[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune effector cells that protect against cancer and some viral infections. Until recently, most studies have investigated the molecular signatures of human or mouse NK cells to identify genes that are specifically expressed during NK cell development. However, the mechanism regulating NK cell development remains unclear. Here, we report a regulatory network of potential interactions during in vitro differentiation of human NK cells, identified using genome-wide mRNA and miRNA databases through hierarchical clustering analysis, gene ontology analysis and a miRNA target prediction program. The microRNA (miR)-583, which demonstrated the largest ratio change in mature NK cells, was highly correlated with IL2 receptor gamma (IL2Rγ) expression. The overexpression of miR-583 had an inhibitory effect on NK cell differentiation. In a reporter assay, the suppressive effect of miR-583 was ablated by mutating the putative miR-583 binding site of the IL2Rγ 3' UTR. Therefore, we show that miR-583 acts as a negative regulator of NK cell differentiation by silencing IL2Rγ. Additionally, we provide a comprehensive database of genome-wide mRNA and miRNA expression during human NK cell differentiation, offering a better understanding of basic human NK cell biology for the application of human NK cells in immunotherapy.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108913. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tescalcin (TESC) is an EF-hand calcium binding protein that is differentially expressed in several tissues, however it is not reported that the expression and functional roles of TESC in colorectal cancer. Levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of TESC in colorectal cancer tissues were assessed using RT-PCR, real time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and clinicopathologic analyses. Quantitative analysis of TESC levels in serum specimens was performed using sandwich ELISA. Colorectal cancer cells transfected with TESC small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA were examined in cell proliferation assays, phospho-MAPK array, and mouse xenograft models. Here we demonstrated that TESC is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), but was not expressed in normal mucosa and premalignant dysplastic lesions. Furthermore, serum TESC levels were elevated in patients with CRC. Knockdown of TESC inhibited the Akt-dependent NF-κB pathway and decreased cell survival in vitro. Depletion of TESC reduced tumor growth in a CRC xenograft model. Thus, TESC is a potential diagnostic marker and oncotarget in colorectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we performed 2-dimensional electrophoresis with protein extracts from the lizard tails, and analyzed the protein expression profiles during the tissue regeneration to identify the dedifferentiation factor. As a result, we identified 18 protein spots among total of 292 spots, of which proteins expression were specifically expressed during blastema formation. We selected lactoferrin as a candidate because it is the mammalian homologue of leech-derived tryptase inhibitor, which showed the highest frequency among the 18 proteins. Lactoferrin was specifically expressed in various stem cell lines, and enhanced the efficiency of iPSC generation upto approximately 7-fold relative to the control. Furthermore, lactoferrin increased the efficiency by 2-fold without enforced expression of Klf4. These results suggest that lactoferrin may induce dedifferentiation at least partly by increasing the expression of Klf4.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 03/2014; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The doses of donor-derived natural killer (NK) cells that can be given safely after human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remain to be defined. Forty-one patients (age, 17-75 years) with hematologic malignancy underwent HLA-haploidentical HCT after reduced-intensity conditioning containing busulfan, fludarabine, and anti-thymocyte globulin. Cell donors (age, 7-62 years) underwent growth factor-mobilized leukapheresis for 3-4 days. Cells collected on the first 2-3 days were used for HCT, whereas those collected on the last day were CD3-depleted and cultured into NK cells using human interleukins-15 and -21. These NK cells were then infused into patients twice at 2- and 3 weeks after HCT at an escalating doses of 0.2 ×10(8) cells/kg of body weight (3 patients), 0.5 ×10(8) cells/kg (3 patients), 1.0 ×10(8) cells/kg (8 patients), and ≥1.0 ×10(8) cells/kg or available cells (27 patients). At all dose levels, no acute toxicity was observed after NK cell infusion. After HLA-haploidentical HCT and subsequent donor NK cell infusion, when referenced to 31 historical patients who had undergone HLA-haploidentical HCT after the same conditioning regimen but without high-dose NK cell infusion, there was no significant difference in the cumulative incidences of major HCT outcomes including engraftment (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/μL, 85% vs. 87%), grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, 17% vs. 16%), moderate to severe chronic GVHD (15% vs. 10%), and transplantation-related mortality (27% vs. 19%). There was, however, a significant reduction in leukemia progression (74% to 46%) with post-transplantation NK cell infusion being an independent predictor for less leukemia progression (hazard ratio, 0.527). Our findings showed that, when given 2- to 3 weeks after HLA-haploidentical HCT, donor-derived NK cells were well-tolerated at a median total dose of 2.0 ×10(8) cells/kg. In addition, they may decrease post-transplant progression of acute leukemia.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) has multiple functions, including tumor suppression and involvement in cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, its role in the inflammatory process remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that Txnip(-/-) mice are significantly more susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock. In response to LPS, Txnip(-/-) macrophages produced significantly higher levels of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and an iNOS inhibitor rescued Txnip(-/-) mice from endotoxic shock-induced death, demonstrating that NO is a major factor in TXNIP-mediated endotoxic shock. This susceptibility phenotype of Txnip(-/-) mice occurred despite reduced IL-1β secretion due to increased S-nitrosylation of NLRP3 compared to wild-type controls. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TXNIP is a novel molecule that links NO synthesis and NLRP3 inflammasome activation during endotoxic shock.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 protein plays a central role in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to diverse stress stimuli. Human ecdysoneless (hEcd) is known for its role in stabilizing the p53 protein level and increasing p53-mediated transcription. Here, we report that thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), a member of the tumor suppressor family, interacts with hEcd and decreases MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination, leading to p53 stabilization and an increase in p53 activity. The ectopic overexpression of both TXNIP and Ecd increased actinomycin D-mediated cell death in MCF-7 cells, whereas knockdown of TXNIP and Ecd decreased cell death. These results show that TXNIP is a new regulator of the Ecd-MDM2-p53 loop.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical determinants of the fate of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoiesis. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), which is induced by oxidative stress, is a known regulator of intracellular ROS. Txnip(-/-) old mice exhibited elevated ROS levels in hematopoietic cells and showed a reduction in hematopoietic cell population. Loss of TXNIP led to a dramatic reduction of mouse survival under oxidative stress. TXNIP directly regulated p53 protein by interfering with p53- mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) interactions and increasing p53 transcriptional activity. Txnip(-/-) mice showed downregulation of the antioxidant genes induced by p53. Introduction of TXNIP or p53 into Txnip(-/-) bone marrow cells rescued the HSC frequency and greatly increased survival in mice following oxidative stress. Overall, these data indicate that TXNIP is a regulator of p53 and plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the hematopoietic cells by regulating intracellular ROS during oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose stem cells (ASCs) are pluripotent cells that can generate pure fat tissue for regeneration. Differentiated adipose cells have been generated by a common inducer cocktail composed of dexamethasone, insulin, and isobutylmethylxanthine (DIM). The major drawbacks of adipose cells are their tendency to float on the culture media and their cost. To overcome some of these disadvantages, a new inducer cocktail that includes insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone, and histamine (DH IH) was tested. As a result, lipid accumulation was elevated more than twofold with DH IH than with DIM. Cell adhesion and viability, which are important factors for stable differentiation, were increased with DH IH and were proven through measurement of mRNA expression levels of adhesion marker genes, N-cadherin and vascular cell adhesion molecule, as well as through an alamar blue assay. The expression of adipogenesis-related genes, adiponectin, and glucose transporter type 4 lasted for a long time. To improve the efficiency of grafting, cell adhesion and neovascularization need to be increased. Neovascularization was observed around the transplanted adipose cells, which showed a higher number of vessel formation in DH IH than in DIM. The above results suggest that DH IH can produce pure differentiated adipose cells effectively and enhance their adhesion onto the target location when these differentiated adipose cells were applied as a clinical resource.
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 05/2013; 60(3):356-64. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we found that adiponectin (APN) suppresses IL-2-induced NK cell activation by downregulating the expression of the IFN-γ-inducible TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and Fas ligand. Although the antitumor function of APN has been reported in several types of solid tumors, with few controversial results, no lymphoma studies have been conducted. In this study, we assessed the role of APN in immune cell function, including NK cells, CTLs, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, in EL4 and B16F10 tumor-bearing APN knockout (KO) mice. We observed attenuated EL4 growth in the APNKO mice. Increased numbers of splenic NK cells and splenic CTLs were identified under naive conditions and EL4-challenged conditions, respectively. In APNKO mice, splenic NK cells showed enhanced cytotoxicity with and without IL-2 stimulation. Additionally, there were decreased levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation in the EL4-bearing APNKO mice. Enforced MHC class I expression on B16F10 cells led to attenuated growth of these tumors in APNKO mice. Thus, our results suggest that EL4 regression in APNKO mice is not only due to an enhanced antitumor immune response but also to a high level of MHC class I expression.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2013; · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (Erdr1) suppressed cell motility in vitro and has anti-metastatic effect in vivo on melanoma. The current study investigated the effect of recombinant Erdr1 on the migration and invasion ability of SNU-216 cell, a gastric cancer cell line. The expression of Erdr1 is inversely correlated with IL-18 expression, which has a pro-cancer effect in gastric cancer. Treatment with rErdr1 markedly suppressed the ability of SNU-216 cells to migrate and invade, indicating that recombinant Erdr1 inhibited the motility of gastric cancer cells. E-cadherin expression levels were measured to determine the factor involved in the rErdr1-suppressed motility. E-cadherin is a representative of the cadherin family, known as cell motility enhancement adhesion molecule. Our results revealed that E-cadherin levels were increased by rErdr1 treatment, suggesting the involvement of E-cadherin in rErdr1-reduced cell migration. The cells were treated with specific MAPK inhibitors such as SP600125, SB203580 or PD98059 to identify the signaling mechanism involved with rErdr1 suppressed cell migration. The results indicated that the rErdr1 inhibited migration was primarily reversed by SP600125, a JNK inhibitor. In addition, the level of JNK phosphorylation was markedly increased by recombinant Erdr1. Taken together, these findings suggest that rErdr1 suppressed the ability of gastric cancer cells to metastasis by up regulating E-cadherin through a JNK pathway activation. Furthermore, it can be suggested that the inhibitory effect of recombinant Erdr1 on SNU-216 cell's metastatic potential was through cell motility suppression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin-D3 upregulated protein-1 (VDUP1) is a stress response protein. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection is a leading cause of death. Mice infected with live P. aeruginosa exhibit significantly decreased VDUP1 expression. However, the function of VDUP1 during P. aeruginosa-induced mouse bacteremic shock is unknown. To address the function of VDUP1 in P. aeruginosa-infected mice, we constructed a bacteremic shock model wherein both wild-type and VDUP1-deficient mice were infected intra-peritoneally with live P. aeruginosa. We found that VDUP1-deficient mice were more resistant to P. aeruginosa-induced bacteremic shock than wild-type mice, as shown by the increased survival, accelerated bacterial clearance and suppression of cytokine overproduction of the VDUP1-deficient mice. VDUP1 promoted the recruitment of neutrophils into the peritoneal cavities of infected mice. VDUP1 impeded the phagocytosis of non-opsonized P. aeruginosa via phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in macrophages. P. aeruginosa infection induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the increased production of ROS by the peritoneal cells of VDUP1-deficient mice was advantageous in clearing the bacteria. Overall, VDUP1 aggravates bacteremic shock; thus, VDUP1 can be considered a target molecule for the inhibition of P. aeruginosa-induced bacteremic shock.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are a subset of lymphocytes crucial for innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we show a stimulatory effect of cryptotanshinone (CTS) and tanshinone IIA (TS), isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on the differentiation of NK cells. In the presence of IL-15, tanshinones increased NK cell maturation, NK cell differentiation and the expression of several transcription factors, including Id2, GATA3, T-bet, and Ets-1. Additionally, tanshinones increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation during NK cell differentiation. Furthermore, the p38 inhibitor SB203580 blocked the developmental effects of the tanshinones and suppressed Id2, T-bet, and Ets-1 expression during NK cell differentiation. These results suggest that tanshinones significantly increased IL-15-induced NK cell differentiation via enhancing the p38 phosphorylation and the expression of transcription factors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2012; 425(2):340-7. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a well-known acne-inducing factor which causes inflammatory skin lesions by enhancing cytokine production through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Green tea extract catechin has been documented to possess anti-inflammatory effects. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved or any direct effect of green tea catechin on acne. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects and mechanism of polyphenon-60, also known as green tea catechin compound, on acne in vitro and in vivo. In a clinical study using topical polyphenon-60 treatment, acne patients showed symptomatic improvement with decrease in the number of comedos and pustules. To investigate the mechanism underlying the activity of polyphenon-60 in acne therapy, an in vitro study was performed. We found that polyphenon-60 reduced the levels of P. acnes-enhanced TLR2 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in THP-1 cells, human monocyte cell line and human primary monocytes. Taken together, these data demonstrate that polyphenon-60 has a therapeutic effect on acne by suppressing inflammation, specifically by inhibiting TLR2 expression and IL-8 secretion via down-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway and activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway.
Archives for Dermatological Research 06/2012; 304(8):655-63. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perforin (Prf1) and granzyme B (GzmB) are essential effector molecules for natural killer (NK)-cell cytotoxicity, but how Prf1 and GzmB expression is regulated during arming of NK cells is poorly defined. We show that human microRNA (miR)-27a* is a negative regulator of NK-cell cytotoxicity by silencing Prf1 and GzmB expression. Human miR-27a* specifically bound to the 3' untranslated regions of Prf1 and GzmB, down-regulating expression in both resting and activated NK cells, and it functioned as a fine-tuner for homeostasis of the net amount of the effector proteins. Consistent with miR-27a* having an inhibitory role, knockdown of miR-27a* in NK cells dramatically increased cytotoxicity in vitro and decreased tumor growth in a human tumor xenograft model. Thus, NK-cell cytotoxicity is regulated, in part, by microRNA, and modulating endogenous miR-27a* levels in NK cells represents a potential immunotherapeutic strategy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IL-22 NKp46(+) innate lymphoid cells, NCR22 cells, are very important for the early host defense against microbial pathogens. We show here that NCR22 cells were differentiated from Lin(-)CD127(+)CD117(+) cells that were derived from hematopoietic precursor cells (HPCs) of mouse bone marrow cells. The combination of low concentrations of IL-23 and IL-15 induced differentiation of NCR22 cells from Lin(-)CD127(+)CD117(+) cells. NCR22 cells expressed a large amount of IL-22 and RORγt, and they had poor cytolytic activity and produced little IFN-γ. Lin(-)CD127(+)CD117(+) cells were very similar to intestinal lamina propria LTi-like cells; both cells dominantly expressed RORγt and IL-22. Meanwhile, Lin(-)CD127(-)CD117(+) cells that were also derived from HPCs did not express RORγt and IL-22, and they developed into conventional NK cells, not into NCR22 cells. These findings revealed that NCR22 cells can be differentiated from Lin(-)CD127(+)CD117(+) cells which are derived from HPCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer therapy often produces anemia, which is treated with erthropoietin (EPO) to stimulate erythrocyte production. However, concerns have recently arisen that EPO treatment may promote later tumor metastasis and mortality. The mechanisms underlying such effects are unknown, but it is clear that EPO has pleiotropic effects in cell types other than hematopoietic cells. In this study, we investigated how EPO affects lymphangiogenesis and lymph node tumor metastasis in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma. In these models, EPO increased lymph node lymphangiogenesis and lymph node tumor metastasis in a manner associated with increased migration, capillary-like tube formation, and dose- and time-dependent proliferation of human lymphatic endothelial cells. EPO increased sprouting of these cells in a thoracic duct lymphatic ring assay. These effects were abrogated by cotreatment with specific inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase or mitogen-activated protein kinase, under conditions in which EPO increased Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. Intraperitoneal administration of EPO stimulated peritoneal lymphangiogenesis, and systemic treatment of EPO increased infiltration of CD11b(+) macrophages in tumor-draining lymph nodes. Finally, EPO increased VEGF-C expression in lymph node-derived CD11b(+) macrophages as well as in bone marrow-derived macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Our results establish that EPO exerts a powerful lymphangiogenic function and can drive both lymph node lymphangiogenesis and nodal metastasis in tumor-bearing animals.
Cancer Research 05/2011; 71(13):4506-17. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intratumoral hypoxia has been correlated with distant metastatic potential. Two hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α and HIF-2α, are induced by hypoxia, and high expression of these proteins has been correlated to angiogenesis and distant metastasis. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is frequently highly expressed in cancer, and this overexpression correlates with malignant progression. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical correlation of HIF-α with Tβ4 and the intracellular functional roles of Tβ4 on HIF-α activation. We examined HIF-1α, HIF-2α and Tβ4 expressions in clinical human breast carcinoma (n=70) by immunohistochemistry. We show that high expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α strongly correlates with Tβ4 expression (P≤0.0001) and overexpression of Tβ4 correlates significantly with patients with lymph node metastasis (P<0.05) of human breast cancer. Additionally, we demonstrate that hypoxia up-regulates intracellular Tβ4 protein, which then affects HIF-α activity, which is the key in regulating VEGF expression. We confirmed that hypoxia-induced intracellular Tβ4 and HIF-α activities were reduced by interference of Tβ4 expression using Tβ4 shRNA lentivirus. Vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF)-A, a well-recognized lymphangiogenic cytokine, was also down-regulated, but VEGF-C and VEGF-D expressions were not affected. These findings suggest that the overexpression of Tβ4 is strongly associated with HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression and is also clinicopathologically involved with lymph node metastatic potential of breast cancer through the modulation of HIF-αactivation and induction of VEGF-A. Ultimately, these results highlight Tβ4 as a potentially therapeutic target in malignant cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NK cells are capable of killing virus-infected or tumor cells and producing IFN-gamma. Resting NK cells, however, have only minimal cytolytic activity and secrete a low level of IFN-gamma. The cytokine IL-15 can promote the expression of effector functions by resting NK cells. In this study, we demonstrate that suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) has a novel role in IL-15-primed human NK cell function. SOCS2 expression was upregulated in NK cells following stimulation with IL-15. During IL-15-mediated NK cell priming, SOCS2 interacted with phosphorylated proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) at tyrosine 402 (p-Pyk2(Tyr402)) and induced the proteasome-mediated degradation of p-Pyk2(Tyr402) via ubiquitination. Knockdown of SOCS2 resulted in the accumulation of p-Pyk2(Tyr402) and blocked NK cell effector functions. In addition, NK cell cytolytic activity and IFN-gamma production were inhibited by overexpression of the wild-type of Pyk2 but not by the overexpression of tyrosine 402 mutant of Pyk2. These results suggest that SOCS2 regulates human NK cell effector functions via control of phosphorylated Pyk2 depending on IL-15 existence.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2010; 185(2):917-28. · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The detailed mechanism driving the germinal center (GC) reaction to B cell lymphomagenesis has not been clarified. Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), also known as vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 which is an important tumor repressor, is involved in stress responses, redox regulation, and cellular proliferation. Here, we report that TXNIP has a potential role in the formation of GC in peripheral lymphoid organs where B lymphocytes divide rapidly. First, we compared changes in GC from wild type mice and Txnip(-/-) mice. After immunization, Txnip(-/-) mice exhibited higher expression level of BCL-6 and larger percentage of GC B cells with the reduction in antibody production and plasma cell numbers. In addition, Txnip(-/-) spleens had a much larger population which expressed Ki-67, a marker of cell proliferation, in the red pulp border than WT spleens. Furthermore, the expression of BCL-6 was decreased in TXNIP overexpressing cells and elevated in TXNIP deficient cells. Taken together, we conclude that TXNIP may contribute to the formation of GCs after immunization. During this process, TXNIP suppresses BCL-6 expression.