of 10.9 for relapse in patients with ER-positive disease not receiving systemic therapy (95% CI, 2.86 to 41.78; P = 0.00047) and 1.64 for patients with ER-positive disease receiving tamoxifen (95% CI, 0.99 to 2.71; P = 0.054). CENP-A was not an independent prognostic marker in ER-negative tumors. For both ER-positive and ER-negative tumors, CENP-A was not a significant independent predictor of chemotherapy response.
CENP-A was a significant independent prognostic marker for patients with ER-positive breast cancer not treated with systemic therapy but had limited predictive value in tamoxifen treated patients and was not predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Breast cancer research: BCR 05/2012; 14(3):R72. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adoption of personalized medicine has led to the search for prognostic and predictive markers that can be applied to individual patients to give optimal information for their clinical management. We have used samples from randomized clinical trials of hormonal and chemotherapy to identify relevant markers of sensitivity and resistance using a neoadjuvant approach by linking expression of a panel of proteins involved in growth factor receptor signaling, angiogenesis, estrogen receptor signaling, and hypoxia to individual patient response. We evaluated samples from randomized clinical trials of epirubicin with or without tamoxifen, and letrozole with or without metronomic cyclophosphamide, to study chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and antiangiogenic effects. We present a proof of principle of this approach in identifying several key pathways that are associated with clinical and pathological response. Thus, we have shown that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway, mitogen activated protein kinase, and phosphorylated estrogen receptor-α can identify patients who are likely to respond to hormonal therapy and that HIF signaling is also a marker of resistance for anthracycline-based chemotherapy. To redress the role of HIF, we then evaluated samples from a randomized control trial of an anthracycline chemotherapy with and without erythropoietin. These studies demonstrate that the approach of using primary systemic therapy in breast can identify markers of response and potentially targets for rationale design of new therapies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the state of the science with respect to preoperative systemic therapy and pathologic assessment in operable breast cancer.
This article reviews data presented at the National Cancer Institute State of the Science Conference on Preoperative Therapy in Invasive Breast Cancer as well as supporting published data.
Preoperative chemotherapy in operable breast cancer has been shown to improve breast conservation rates as a result of tumor response to therapy. When patients are given preoperative systemic therapy, regimens should be the same as those established as safe and active in the adjuvant setting. At present, there are no data to suggest that systemic treatment should be tailored based on initial tumor response, or based on the extent of residual disease. In operable breast cancer, there seems to be no survival advantage from initiation of systemic therapy before surgery. A variety of clinical, imaging, and pathologic measurements are available to gauge tumor response to treatment. There is a clear correlation between tumor response in the breast and lymph nodes and both disease-free and overall survival. Pathologic complete response and other pathologic measures may be useful as surrogate end points in evaluating and understanding new therapies.
In operable breast cancer, preoperative systemic therapy is effective and can improve breast conservation rates. Unless the tumor is large or the patient is in a clinical trial, postoperative adjuvant systemic therapy is the standard of care. To achieve optimal outcomes, preoperative systemic therapy must be administered as part of a coordinated, multimodality treatment program. The preoperative setting provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of systemic therapies on breast cancer biology.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2008; 26(5):814-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previously published prospective randomized phase 3 trial showed that administration of 24 weeks of primary systemic chemotherapy (PST) with paclitaxel and FEC(75) (fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) concurrently with trastuzumab in patients with HER2-positive primary breast cancer resulted in a 60% pathologic complete response rate (PCR) with no associated severe cardiac toxicity. The purpose of this study was to review the efficacy and safety of a similar regimen outside the setting of a clinical trial.
Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (defined as either immunohistochemical 3+ or fluorescence in situ hybridization-positive) that had received 24 weeks of neoadjuvant trastuzumab concurrently with taxane and anthracycline-based chemotherapy between 2004 and 2006 were included in the analysis. PST chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) weekly for 12 weeks followed by 4 cycles of FEC(75) (500 mg/m(2), 75 mg/m(2), and 500 mg/m(2), respectively).
Forty patients were identified. The median age was 48 years (range, 29-81). In all, 60% of patients had stage III disease and 4 had inflammatory breast cancer. The PCR rate was 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.5%-70.7%). At a median follow-up of 19 months. 5 patients had a recurrence, of which 4 did not achieve a PCR. No severe cardiac events were observed.
Stage II and III HER2-positive breast cancer patients achieved a high rate of PCR with trastuzumab given concurrently with paclitaxel and FEC(75) chemotherapy. No severe cardiac events were observed with the regimen. The data concur with the results of a previously published trial.
Cancer 10/2007; 110(6):1195-200. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Findings from our previously published phase III randomized trial showed a high pathologic complete remission (CR) rate in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer after the concurrent administration of trastuzumab and paclitaxel, followed by concurrent trastuzumab and 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) preoperative chemotherapy. The safety and efficacy data of initial population were updated, with inclusion of additional experience with the same therapy. Study Design: The initial randomized study population of 42 patients were randomly assigned to either four cycles of paclitaxel followed by four cycles of FEC or to the same chemotherapy with simultaneous weekly trastuzumab for 24 weeks. All data were updated through November 2005.
Pretreatment characteristics of the initial patients and of the second cohort were similar. In the second cohort, pathologic CR rate was 54.5% (95% confidence interval, 32.2-75.6%) and the pathologic CR rate among all patients treated with chemotherapy plus trastuzumab was 60% (95% confidence interval, 44.3-74.3%). Three patients in the chemotherapy only group have recurred, and one has died. There has been no recurrences in the patients randomized to chemotherapy plus trastuzumab, and the estimated disease-free survival at 1 and 3 years was 100% (P = 0.041). In additional cohort treated with chemotherapy and trastuzumab at the median follow-up of 16.3 months, no patients had recurred. No new safety concerns were observed in this study.
Our expanded cardiac safety data and the updated efficacy data showed that the natural history of this subset of breast cancer patients can be substantially modified by this treatment approach.
Clinical Cancer Research 02/2007; 13(1):228-33. · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 30-40% of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive breast tumors express high levels of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and these high levels have been associated with a poorer prognosis in breast cancer patients. We speculate that high levels of COX-2 induce drug resistance in ERalpha-positive breast tumors, thus reducing the survival rate of patients with such tumors. Human breast cancer cell lines that express high levels of COX-2 are generally ERalpha negative. To determine whether COX-2 induces drug resistance, plasmids encoding the COX-2 gene were stably transfected into ERalpha-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/COX-2). MCF-7/COX-2 cells were resistant to the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen but not to its analog, raloxifene. MCF-7/COX-2 cells were also resistant to the retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) but not to its analog, all-trans retinoic acid. In contrast, the sensitivities of MCF-7/COX-2 cells to doxorubicin and paclitaxel were similar to those of the parental MCF-7 cells. We then determined which COX-2 product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or prostaglandin F2alpha is involved in the COX-2-mediated drug resistance. PGE2, but not PGF2alpha, blocked the antiproliferative effects of tamoxifen and 4-HPR. Agonists that activate PGE2 receptors and their downstream kinase effectors, protein kinases A and C, also blocked the growth inhibitory effects of these drugs. Increased levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins have been reported in mammary tumors of COX-2 transgenic mice and in human colon cancer cell lines that have high levels of COX-2. However, we did not observe any changes in Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, or Bax expression induced by COX-2 or PGE2. Here we report the novel findings that COX-2 uses PGE2 to stimulate the activities of protein kinases A and C to induce selectively tamoxifen and 4-HPR resistance in ERalpha-positive breast cancer cells.