S Cazzavillan

San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Veneto, Italy

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Publications (15)38.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Previous studies have suggested that online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) fluid can be used as dialysate for continuous renal replacement therapies, and thus HDF costs can be reduced. The aims of this study were to determine the purity of OL-HDF fluid and to verify the stability of the electrolyte composition and acid-base balance during its storage. Methods: OL-HDF fluid was collected in 70 individual bags and stored for up to 7 days. The following tests were performed daily in 10 bags: natural visible precipitation (macrocrystallization), sample collection for chemical analysis and fluid culture, limulus amebocyte lysate endotoxin test, standard culture of NALGENE® filters after passing of the fluid, and molecular analysis of bacterial DNA. Results: The values of pH and pCO(2) showed a significant change starting at 24 h (p < 0.001); after 72 h, their values were beyond the measurable range. Coefficient of variation for pCO(2) was as high as 25.7%. Electrolyte composition (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+) and glucose) showed a statistically significant difference over time (p < 0.05); however, their coefficients of variation were low (1.7, 1.4, 0.6, 2.3 and 0.9%, respectively), which might not be considered clinically significant. Negative results were obtained at all points by fluid and filter cultures, endotoxin test and molecular analysis. No macrocrystallization was observed at any time point. Conclusions: We demonstrate the microbiological purity of OL-HDF fluid stored for up to 7 days. The electrolyte composition was stable, except for a relevant change in pCO(2) and consequently in pH (first noted at 24 h), emphasizing the need to reassess the acid-base balance in multilayer plastic bags in future studies.
    Blood Purification 01/2013; 35(1-3):112-8. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlamydia pneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections, has been associated with atherosclerosis which, along with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular ischemia and stroke, is a risk factor for chronic neurological disorders. Several studies have demonstrated the ability of C. pneumoniae to disseminate from lungs to arteries through peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Once inside the vascular tissue, C. pneumoniae infection may disseminate via peripheral monocytes to the brain over the intact blood-brain barrier, and contribute to the development of chronic neurological disorders. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether past C. pneumoniae vascular infection may promote the dissemination of this microorganism to the brain, therefore we investigated the presence of C. pneumoniae in post-mortem brain tissue specimens of patients with past chlamydial vascular infection. Seventy six post-mortem brain tissue specimens from 19 patients with past chlamydial vascular infection were investigated for the presence of C. pneumoniae by immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, in situ polymerase chain reaction and in situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. As control, 28 brain tissue specimens were taken from 7 age and sex matched subjects without chlamydial infection. C. pneumoniae was detected in 16 (84.2%) out of 19 patients with chlamydial vascular infection whereas it was not detected in control subjects (p= 0.0002). In conclusion, the main result of our study is the evidence that a chlamydial vascular infection can disseminate to the brain. It will be important for current and future researches to perform large-scale prospective studies on cardiovascular patients with chlamydial vascular infection in order to evaluate the long-term pathological alterations of the brain.
    Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2013; 27(1):155-164. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality for end-stage renal disease patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD). Several studies in recent years have identified Chlamydia pneumoniae, a respiratory pathogen, as risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the general population. The aim of our study is to evaluate chlamydial load, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of HD patients. Furthermore, the correlation between DNA chlamydial load and markers of inflammation was also examined. PBMC specimens isolated from 49 HD patients and 46 blood donors were analyzed for the presence of C. pneumoniae DNA by real-time PCR and ompA nested touchdown PCR. In HD patients, plasma levels of several inflammatory markers were also determined. A significantly higher rate of C. pneumoniae DNA was found in HD patients (44.9 percent) than in blood donors (19.6 percent) (p=0.016); HD patients were also more likely to have a significantly high chlamydial load (p=0.0004). HD patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases have a significantly greater chlamydial load than HD patients without cardiovascular diseases (p= 0.006). A significantly higher value of C-reactive protein, IL-6 and advanced oxidative protein products was found in HD patients with a greater chlamydial load (p less than 0.05). Likewise, a significantly lower monocyte HLA-DR percentage (p=0.011) as well as a lower monocyte HLA-DR expression were found in such patients (p= 0.007). In conclusion, our results show that HD patients are at high risk of C. pneumoniae infection correlated with chronic inflammatory response which in turn can lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and other long-term clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke.
    Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2010; 24(3):367-75. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central venous catheters (CVCs) play an important role in replacement therapy for patients with acute and chronic renal failure. Secondary infections due to central venous access are responsible for 48-73% of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients and are an important cause of morbidity and increased health costs for these patients. Episodes of unexplained fever were noted in hemodialysis patients in our center starting in October 2006. An investigation for causative microorganisms was conducted from October 2006 to April 2007. Bacterial DNA was extracted and amplified using universal primers for bacterial 16S. Amplification by multiple PCR was performed on the samples and the subsequent sequencing led to the identification of the microorganism of interest as belonging to Methylobacterium radiotolerans. We report the largest cluster of dialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections caused by M. radiotolerans, and describe the difficulties in the prompt and correct identification of these bacteria. Thirty-seven patients had positive cultures for M. radiotolerans from blood (2.7%) or CVC (29.7%) or both (67.6%). After removal and replacement of CVCs and antibiotic therapy and the strict application of an infection management protocol, there were no more fever episodes or cultures positive for M. radiotolerans.
    Giornale italiano di nefrologia: organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di nefrologia 01/2009; 26(5):616-20.
  • M De Cal, S Cazzavillan, M Rassu, C Ronco
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation and infection seem to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Subclinical infections have been proposed as an important cause of inflammatory syndrome but to date this hypothesis remains speculative. In this investigation, we developed a method for molecular detection of the presence of bacterial DNA in a population of chronic kidney disease patients in order to correlate molecular data with the degree and level of inflammation and to evaluate the usefulness of the method in the diagnosis of subclinical infection. The study was divided into two phases: the study of a population of 81 CKD patients for prevalence and level of inflammation and infection; and the molecular evaluation of a subgroup of 38 patients without evident clinical causes of inflammation for molecular evaluation of subclinical infection. Patients hemoculture negative turned out positive for the presence of bacterial DNA when molecular methods were used. We found a trend of correlation with the presence of bacterial DNA and the increase in hs-CRP, IL-6 and oxidative stress (AOPP) levels and a reduction in MFI DR+. Hemodialyzer membranes seem to have properties that are 'sticky' to bacteria/bacterial DNA and work as concentrators. Moreover our data suggest that DNA can traverse hemodialysis membranes. Molecular methods have turned out to be far more sensitive than standard methods in detecting subclinical infection. The presence of bacterial DNA seems to influence the variation of some parameters of inflammation and immunity. Apart from the limitations and pitfalls, a molecular method could be useful for the screening of subclinical infection and diagnosis of sepsis when the hemoculture is negative. The identification of the microorganism involved, however, must be done with species-specific primers. These results are preliminary and more investigations will have to be performed in order to confirm our results.
    The International journal of artificial organs 06/2008; 31(5):395-404. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation and infection seem to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients; subclinical infections have been proposed as an important cause of inflammatory syndrome, but to date this hypothesis remains speculative. We developed a method for the molecular detection of the presence of bacterial DNA in a population of CKD patients in order to correlate the molecular data with the degree and level of inflammation and to evaluate its usefulness in the diagnosis of subclinical infection. The study was divided into two phases: (1) a population of 81 CKD patients was screened for the prevalence and level of inflammation and the presence of possible infection, and (2) a subgroup of 38 patients, without evident clinical causes of inflammation, underwent complete molecular evaluation for subclinical infection using bacterial DNA primers for sequencing. Additionally, complete analysis was carried out in the blood and dialysate compartments of the hemodialyzers used. The general population showed a certain degree of subclinical inflammation and no difference was found between patients with and without evident causes of inflammation. Hemoculture-negative patients were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA when molecular methods were used. We found a correlation trend between the presence of bacterial DNA and the increase in hs-CRP, IL-6 and oxidative stress (advanced oxidation protein product) levels and a reduction in the mean fluorescence intensity for HLA-DR. Hemodialyzer membranes seem to have properties that stick to bacteria/bacterial DNA and work as concentrators. In fact, patients with negative bacterial DNA in the circulating blood displayed positivity in the blood compartment of the dialyzer. The dialysate was negative for bacterial DNA but the dialysate compartment of the hemodialyzers used was positive in a high percentage. Moreover our data suggest that bacterial DNA can traverse hemodialysis membranes. Molecular methods have been found to be far more sensitive than standard methods in detecting subclinical infection. The presence of bacterial DNA seems to influence the variation in some parameters of inflammation and immunity. Apart from the limitations and pitfalls, the molecular method could be useful to screen for subclinical infection and diagnose subclinical sepsis when the hemoculture is negative. However, the identification of the microorganism implicated must be done with species-specific primers.
    Blood Purification 02/2007; 25(1):69-76. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Sepsis is associated with cell necrosis and apoptosis. Circulating plasma levels of DNA have been found in conditions associated with cell death, including sepsis, pregnancy, stroke, myocardial infarction and trauma. Plasma DNA can also derive from bacteria. We have recently implemented a method to detect bacterial DNA and, in the present study, we validated this technique comparing it to standard blood culture in terms of diagnostic efficacy. We examined a cohort of 9 critically ill patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis and acute renal failure requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). We analyzed bacterial DNA in blood, hemofilters, and ultrafiltrate (UF) by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Standard blood cultures were performed for all patients. The blood cultures from 2 of the 9 (22%) patients were positive. However, bacterial DNA was identified in the blood of 6 patients (67%), including the 2 septic patients with positive blood cultures. In 9 (100%) patients bacterial DNA was found on the filter blood side, whereas in 7 (78%) subjects it was found in the dialysate compartment of the hemofilters. Bacterial DNA was never detected in the UF. Using the 16S rRNA gene, the detection of bacterial DNA in blood and adsorbed within the filter could be a useful screening tool in clinically septic, blood culture-negative patients undergoing CRRT. However, the identification of the etiologic agent is not feasible with this technique because specific primers for the defined bacteria must be used to further identify the suspected pathogenic organisms.
    Blood Purification 02/2007; 25(1):106-11. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Hemoglobin 01/2007; 31:53. · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mortality rates in septic shock remain unacceptably high despite advances in our understanding of the syndrome and its treatment. Humoral factors are increasingly recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of septic shock, giving a biological rationale to therapies that might remove varied and potentially dangerous humoral mediators. While plasma water exchange in the form of hemofiltration can remove circulating cytokines in septic patients, the procedure, as routinely performed, does not have a substantial impact on their plasma levels. More intensive plasma water exchange, as high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF)can reduce levels of these mediators and potentially improve clinical outcomes. However, there are concerns about the feasibility and costs of HVHF as a continuous modality--very high volumes are difficult to maintain over 24 hours and solute kinetics are not optimized by this regimen. We propose pulse HVHF (PHVHF)-HVHF of 85 ml/kg/hr for 6-8 hours followed by continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) of 35 ml/kg/hr for 16-18 hours-as a new method to combine the advantages of HVHFimprove solute kinetics, and minimize logistic problems. We treated 15 critically ill patients with severe sepsis and septic shock using daily PHVHF in order to evaluate the feasibility of the technique, its effects on hemodynamics, and the impact of the treatment on pathologic apoptosis in sepsis. Hemodynamic improvements were obtained after 6 hours of PHVHF and were maintained subsequently by standard CVVHas demonstrated by the reduction in norepinephrine dose. PHVHFbut not CVVHsignificantly reduces apoptotic plasma activity within 1 hour and the pattern was maintained in the following hours. PHVHF appears to be a feasible modality that may provide the same or greater benefits as HVHFwhile reducing the workload and cost.
    Seminars in Dialysis 01/2006; 19(1):69-74. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New dialyzers are designed to optimize the convective and diffusive components of solute transport. Asahi Kasei Medical Co.,Ltd.has developed a new high flux dialyzer series called Rexeed with improved flow distributions. We evaluated the in vivo dialytic performance of two dialyzers of the Rexeed series: Rexeed-18A and Rexeed-25A (1.8 m2 and 2.5 m2 ). We calculated the clearance for urea,creatinine,phosphate and b2-microglobulin both in high flux dialysis (HFD)and in 15 liter postidiluitional on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF)mode. With n = 3 patients in high flux HD at blood flow 450, 400, 350 and 250 ml/min we found remarkably high clearance for urea (347 +/- 4%, 305 +/- 0%, 288 +/- 5%, 230 +/- 3%, for Rexeed-18A and 361 +/- 3%, 329 +/- 0%, 313 +/- 1%, 234 +/- 3%for Rexeed-25A),creatinine (282 +/- 10%, 234 +/- 0%, 221 +/- 8%, 174 +/- 8%, for Rexeed-18A and 276 +/- 6%, 245 +/- 0%, 226 +/- 9%, 172 +/- 13% for Rexeed-25A),phosphate (347 +/- 0%, 316 +/- 0%, 275 +/- 4%, 202 +/- 16%, for Rexeed-18A and 364 +/- 3%, 365 +/- 0%,286 +/- 3%, 224 +/- 2% for Rexeed-25A)and b2-microglobulin (133 +/- 21%, 124 +/- 0%,118 +/- 12%, 98 +/- 11%, for Rexeed-18A and 159 +/- 8%, 169 +/- 0%,157 +/- 8%, 129 +/- 7% for Rexeed-25A) With n = 2 patients in HDF at blood flow 300 ml/min we found remarkably high clearance for urea (268 +/- 2%, for Rexeed-18A and 283 +/- 2% for Rexeed-25A),creatinine (183 +/- 6%for Rexeed-18A and 205 +/- 9% for Rexeed-25A),phosphate (245 +/- 3%, for Rexeed-18A and 270 +/- 2% for Rexeed-25A)and b2-microglobulin (166 +/- 12%, for Rexeed-18A and 192 +/- 4% for Rexeed-25A). Our preliminary evaluation describes the characteristics and the performances of a new polysulfone-based hemodialyzer series called Rexeed. Several innovative features have been implemented by the manufacturer. These constructive approaches seem to have produced a positive effect on the dialyzer performance at the bedside.
    The International journal of artificial organs 11/2005; 28(10):966-75. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uremic patients have a higher risk of infection and malignancy than normal subjects. Previous studies have deomonstrated that monocytes isolated from uremic patients display an increased apoptosis rate compared to normal subjects; furthermore uremic plasma can increase apoptosis rates on U937, a human monocytic cell line. In several pathological conditions, precipitation of uric acid crystals can lead to renal insufficiency or acute renal failure by different mechanisms. In recent studies uric acid has been shown to induce inflammatory response from monocytes and it has been suggested to be involved in cell dysfunction. Rasburicase is a new recombinant urate oxidase developed to prevent and treat hyperuricaemia in patients with cancer or renal failure; it degrades uric acid to allantoin, a less toxic and more soluble product. In the present study, we aimed at determining whether uric acid may be a factor affecting U937 apoptosis, and whether urate oxidase may reduces or even prevent uric acid induced cell apoptosis. Hoechst staining and internucleosome ledder fragmentation of DNA showed that uric acid increased the percentage of apoptotic cells comparing to the control and that when the U937 cells were incubated with uric acid and urate oxidase the percentage of apoptosis significantly decreased (from 43+/-7% to 19+/- 3%, p<0.05). Also, the activity of caspase-8 and caspase-3 showed the same trend (caspase 3: from 2.7+/-0.53 to 1.6+/-0.42; caspase-8: from 2.2+/-0.43 to 1.3+/-0.57). A reduction of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was found in uric acid treated cells while the addition of urate oxidase in the uric acid incubated cells decreased the GSH extrusion. The concentration of TNF-alpha was increased in the sample incubated with uric acid comparing to the control. Uric acid is an inducer of apoptosis on U937 cell line, and therefore it may be a component of the mosaic of uremic toxins both in acute and chronic renal disease. We can hypothesize that uric acid might be directly involved in the apoptotic process trough the activation of both death receptor and mitochondrial-mediated pathways. We have, also, demonstrated that urate oxidase is able to prevent at least in part, the effect of uric acid on U937 apoptosis. This effect might be a result of different mechanisms of action.
    Current Drug Discovery Technologies 03/2005; 2(1):29-36.
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and impact of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in HIV-positive patients and to establish the relationship between C. pneumoniae infection and lipid profile. Detection of C. pneumoniae was by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) collected from 97 HIV-positive patients. Samples were collected after overnight fast in EDTA-treated tubes. On the same day, patients were also tested for routine chemistry, HIV viral load, CD3, CD8 and CD4 cell counts and lipid profile [cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and triglycerides]. The overall prevalence of C. pneumoniae was 39%. The prevalence of C. pneumoniae was inversely related to the CD4 lymphocyte count (P=0.03). In the naive group, C. pneumoniae-positive patients had both significantly higher HIV load (71 021+/-15 327 vs. 14 753+/-14 924 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; P=0.03) and lower CD4 cell count (348.0+/-165.4 vs. 541.7+/-294.8; P=0.04) than C. pneumoniae-negative patients. Moreover, treatment-naive patients with C. pneumoniae infection had significantly higher mean levels of cholesterol (185.3+/-56.2 vs. 124.8+/-45.9 mg/dL; P=0.01), triglycerides (117.2+/-74.7 vs. 68+/-27.6 mg/dL; P=0.04) and LDL (122.4+/-60.1 vs. 55.6+/-58 mg/dL; P=0.05) than C. pneumoniae-negative patients. These data indicate that, in HIV-positive subjects, C. pneumoniae infection is relatively frequent and is associated with both low CD4 cell count and high HIV load. Furthermore, C. pneumoniae appears to be associated with hyperlipidaemia and might therefore represent a further risk factor for cardiovascolar disease in HIV-positive patients.
    HIV Medicine 02/2005; 6(1):27-32. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have implicated Chlamydia pneumoniae (now Chlamydophila pneumoniae) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and demonstrated its presence within human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In this study the presence of C. pneumoniae DNA was assessed, using nested PCR, in PBMCs from 169 active blood donors as a function of age, of specific antibodies and C-reactive protein. The results obtained demonstrated a high degree of global positivity (46.15%), which was higher in females (52%) than in males (43.7%). Seroepidemiological studies showed a high percentage of positivity both in subjects positive by PCR (65.91%) and negative by PCR (71.74%). The clinical implication of such finding are under study.
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology 11/2001; 190(3):139-144. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) has been reported to be a pathogenic agent in the mechanism leading to atherosclerosis. The majority of available data is focused mainly on coronary artery disease whereas the distribution of CP in different areas, associated with atherosclerotic disorders, has not been completely clarified. In this study we investigated the presence of CP in atheromasic plaques from five different vascular areas (basilary artery, coronary artery, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, renal arteries) using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC), in order to establish the putative association of CP with atherosclerotic disease. The same atheromasic plaques were also tested for the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), other putative agents of atherosclerosis, using a nested PCR technique. Our data indicate that the presence of CP can be demonstrated in 100% of patients tested, considering globally the five areas of analysis. On the other hand the presence of HP has been demonstrated in four out of 18 patients (22.2%), and CMV only in three out of 18 (16.6%). Our results strongly suggest an association between CP and atherosclerosis and highlight the need for the detection of CP in multiple vascular areas of the same patient.
    Atherosclerosis 10/2001; 158(1):73-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using phenotypic, functional and molecular techniques, this study was performed to compare the complexity of the T-cell receptor repertoire of a bone marrow transplanted patient with that of his HLA-matched related donor, both of whom developed a chronic lymphocytosis sustained by CD3+CD8+CD57+CD16-CD56- granular lymphocytes 3 years after transplantation. Although Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of extra bands in both subjects, thus indicating the presence of at least one clonal T-cell population, the study of the different T-cell receptor Vbeta (TCRBV) usage did not demonstrate discrete overexpression of any TCRBV segments. On the contrary, heteroduplex analysis of TCRBV transcripts suggested the presence of oligoclonal T-cell expansions in the two subjects. Cloning and sequencing studies demonstrated that T-cell clones expressing identical TCRBV chains were expanded both in the donor and in the recipient. Furthermore, clones with similar, but not identical, junctional regions were also found in the two subjects. These data indicate that, at the time of the graft, a few cells with a monoclonal/oligoclonal pattern that were present in the donor were transferred to the recipient, where they may have found the same environmental in vivo conditions and/or the antigenic pressure favouring their abnormal expansion.
    British Journal of Haematology 08/1999; 106(1):119-27. · 4.94 Impact Factor