[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Culturing cells and tissues in vitro has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating redox signaling in cells with implications for medicine. However, standard culture techniques maintain mammalian cells in vitro under an artificial physicochemical environment such as ambient air and 5% CO2. Oxidative stress is caused by the rapid oxidation of cysteine to cystine in culture media catalyzed by transition metals, leading to diminished intracellular cysteine and glutathione (GSH) pools. Some cells, such as fibroblasts and macrophages, express cystine transport activity, designated as system [Formula: see text], which enables cells to maintain these pools to counteract oxidative stress. Additionally, many cells have the ability to activate the redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, a master regulator of cellular defenses against oxidative stress, and to upregulate xCT, the subunit of the [Formula: see text] transport system leading to increases in cellular GSH. In contrast, some cells, including lymphoid cells, embryonic stem cells and iPS cells, express relatively low levels of xCT and cannot maintain cellular cysteine and GSH pools. Thus, fibroblasts have been used as feeder cells for the latter cell types based on their ability to supply cysteine. Other key Nrf2 regulated gene products include heme oxygenase 1, peroxiredoxin 1 and sequestosome1. In macrophages, oxidized LDL activates Nrf2 and upregulates the scavenger receptor CD36 forming a positive feedback loop to facilitate removal of the oxidant from the vascular microenvironment. This review describes cell type specific responses to oxygen derived stress, and the key roles that activation of Nrf2 and membrane transport of cystine and cysteine play in the maintenance and proliferation of mammalian cells in culture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytoplasmic regulatory protein p62 (Sequestosome 1/A170) is known to modulate various receptor-mediated intracellular signaling pathways. p62 deficiency was shown to result in mature-onset obesity in mice, but the mechanisms underlying this abnormality remained unclear. Here we report that hyperphagia due to central leptin resistance is the cause of obesity in p62(-/-) mice. We found that these mice show hyperphagia. Restriction of food to the amount eaten by wild-type mice prevented excess body weight gain and fat accumulation, suggesting that overfeeding is the primary cause of obesity in p62(-/-) mice. Brain-specific p62 deficiency caused mature-onset obesity to the same extent as in p62(-/-) mice, further supporting a neuronal mechanism as the major cause of obesity in these mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that p62 is highly expressed in hypothalamic neurons, including POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Central leptin resistance was observed even in young preobese p62(-/-) mice. We found a defect in intracellular distribution of the transcription factor Stat3, which is essential for the action of leptin, in p62(-/-) mice. These results indicate that brain p62 plays an important role in bodyweight control by modulating the central leptin-signaling pathway and that lack of p62 in the brain causes leptin resistance, leading to hyperphagia. Thus, p62 could be a clinical target for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Journal of Neuroscience 09/2013; 33(37):14767-14777. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sequestosome1/p62 (SQSTM1) is an oxidative stress inducible protein regulated by the redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. It is not an antioxidant but known as a multifunctional regulator of cell signaling with an ability to modulate targeted or selective degradation of proteins through autophagy. SQSTM1 implements these functions through physical interactions with different types of proteins including atypical PKCs, non-receptor type tyrosine kinase p56(Lck) (Lck), polyubiquitin and autophagosomal factor LC3. One of the notable physiological functions of SQSTM1 is the regulation of redox sensitive voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels which are composed of α and β subunits; (Kvα)4 (Kvβ)4. Previous studies have established that SQSTM1 scaffolds PKCζ, enhancing phosphorylation of Kvβ which induces inhibition of pulmonary arterial Kv1.5 channels under acute hypoxia. Recent studies reveal that Lck indirectly interacts with Kv1.3 α subunits and plays a key role in acute hypoxia induced Kv1.3 channel inhibition in T lymphocytes. Kv1.3 channels provide a signaling platform to modulate the migration and proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells and activation of T lymphocytes, and hence have been recognized as a therapeutic target for treatment of restenosis and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we focus on the functional interactions of SQSTM1 with Kv channels through two key partners aPKCs and Lck. Furthermore, we provide molecular insights into the functions of SQSTM1 in suppression of proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells and neointimal hyperplasia following carotid artery ligation, in T lymphocyte differentiation and activation and in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 06/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are inherited neurodegenerative disorders that are caused by the expansion of trinucleotide CAG repeats in the causative genes. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited motor neuron disease that is caused by the expansion of a polyQ tract within the androgen receptor (AR). p62 is a ubiquitin- and light-chain 3-binding protein that is known to regulate the degradation of targeted proteins via autophagy and inclusion formation. In this study, we examined the effects of p62 depletion and overexpression on cultured cells and in a transgenic mouse model that overexpressed the mutant AR. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of p62 significantly exacerbated motor phenotypes and the neuropathological outcome, whereas overexpression of p62 protected against mutant AR toxicity in SBMA mice. Depletion of p62 significantly increased the levels of monomeric mutant AR and mutant AR protein complexes in an SBMA mouse model via the impairment of autophagic degradation. In addition, p62 overexpression improved SBMA mouse phenotypes by inducing cytoprotective inclusion formation. Our results demonstrate that p62 provides two different therapeutic targets in SBMA pathogenesis: (1) autophagy-dependent degradation and (2) benevolent inclusion formation of the mutant AR.
Journal of Neuroscience 05/2013; 33(18):7710-27. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Exposure of skin to long-wave UV radiation (UVA) increases the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been linked to apoptosis induction through the damage of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) is one of a family of antioxidant proteins that plays a protective role against oxidative damage; however the role of Prx I in UVA-induced damage remains to be clarified.
Here we investigated the protective role of Prx1 against UVA-induced changes using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Prx I homozygous knockout (Prx I (-/-)) mice.
Prx I (-/-) and wild-type (Prx I (+/ + )) MEFs were subjected to UVA irradiation, and the resulting apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting.
Prx I (-/-) MEFs showed enhanced sensitivity to UVA treatment, exhibiting increased apoptosis and ROS production compared to Prx I (+/ + ) MEFs. Consistent with the increase in apoptosis, p53 expression was significantly higher, while Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Nrf2 expressions were all lower in Prx I (-/-) versus (+/ + ) MEFs. The UVA-induced inflammatory response was upregulated in Prx I (-/-) MEFs, as indicated by increased expressions of I! !, TNFα, and IL-6. Evidence was presented indicating that Prx I impacts these pathways by modifying critical signaling intermediates including p53, I!B, and Nrf2.
Our results indicate that Prx I plays a protective role against UVA-induced oxidative damage by controlling ROS accumulation. Both the UVA-induced apoptotic and inflammatory signals were found to be modulated by Prx I.
Journal of dermatological science 01/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer. However, cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which is partly caused by oxidative damage, is a serious problem. We previously showed that murine embryonic fibroblasts deficient in Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I), a major Nrf2-linked anti-oxidant enzyme, are susceptible to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the role of Prx I against cisplatin-induced renal injury in vivo using Prx I-null mice. METHODS: Prx I-null mice and wild-type (WT) mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin, and tissues were removed and evaluated histopathologically. In addition, gene and protein expression of efflux transporters was analyzed. RESULTS: In contrast to an in vitro cell study, Prx I-null mice exhibited less cisplatin-induced renal damage than WT mice in histological and blood biochemical analyses. Moreover, Prx I-null mice showed a higher clearance rate of cisplatin than WT mice following intraperitoneal cisplatin injection. Consistent with these results, Prx I-null mice exhibited higher expression of renal efflux transporters Mrp2 and Mrp4 compared with WT mice under both basal and the cisplatin-induced conditions. We suggest the enhanced transcriptional activity of c-Myc in Prx I-null mice may partly contribute the enhanced expression of renal efflux transporters. CONCLUSION: In summary, the enhanced clearance rate of cisplatin significantly attenuates nephrotoxicity in Prx I-null mice.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 12/2012; · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute ozone (O(3)) exposure causes oxidative stress leading inflammation in the lung. However, its precise mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here we examined the role of peroxiredoxinI (PrxI) in O(3)-induced pulmonary inflammation using PrxI null (PrxI(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice. PrxI is known as an antioxidant and also emerged as a potent proinflammatory factor that activates TLR4/NF-kB signaling. The both mice were exposed to 2 ppm O(3) for 6 h and their responses to oxidative stress and acute inflammation in the lung were evaluated after 18 h. The O(3) inhalation activated the transcription factor Nrf2 and upreguated heme oxygenase-1 mRNA, the typical makers of oxidative stress, to similar extent in both lungs observed after 0 and 4 h, respectively. O(3) exposure induced significantly less pulmonary inflammation in PrxI(-/-) than in WT mice judging from the reduced infiltrations of neutrophils and monocytes into the lung and the suppressed production of proinflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6 and keratinocyte chemoattractant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Our results suggest that PrxI is not an effective protector against O(3)-induced oxidative damages reportedly caused by harmful lipid metabolites but plays a positive role in the initiation of lung inflammation following O(3) exposure.
Journal of Biochemistry 09/2012; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) inhibits lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver by interfering with lipogenic pathways and inducing antioxidative stress genes. METHODS: The involvement of Nrf2 in defense against the development of steatohepatitis was studied in an experimental model induced by an atherogenic plus high-fat (Ath + HF) diet. Wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-null mice were fed the diet. Their specimens were analyzed for pathology as well as for the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and those involved via the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. RESULTS: In Nrf2-null mice fed the diet, steatohepatitis developed rapidly, leading to precirrhosis. The Ath + HF diet increased hepatic triglyceride levels and changed fatty acid composition in both mouse groups. However, oleic acid (C18:1 n-9) predominated in the livers of Nrf2-null mice. Correlating well with the pathology, the mRNA levels of the factors involved in fatty acid metabolism (Lxr, Srebp-1a, 1c, Acc-1, Fas, Scd-1, and Fatty acid transporting peptides 1, 3, 4), the inflammatory cytokine genes (Tnf-α and IL-1β), and the fibrogenesis-related genes (Tgf-β1 and α-Sma) were significantly increased in the livers of Nrf2-null mice fed the diet, compared with the levels of these factors in matched WT mice. Oxidative stress was significantly increased in the livers of Nrf2-null mice fed the diet. This change was closely associated with the decreased levels of antioxidative stress genes. CONCLUSIONS: Nrf2 deletion leads to the rapid onset and progression of steatohepatitis induced by an Ath + HF diet, through both up-regulation of co-regulators of fatty acid metabolism and down-regulation of oxidative metabolism regulators in the liver.
Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system is essential for cytoprotection against oxidative and electrophilic insults. Under unstressed conditions, Keap1 serves as an adaptor for ubiquitin E3 ligase and promotes proteasomal degradation of Nrf2, but Nrf2 is stabilized when Keap1 is inactivated under oxidative/electrophilic stress conditions. Autophagy-deficient mice show aberrant accumulation of p62, a multifunctional scaffold protein, and develop severe liver damage. The p62 accumulation disrupts the Keap1-Nrf2 association and provokes Nrf2 stabilization and accumulation. However, individual contributions of p62 and Nrf2 to the autophagy-deficiency-driven liver pathogenesis have not been clarified. To examine whether Nrf2 caused the liver injury independent of p62, we crossed liver-specific Atg7::Keap1-Alb double-mutant mice into p62- and Nrf2-null backgrounds. Although Atg7::Keap1-Alb::p62(-/-) triple-mutant mice displayed defective autophagy accompanied by the robust accumulation of Nrf2 and severe liver injury, Atg7::Keap1-Alb::Nrf2(-/-) triple-mutant mice did not show any signs of such hepatocellular damage. Importantly, in this study we noticed that Keap1 accumulated in the Atg7- or p62-deficient mouse livers and the Keap1 level did not change by a proteasome inhibitor, indicating that the Keap1 protein is constitutively degraded through the autophagy pathway. This finding is in clear contrast to the Nrf2 degradation through the proteasome pathway. We also found that treatment of cells with tert-butylhydroquinone accelerated the Keap1 degradation. These results thus indicate that Nrf2 accumulation is the dominant cause to provoke the liver damage in the autophagy-deficient mice. The autophagy pathway maintains the integrity of the Keap1-Nrf2 system for the normal liver function by governing the Keap1 turnover.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2012; 109(34):13561-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Post-ischemic inflammation is an essential step in the progression of brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism that activates infiltrating macrophages in the ischemic brain remains to be clarified. Here we demonstrate that peroxiredoxin (Prx) family proteins released extracellularly from necrotic brain cells induce expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-23 in macrophages through activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4, thereby promoting neural cell death, even though intracellular Prxs have been shown to be neuroprotective. The extracellular release of Prxs in the ischemic core occurred 12 h after stroke onset, and neutralization of extracellular Prxs with antibodies suppressed inflammatory cytokine expression and infarct volume growth. In contrast, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a well-known damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, was released before Prx and had a limited role in post-ischemic macrophage activation. We thus propose that extracellular Prxs are previously unknown danger signals in the ischemic brain and that its blocking agents are potent neuroprotective tools.
Nature medicine 05/2012; 18(6):911-7. · 28.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Failure to maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) leads to accumulation of unfolded proteins and contributes to the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) elicits unfolded protein response (UPR) that serves to attenuate protein translation, and increase protein refolding or degradation. In contrast to UPR in the ER, the regulatory molecules operative in cytosolic responses and their potential relation to ER stress are not well elucidated. Aggresome-like induced structures (ALIS) have been described as transient aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins in the cytosol. In this study, we show that cells respond to inflammation, infection or ER stress by cytosolic formation of ALIS, indicating that ALIS formation represents an early event in cellular adjustment to altered proteostasis that occurs under these conditions. This response was aided by rapid transcriptional up-regulation of polyubiqutin-binding protein p62. NF-κB and mTOR activation were also required for ALIS formation. Importantly, we show a cross talk between UPR in the ER and cytosolic ALIS. Down-regulation of ER UPR in XBP1 deficient cells increases cyotosolic ALIS formation. Furthermore, lysosomal activity but not macroautophagy is responsible for ALIS clearance. This study reveals the underlying regulatory mechanisms of ALIS formation and clearance, and provides a previously unrecognized common adaptive mechanism for cellular responses against inflammation and ER stress.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2012; 287(23):19687-98. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxins possess thioredoxin or glutathione peroxidase and chaperone-like activities and thereby protect cells from oxidative insults. Recent studies, however, reveal additional functions of peroxiredoxins in gene expression and inflammation-related biological reactions such as tissue repair, parasite infection and tumor progression. Notably, peroxiredoxin 1, the major mammalian peroxiredoxin family protein, directly interacts with transcription factors such as c-Myc and NF-κB in the nucleus. Additionally, peroxiredoxin 1 is secreted from some cells following stimulation with TGF-β and other cytokines and is thus present in plasma and body fluids. Peroxiredoxin 1 is now recognized as one of the pro-inflammatory factors interacting with toll-like receptor 4, which triggers NF-κB activation and other signaling pathways to evoke inflammatory reactions. Some cancer cells release peroxiredoxin 1 to stimulate toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling for their progression. Interestingly, peroxiredoxins expressed in protozoa and helminth may modulate host immune responses partly through toll-like receptor 4 for their survival and progression in host. Extracellular peroxiredoxin 1 and peroxiredoxin 2 are known to enhance natural killer cell activity and suppress virus-replication in cells. Peroxiredoxin 1-deficient mice show reduced antioxidant activities but also exhibit restrained tissue inflammatory reactions under some patho-physiological conditions. Novel functions of peroxiredoxins in inflammation, cancer and innate immunity are the focus of this review.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 03/2012; 50(2):91-105. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator for induction of hepatic antioxidative stress systems. We aimed to investigate whether activation of Nrf2 protects against steatohepatitis.
Wild-type mice (WT), Nrf2 gene-null mice (Nrf2-null) and Keap1 gene-knockdown mice (Keap1-kd), which represent the sustained activation of Nrf2, were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for 13 weeks and analyzed.
In Keap1-kd fed an MCDD, steatohepatitis did not develop over the observation periods; however, in Nrf2-null fed an MCDD, the pathological state of the steatohepatitis was aggravated in terms of fatty change, inflammation, fibrosis and iron accumulation. In WT mice fed an MCDD, Nrf2 and antioxidative stress genes regulated by Nrf2 were potently activated in the livers, and in Keap1-kd, their basal levels were potently activated. Oxidative stress was significantly increased in the livers of the Nrf2-null and suppressed in the livers of the Keap1-kd compared to that of WT, based on the levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and malondialdehyde. Iron accumulation was greater in the livers of the Nrf2-null mice compared to those of the WT mice, and it was not observed in Keap1-kd. Further, the iron release from the isolated hepatocyte of Nrf2-null mice was significantly decreased. Sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, suppressed the pathological states and oxidative stress in the livers.
Nrf2 has protective roles against nutritional steatohepatitis through inhibition of hepatic iron accumulation and counteraction against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. Nrf2 activation by pharmaceutical intervention could be a new option for the prevention and treatment of steatohepatitis.
Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2012; 47(8):924-35. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of antioxidant enzymes is regulated by transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) and induced by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species contribute to the formation of several types of cochlear injuries, including age-related hearing loss and gentamicin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the roles of Nrf2 in age-related hearing loss and gentamicin ototoxicity by measuring auditory brainstem response thresholds in Nrf2-knockout mice. Although Nrf2-knockout mice maintained normal auditory thresholds at 3 months of age, their hearing ability was significantly more impaired than that of age-matched wild-type mice at 6 and 11 months of age. Additionally, the numbers of hair cells and spiral ganglion cells were remarkably reduced in Nrf2-knockout mice at 11 months of age. To examine the importance of Nrf2 in protecting against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity, 3-day-old mouse organ of Corti explants were cultured with gentamicin. Hair cell loss caused by gentamicin treatment was enhanced in the Nrf2-deficient tissues. Furthermore, the expressions of some Nrf2-target genes were activated by gentamicin treatment in wild-type mice but not in Nrf2-knockout mice. The present findings indicate that Nrf2 protects the inner ear against age-related hearing injuries and gentamicin ototoxicity by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes and detoxifying proteins.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2011; 415(1):94-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. Peroxiredoxin (Prx) I is a cellular antioxidant enzyme induced under stress conditions. In the present study, the protective effects of Prx I on the development of bleomycin-induced acute pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis were investigated using Prx I-deficient mice. Survival of Prx I-deficient mice after bleomycin administration was significantly lower than that of wild-type mice, corresponding with enhanced acute pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. The level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, was significantly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Prx I-deficient mice after bleomycin administration. Furthermore, the level of 8-isoprostane, an oxidative stress marker, and the concentration and alveolar macrophage expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor were elevated in the lungs of Prx I-deficient mice after bleomycin administration. The exacerbation of bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in Prx I-deficient mice was inhibited by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a radical scavenger, or with (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester, a tautomerase inhibitor of macrophage migration inhibitory factor. These findings suggest that mice lacking Prx I are highly susceptible to bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis because of increases in pulmonary oxidant levels and macrophage migration inhibitory factor activity in response to bleomycin.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 09/2011; 45(3):600-9. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy plays a crucial role in controlling various biological responses including starvation, homeostatic turnover of long-lived proteins, and invasion of bacteria. However, a role for autophagy in development and/or function of mast cells is unknown.
To investigate a role for autophagy in mast cells, we generated bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) from mice lacking autophagy related gene (Atg) 7, an essential enzyme for autophagy induction.
Bone marrow-derived mast cells were generated from bone marrow cells of control and IFN-inducible Atg7-deficient mice, and morphologic and functional analyses were performed.
We found that conversion of type I to type II light chain (LC3)-II, a hallmark of autophagy, was constitutively induced in mast cells under full nutrient conditions, and LC3-II localized in secretory granules of mast cells. Although deletion of Atg7 did not impair the development of BMMCs, Atg7(-/-) BMMCs showed severe impairment of degranulation, but not cytokine production on FcεRI cross-linking. Intriguingly, LC3-II but not LC3-I was co-localized with CD63, a secretory lysosomal marker, and was released extracellularly along with degranulation in Atg7(+/+) but not Atg7(-/-) BMMCs. Moreover, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions were severely impaired in mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/W(V) mice reconstituted with Atg7(-/-) BMMCs compared with Atg7(+/+) BMMCs.
These results suggest that autophagy is not essential for the development but plays a crucial role in degranulation of mast cells. Thus, autophagy might be a potential target to treat allergic diseases in which mast cells are critically involved.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 02/2011; 127(5):1267-76.e6. · 12.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a critical mediator in liver injury of steatohepatitis. The transcription factor Nrf2 serves as a cellular stress sensor and is a key regulator for induction of hepatic detoxification and antioxidative stress systems. The involvement of Nrf2 in defense against the development of steatohepatitis remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the protective roles of Nrf2 in nutritional steatohepatitis using wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 gene-null (Nrf2-null) mice. WT and Nrf2-null mice were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 3 and 6 wk, and the liver tissues were analyzed for pathology and for expression levels of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidative stress genes via the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. In WT mice fed an MCD diet, Nrf2 was potently activated in the livers, and steatohepatitis did not develop over the observation periods. However, in Nrf2-null mice fed an MCD diet, the pathological state of the steatohepatitis was aggravated in terms of fatty changes, inflammation, fibrosis, and iron accumulation. In the livers of the Nrf2-null mice, oxidative stress was significantly increased compared with that of WT mice based on the increased levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and malondialdehyde. This change was associated with the decreased levels of glutathione, detoxifying enzymes, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. Correlating well with the liver pathology, the mRNA levels of factors involved in fatty acid metabolism, inflammatory cytokines, and fibrogenesis-related genes were significantly increased in the livers of the Nrf2-null mice. These findings demonstrate that Nrf2 deletion in mice leads to rapid onset and progression of nutritional steatohepatitis induced by an MCD diet. Activation of Nrf2 could be a promising target toward developing new options for prevention and treatment of steatohepatitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much of the cell injury caused by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is associated with oxidative stress. Quercetin is a major natural polyphenol that is known to protect cells from UVA-induced damage. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of this protection. Quercetin pretreatment strongly suppressed UVA-induced apoptosis in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, markedly increased protein levels of the transcription factor Nrf2, induced the expression of antioxidative genes, and dramatically reduced the production of reactive oxygen species following UVA irradiation. Importantly, these beneficial effects were greatly attenuated by downregulating Nrf2 expression. Thus, quercetin protects cells from UVA damage mainly by elevating intracellular antioxidative activity via the enhanced accumulation of a transcription factor for antioxidant genes, Nrf2.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2009; 387(1):109-14. · 2.28 Impact Factor