Kwok-Pui Fung

Zhejiang University, Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China

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Publications (135)362.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the prevalent use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for AIDS patients since 1996, the mortality of HIV/AIDS patients has been remarkably decreased. With long-term use of HAART, drug resistance and side effects of antiretrovirals have been frequently reported, which not only reduce the efficacy, but also decreases the tolerance of patients. Traditional herbal medicine has become more popular among HIV/AIDS patients as adjuvant therapy to reduce these adverse effects of HAART. SH formula is a Chinese herbal formula consisting of five traditional Chinese herbs including Morus alba L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Artemisia capillaris Thumb., Astragalus membranaceus Bge., and Carthamus tinctorius L. SH formula is clinically used for HIV treatment in Thailand. However, the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between these Chinese herbs and antiretroviral drugs have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential herb-drug interaction between SH herbal Chinese formula and the antiretroviral drug atazanavir (ATV). The combination effect of SH formula and ATV on HIV protease was studied in HIV-1 protease inhibition assay in vitro. The inhibition of SH formula on rat CYP3A2 was assessed by detecting the formation of 1'-OH midazolam from midazolam in rat liver microsomes in vitro. The in vivo pharmacokinetic interaction between SH formula and ATV was investigated by measuring time-dependent plasma concentrations of ATV in male Sprague-Dawley rats with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Through the in vitro HIV-1 protease inhibition assay, combination of SH formula (41.7-166.7μg/ml) and ATV (16.7-33.3ng/ml) showed additive inhibition on HIV-1 protease activity than SH formula or ATV used alone. In vitro incubation assay indicated that SH formula showed a weak inhibition (IC50=231.2µg/ml; Ki=98.2µg/ml) on CYP3A2 activity in rat liver microsomes. In vivo pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that SH formula did not affect the metabolism of ATV in rats. Our study demonstrated for the first time that there is no metabolism-based herb-drug interaction between SH formula and ATV in rats, but this combination enhances the inhibition potentials against HIV protease activity. This observation may support the combinational use of anti-HIV treatment in human. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology. 01/2015; 162.
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    ABSTRACT: In previous studies, we demonstrated that green tea (Camellia sinensis, CS) water extract had potent anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects in the 4T1 mouse breast cancer xenograft model, and the metronomic regimen (0.0125 mg/kg twice a week for 4 weeks) of zoledronic acid (ZOL) was also effective in decreasing tumor burden and metastasis when compared with the conventional regimen. This study aimed to investigate the combined use of CS water extract and metronomic ZOL against tumor metastasis and bone destruction in MDA-MB-231-TXSA human breast cancer. Female nude mice were injected with MDA-MB-231-TXSA cells into the marrow space of tibia and were treated with CS water extract and/or metronomic ZOL for 4 weeks. Tumor growth and metastasis to lungs and livers were assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Abilities of migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231-TXSA cells were also evaluated in vitro. Our results demonstrated that combination of CS and ZOL had the most potent effects on tumor burden and metastasis to bone, lung and liver, while treatment with CS or ZOL alone significantly protected the bone from cancer-induced osteolysis. In vitro, the combined use of CS + ZOL significantly inhibited MDA-MB-231-TXSA cell migration and invasion. Mechanistic zymography studies showed that the enzyme activities of MMP-9 and MMP-2 were significantly suppressed by CS and CS + ZOL. The combination of CS plus metronomic ZOL demonstrated potent anti-tumor, anti-metastasis and anti-osteolysis effects against breast cancer, suggesting the potential clinical application against breast cancer patients.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 11/2014; · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to identify the active fraction(s) from AR aqueous extract responsible for promoting angiogenesis using bioassay-guided fractionation. The angiogenic activity was screened by monitoring the increase of sprout number in sub-intestinal vessel (SIV) of the transgenic zebrafish embryos after they were treated with 0.06-0.25 mg/ml of AR aqueous extract or its fraction(s) for 96 h. Furthermore, the angiogenic effect was evaluated in treated zebrafish embryos by measuring the gene expression of angiogenic markers (VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) by measuring cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, (3)H-thymidine uptake assay, and cell cycle analysis. A major active fraction (P1-1-1), which was identified as glycoproteins, was found to significantly stimulate sprout formation (2.03 ± 0.27) at 0.125 mg/ml (P < 0.001) and up-regulate the gene expression of VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1 by 2.6-fold to 8.2-fold. Additionally, 0.031-0.125 mg/ml of P1-1-1 was demonstrated to significantly stimulate cell proliferation by increasing cell viability (from 180% to 205%), (3)H-thymidine incorporation (from 126% to 133%) during DNA synthesis, and the shift of cell population to S phase of cell cycle. A major AR active fraction consisting of glycoproteins was identified, and shown to promote angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro.
    Journal of traditional and complementary medicine. 10/2014; 4(4):239-45.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the biological effects of the six-herb mixture Anti-Insomia Formula (AIF) extract using caffeine-induced insomnia Drosophila model and short-sleep mutants.
    Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 08/2014; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Erigerontis Herba is widely used as traditional Chinese medicine and is commonly used for neuroprotection and vascular protection.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 08/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coriolus versicolor (CV), a medicinal mushroom widely consumed in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be effective in stimulation of immune system and inhibition of tumor growth. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of CV aqueous extract in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and in 4T1-tumor bearing mouse model. Our results showed that CV aqueous extract (0.125-2mg/ml) did not inhibit 4T1 cell proliferation while the non-cytotoxic dose of CV extract (1-2mg/ml) significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion (p<0.05). Besides, the enzyme activities and protein levels of MMP-9 were suppressed by CV extract significantly. Animal studies showed that CV aqueous extract (1g/kg, orally-fed daily for 4 weeks) was effective in decreasing the tumor weight by 36%, and decreased the lung metastasis by 70.8% against untreated control. Besides, micro-CT analysis of the tumor-bearing mice tibias indicated that CV extract was effective in bone protection against breast cancer-induced bone destruction as the bone volume was significantly increased. On the other hand, CV aqueous extract treatments resulted in remarkable immunomodulatory effects, which was reflected by the augmentation of IL-2, 6, 12, TNF-α and IFN-γ productions from the spleen lymphocytes of CV-treated tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrated for the first time that the CV aqueous extract exhibited anti-tumor, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation effects in metastatic breast cancer mouse model, and could protect the bone from breast cancer-induced bone destruction. These findings provided scientific evidences for the clinical application of CV aqueous extract in breast cancer patients.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 05/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dried roots of Cynanchum stauntonii in having cough-relieving efficacy are commonly included in traditional antitussive formulas. The active components in a C. stauntonii root extract responsible for airway relaxation were isolated using an ex vivo bioassay-guided fractionation method, in which subfractions were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the contraction of isolated rat tracheal rings by isometric tension measurements. A steroidal glycoside, cynatratoside B (1), identified by LC-MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, was shown to have potent inhibition on acetylcholine- and carbachol-induced tracheal contractions. The present data provide scientific evidence to support the traditional use of C. stauntonii as an antitussive herbal medicine.
    Journal of Natural Products 04/2014; 77(4):1074-7. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bakuchiol was an active antifungal compound isolated from Psoraleae Fructus by means of bioassay-guided fractionation in our previous study. The present work aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and the therapeutic effect of bakuchiol in Trichophyton mentagrophytes-induced tinea pedis. After exposure to bakuchiol at 0.25-fold, 0.5-fold and 1-fold of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (3.91μg/ml) for 24h, the fungal conidia of T. mentagrophytes demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in membrane permeability. Moreover, bakuchiol at 1-fold MIC elicited a 187% elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in fungal cells after a 3-h incubation. However, bakuchiol did not induce DNA fragmentation. In a guinea pig model of tinea pedis, bakuchiol at 1%, 5% or 10% (w/w) concentration in aqueous cream could significantly reduce the fungal burden of infected feet (p<0.01-0.05). In conclusion, this is the first report to demonstrate that bakuchiol is effective in relieving tinea pedis and in inhibiting the growth of the dermatophyte T. mentagrophytes by increasing fungal membrane permeability and ROS generation, but not via induction of DNA fragmentation.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 04/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imperatorin is a small molecule nature compound isolated from the root of Angelica dahurica, and has been shown to exhibit multiple bioeffector functions, including anti-cancer activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying imperatorin in suppression of tumor growth is unknown. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying imperatorin function and determining the efficacy of imperatorin in suppression of drug-resistant human liver cancer. We observed that imperatorin suppresses tumor cell growth through inducing apoptosis, and imperatorin is more effective in induction of multidrug-resistant human liver cancer cells in vitro. We further determined that imperatorin induces apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathway. At the molecular level, we identified Mcl-1 as the molecular target of imperatorin and determined that imperatorin induces protesome-dependent Mcl-1 degradation to release Bak and Bax to trigger apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Consistent with its in vitro apoptosis induction activity, imperatorin exhibited potent activity against multidrug-resistant liver cancer xenograft growth in vivo. Taken together, we determined that imperatorin is a Mcl-1 degradation inducer that can effectively suppress multidrug-resistant human liver cancer growth in vivo, and thus holds great promise for development as an effective small molecule anti-cancer agent in human liver cancer therapy to overcome drug resistance.
    Cancer letters 03/2014; · 5.02 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 03/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic foot ulcer is closely associated with peripheral vascular disease. Enhancement of tissue oxidative stress, reduction of nitric oxide (NO) and angiogenic growth factors, and abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity are pathophysiological factors in post-ischemic neovascularization and diabetic wound healing. Our previous study demonstrated that the Chinese 2-herb formula, NF3, showed significant wound healing effects on diabetic foot ulcer rats. A novel rat diabetic foot ulcer with hindlimb ischemia model was established in order to strengthen our claims on the diabetic wound healing and post-ischemic neovascularization effects of NF3. Our results demonstrate that NF3 can significantly reduce the wound area of the diabetic foot ulcer rat with hindlimb ischemia by 21.6% (p<0.05) compared with the control group. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that NF3 could boost circulating EPC levels for local wound vessel incorporation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that NF3 could significantly augment blood vessel density, VEGF and eNOS expression, and attenuate tissue oxidative stress of ischemic muscles (p<0.001). NF3 significantly stimulated MMP activity involved in angiogenesis. Our study shows, for the first time, the beneficial effects of NF3 in wound healing and post-ischemic neovascularization in diabetes.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 03/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunomodulation of natural polysaccharides has been the hot topic of research in recent years. In order to explore the immunomodulatory effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb., the water extract was studied and a polysaccharide HCP-2 with molecular weight of 60,000 Da was isolated by chromatography using DEAE Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-400 HR columns. The structure characterization of HCP-2 was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), acidic hydrolysis, PMP derivation, HPLC analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR). HCP-2 was elucidated as a pectic polysaccharide with a linear chain of 1,4-linked α-d-galacturonic acid residues in which part of the 6-carboxyl groups were methyl esterified and part of 2-hydroxyl groups were acetylated. The bioactivity assays showed that HCP-2 could increase the secretions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1α (MIP-1α), macrophage inhibitory protein-1β (MIP-1β), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which play critical roles in the innate immune system and shape the adaptive immunity. Our results implied that HCP-2 could be an immune enhancer.
    Carbohydrate Polymers 03/2014; 103:244–249. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug resistance is a major reason for therapy failure in cancer. Clitocine is a natural amino nucleoside isolated from mushroom and has been shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation in vitro. In this study, we observed that clitocine can effectively induce drug-resistant human cancer cell apoptosis in vitro and inhibit tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Clitocine treatment inhibited drug-resistant human cancer cell growth in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Biochemical analysis revealed that clitocine-induced tumor growth inhibition is associated with activation of caspases 3, 8 and 9, PARP cleavage, cytochrome c release and Bax, Bak activation, suggesting that clitocine inhibits drug-resistant cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis. Analysis of apoptosis regulatory genes indicated that Mcl-1 level was dramatically decreased after clitocine treatment. Over-expression of Mcl-1 reversed the activation of Bax and attenuated clitocine-induced apoptosis, suggesting that clitocine-induced apoptosis was at least partially by inducing Mcl-1 degradation to release Bax and Bak. Consistent with induction of apoptosis in vitro, clitocine significantly suppressed the drug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft growth in vivo by inducing apoptosis as well as inhibiting cell proliferation. Taken together, our data demonstrated that clitocine is a potent Mcl-1 inhibitor that can effectively induce apoptosis to suppress drug-resistant human cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, and thus holds great promise for further development as potentially a novel therapeutic agent to overcome drug resistance in cancer therapy.
    Apoptosis 02/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Integrative Medicine 02/2014; 6(1):129–130. · 0.65 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Integrative Medicine 02/2014; 6(1):129. · 0.65 Impact Factor
  • Phytomedicine. 01/2014;
  • Data Analytics for Traditional Chinese Medicine Research, Edited by Poon, Josiah and K. Poon, Simon, 01/2014: pages 173-188; Springer International Publishing., ISBN: 9783319038001
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    ABSTRACT: The root of Rehmannia glutinosa (Rehmanniae Radix (RR)) is clinically used as a wound-healing agent in traditional Chinese medicine. Angiogenesis acts crucially in the pathogenesis of chronic wound healing. The present study investigated the angiogenesis effect and its underlying mechanism of RR through zebrafish sprout angiogenesis guided-fractionation. The in vivo angiogenesis effect was studied by analyzing the number of ectopic sprouts formed upon sub-intestinal vessel of transgenic TG(fli1:EGFP)(y1)/+(AB) zebrafish embryos by fluorescence microscopy. Quantitative real-time PCR gene expression of the zebrafish embryos was further performed using a panel of 30 angiogenesis-associated genes designed for zebrafish sprout angiogenesis. Classical in vitro angiogenesis assays using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) was accompanied. We demonstrated that among all RR sub-fractions tested, C1-1 treated-zebrafish embryos possessed the most potent angiogenesis activities (from 190 to 780ng/ml, p<0.001) in sprout formation in the zebrafish model. Quantitative gene expression of the treated embryos demonstrated significant up-regulation in MMP-9 (p<0.05), ANGPT1 (p<0.05), EGFR (p<0.05), EPHB4 (p<0.01), and significant down-regulation in Ephrin B2 (p<0.05), Flt-1 (p<0.05) and Ets-1 (p<0.05). C1-1 treatment could also significantly (p<0.001-0.05) stimulate HMEC cell migration in scratch assay. Significant increase (p<0.05) in mean tubule length was observed in the C1-1-treated HMEC-1 cells in the tubule formation assay. Our zebrafish sprout angiogenesis model-guided fractionation revealed that C1-1 possessed the most potent angiogenesis effect in RR. The design of the panel with 30 tailor-made angiogenesis-associated genes exhibited in zebrafish gene expression analysis showed that C1-1 could trigger differential expression of various angiogenesis-associated genes, such as VEGFR3 and MMP9, which played key role in angiogenesis. The pro-angiogenic activity of C1-1 was further confirmed in the translated study in motogenic and tubule-inducing effect using HMEC-1.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to determine the effect of metronomic (0.0125 mg/kg twice a week for 4 weeks) zoledronic acid (ZOL) on cancer propagation and osteolysis against both metastatic and primary breast cancer in mice model. From our results, metronomic ZOL resulted in a significant reduction of tumor burden and did not promote lung or liver metastasis. The metronomic ZOL appeared to be more effective than the conventional regimen (0.1 mg/kg once in 4 weeks) in reducing breast cancer tumor burden, and regulating its movement to lung and liver. This dosing schedule of ZOL showed great potential against metastatic breast cancer.
    Cancer letters 07/2013; · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rubinoboletus ballouii is an edible mushroom wildly grown in Yunnan province, China. Up till now, little was known about the chemical and biological properties of this mushroom. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of the ethanolic extract of Rubinoboletus ballouii and its fractions on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using bioactivity-guided fractionation. The crude extract of the fruiting bodies of RB was fractionated by high-speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC). Twelve fractions were obtained and the third fraction (Fraction C) exerted the most potent anti-inflammatory activities in mitogen-activated PBMCs. Further fractionation of fraction C led to the isolation of two single compounds which were elucidated as 1-ribofuranosyl-s-triazin-2(1H)-one and pistillarin, respectively. The results showed that both 1-ribofuranosyl-s-triazin-2(1H)-one and pistillarin exhibited significant immunosuppressive effects on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human PBMCs by inhibiting [methyl-(3)H]-thymidine uptake and inflammatory cytokines productions such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-1β. Besides, 1-ribofuranosyl-s-triazin-2(1H)-one was firstly found in natural resources, and pistillarin was also isolated from the family Boletaceae for the first time. They exhibited great potential in developing as anti-inflammatory reagents.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 07/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
362.82 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2014
    • Zhejiang University
      • College of Life Sciences
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 1998–2014
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • • School of Biomedical Sciences
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2012–2013
    • Jinan University (Guangzhou, China)
      • School of Medicine
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2011
    • Nanjing University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Nanjing, Jiangsu Sheng, China