[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Republic of Korea, cancer is the most common cause of death, and cancer incidence and mortality rates are the highest in East Asia. As alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans, we estimated the burden of cancer related to alcohol consumption in the Korean population.
BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):420. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population.
BMC Cancer 06/2014; 14(1):406. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Known genetic loci explain only a small proportion of the familial relative risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a genome-wide association study of CRC in East Asians with 14,963 cases and 31,945 controls and identified 6 new loci associated with CRC risk (P = 3.42 [times] 10-8 to 9.22 [times] 10-21) at 10q22.3, 10q25.2, 11q12.2, 12p13.31, 17p13.3 and 19q13.2. Two of these loci map to genes (TCF7L2 and TGFB1) with established roles in colorectal tumorigenesis. Four other loci are located in or near genes involved in transcriptional regulation (ZMIZ1), genome maintenance (FEN1), fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 and FADS2), cancer cell motility and metastasis (CD9), and cell growth and differentiation (NXN). We also found suggestive evidence for three additional loci associated with CRC risk near genome-wide significance at 8q24.11, 10q21.1 and 10q24.2. Furthermore, we replicated 22 previously reported CRC-associated loci. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CRC and suggests the in
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer have been rapidly increasing in Korea during last few decades. Development of risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in Korean men and women is urgently needed to enhance its prevention and early detection.
Gender specific five-year risk prediction models were developed for overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer. The model was developed using data from a population of 846,559 men and 479,449 women who participated in health examinations by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Examinees were 30-80 years old and free of cancer in the baseline years of 1996 and 1997. An independent population of 547,874 men and 415,875 women who participated in 1998 and 1999 examinations was used to validate the model. Model validation was done by evaluating its performance in terms of discrimination and calibration ability using the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow-type chi-square statistics.
Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, family history of cancer, and alcohol consumption were included in all models for men, whereas age, height, and meat intake frequency were included in all models for women. Models showed moderately good discrimination ability with C-statistics between 0.69 and 0.78. The C-statistics were generally higher in the models for men, whereas the calibration abilities were generally better in the models for women.
Colorectal cancer risk prediction models were developed from large-scale, population-based data. Those models can be used for identifying high risk groups and developing preventive intervention strategies for colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88079. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
We assessed the association between a family history of malignancy and risk of colorectal adenoma among individuals aged 40–49 years.
The study population consisted of subjects, aged in their 40s, who underwent colonoscopy. Their family histories of cancer were collected with a self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association between a family history of cancer and the risk of colorectal polyp.
In total, 2275 participants were included in the study. Univariate analysis showed that old age, male sex, current cigarette smoking, BMI > 25 kg/m2, and a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) were risk factors for the development of sporadic colorectal adenomatous polyps in these patients. A multivariate analysis showed that a family history of CRC or kidney cancer was associated with adenoma development. A family history of CRC was also a risk factor for advanced and multiple adenoma.
This study shows that a family history of CRC is a risk factor for advanced and multiple colorectal adenoma in people in their 40s. These results support earlier screening for colorectal neoplasms in individuals with a family history of CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea.
Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020.
With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e90871. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99054. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While several reproductive and lifestyle-related factors are already well-known as established risk factors for breast cancer, environmental factors have attracted attention only recently. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between the breast cancer incidences in females, the mortality rate and the number of motor vehicles on the one side and the consumption of gasoline which could work as a major source of air pollution at the other side. The breast cancer incidences and the mortality trends were compared with various indices of westernization like dietary patterns or industrialization with 10 years lag of time. Geographical variations with 10, 15 and 20 years lag of time were assessed between the breast cancer incidence in 2010 and the number of motor vehicles as well as the consumption of gasoline. The upward trend of motor vehicle numbers proved to be comparable to those of breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the consumption of gasoline started to decrease since the mid-1990s. The geographic distribution of motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption in 1990 is in a positive correlation with the breast cancer incidence rates in 2010 and the 20-year lag time (R2 0.379 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.345 with consumption of gasoline). In a linear relationship between the breast cancer incidences in 2010 and the log transformed number of motor vehicles, the log transformed consumption of gasoline in 2000 also showed a positive relationship (R2 0.367 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.329 with consumption of gasoline). The results of the current study indicate that there may be a positive relation between the number of vehicles, gasoline consumption and the incidence of breast cancer from the aspects of long-term trends and geographical variation.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2014; 15(7):2959-64. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the relevance of the soluble form of c-Met protein, a truncated form of the c-Met membrane receptor involved in the CagA pathway, as a potential biomarker for gastric cancer. Among 290 gastric cancer case-control sets selected from the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort, the plasma concentrations of soluble c-Met protein were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Using analysis of variance and covariance models with age, sex, smoking, Helicobacter pylori infection, and CagA seropositivity, the mean concentrations of soluble c-Met protein between cases and controls were compared. To evaluate the association between gastric cancer and a c-Met protein level, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Interactions between CagA-related genes and the soluble c-Met protein concentration were also investigated. The overall median plasma concentration of soluble c-Met among cases was significantly lower than those of controls (1.390 vs. 1.610 ng/mL, p < 0.0001). Closer to the onset of gastric cancer, the soluble c-Met protein level decreased linearly in a time-dependent manner (p for trend = 0.0002). The combined effects between the CagA-related genes and the soluble c-Met protein concentration significantly intensified risks for gastric cancer. Restricted analyses including cases that had been diagnosed within 1 year after entering the cohort had a fair degree of ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73–0.77) to discriminate gastric cancer cases from normal controls. Our findings demonstrate the potential of the soluble form of c-Met protein as a novel biomarker for gastric cancer. The beneficial effects of a high soluble c-Met concentration in human plasma are strongly supported.
International Journal of Cancer 10/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the recent incidence of and trends in cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in Korean females.
Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry between 1999 and 2010 were analyzed. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated.
THE ABSOLUTE INCIDENCE RATES OF THE THREE MAJOR GYNECOLOGIC CANCERS INCREASED: 6,394 in 1999 to 7,454 in 2010. The ASR for gynecologic cancer was 23.7 per 100,000 in 1999 and decreased to 21.0 in 2010 (APC, -1.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.53 to -0.70) due to a definitive decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer (APC, -4.3%). Endometrial cancer has been definitively increasing (APC, 6.9% during 1999-2010), especially in females <30 years old (APC, 11.2%) and in females ≥80 years old (APC, 9.5%). The incidence of ovarian cancer is increasing gradually (APC, 1.5%).
ASRs and APC for gynecologic cancers overall are decreasing due to the decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer. However, the incidence of endometrial and ovarian cancer has been increasing.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology 10/2013; 24(4):298-302. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Korea, anal cancer is rare disease entity with specific clinical characteristics. Therefore, no survival analysis with a sufficient patient population has been performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of Korean anal cancer, focusing on the survival according to tumor histologies, sex, and a specific age group, using the nationwide cancer registry.
Using the Korea Central Cancer Registry, we analyzed a total of 2,552 cases from 1993 to 2010. We assessed the 5-year relative survival by using tumor histology. In addition, survival differences of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) stage were analyzed for both sexes and for young-age cancer (younger than 40 years) and advanced-age cancer (older than 70 years).
The 5-year relative survival among anal cancer patients increased from 38.9% for the period 1993-1995 to 65.6% for the period 2006-2010. The anal squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histology and showed better survival than other types of cancer. Females demonstrated better survival than males in all SEER stages. The 5-year survivals for patients in whom anal cancer developed before the age of 40 and at or after the age of 40 were 62.4% and 51.6%, respectively. The 5-year survival for patients in whom cancer developed at or after the age of 70 was much worse than that for patients in whom the cancer had developed prior to that age.
Korean anal cancer has certain distinctive characteristics of survival according to tumor histology, sex, and age. Despite limitations on available data, this study used the nationwide database to provide important information on the survival of Korean patients with anal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the cancer stage at diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor for patients' survival, there are few population-based estimates of stage-specific survival outcome, especially in Asian countries. Our study aims to estimate stage-specific survival for Korean patients.
We analyzed the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database data on 626,506 adult patients aged ≥ 20 years, who were diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 with stomach, colorectal, liver, lung, breast, cervix, prostate, and thyroid cancers. Patients were followed up to December 2011, and the 5-year relative survival rates (RSRs) were calculated for gender and age group by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) stage at diagnosis.
The 5-year RSRs for all localized-stage cancers, except for lung and liver, exceeded 90% with that for thyroid cancer being the highest at 100.4%. These values for distant stage liver, lung, and stomach cancers were very dismal at 2.5%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively, while it was 69.1% for thyroid cancer, and was in the range of 18.3-36.4% for colorectal, cervix, breast and prostate cancers. Overall, the 5-year RSRs for all cancer types decreased with aging across all the disease stages with exception of prostate cancer, which suggests biologic difference in these cancer types in a young age group. When compared with US SEER data, Korean patients had better stage-specific survival rates for stomach, colorectal, liver, and cervical cancers.
Korean cancer patients showed relatively favorable stage distribution and 5-year RSRs, which suggests potential contribution of the national cancer screening program.
Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2013; 45(3):162-71. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine that mimics infusional 5-fluorouracil. The aim of this phase II trial was to explore the clinical efficacy of the triplet regimen TIROX, which consists of S-1, irinotecan and oxaliplatin.Methods:Forty-two chemo-naive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were planned to be enrolled and be treated with irinotecan 150 mg m(-2) followed by oxaliplatin 85 mg m(-2) on day 1 and S-1 80 mg m(-2) per day from day 1 to 14 every 3 weeks. Polymorphisms in the UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and CYP2A6 genes were analysed.Results:Between July 2007 and February 2008, 43 patients were enrolled. An objective response was noted in 29 patients (67.4%, 95% confidence interval: 53.4-81.4), of which 2 achieved durable complete responses. The median progression-free survival was 10.0 months and the median overall survival was 19.2 months. Significant grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (45.2%), febrile neutropenia (9.5%), diarrhoea (7.1%) and vomiting (9.5%). Increased gastrointestinal toxicities were associated with the presence of UGT1A6*2 or UGT1A7*3 and an improved tumour response was noted in those without variant alleles of CYP2A6 or UGT1A1*60.Conclusion:The combination of S-1, irinotecan and oxaliplatin showed favourable efficacy and tolerability in untreated patients with mCRC.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.479 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Korea have been increasing during the past decade. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics, including survival, of Korean CRC patients. The aim of this study was to use the nationwide cancer registry to evaluate the characteristics of Korean CRC, focusing on the survival, according to tumor location, sex, and specific age groups.
Using the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR), we analyzed a total of 226,352 CRC cases diagnosed from 1993 to 2010. The five-year relative survivals were compared for the proximal colon, the distal colon, and the rectum. Survival rates were compared between men and women and between patients of young age (less than 40 years old) and patients of advanced age (70 years old or older).
The 5-year survival rates were improved in all subsites between 1993 and 2010. Distal colon cancer showed favorable survival compared to proximal colon or rectal cancer. Females demonstrated worse survival for local or regional cancers, and this difference was significant in for patients in their seventies. Young patients (<40 years old) showed better survival rates for overall and proximal colon cancer comparable to those for older patients (≥40 years old), but advanced age patients (≥70 years old) had worse survivals for all tumor subsites compared to their younger counterparts (<70 years old). These trends were similar in distant CRC.
Korean CRC has certain distinct characteristics of survival according to tumor location, sex, and age. Despite the limitations of available data, this study contributes to a better understanding of survival differences in Korean CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Gastric cancer, the most common cancer in the world, is affected by some foods or food groups. We examined the relationship between dietary intake and stomach cancer risk in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC).Methods: The KMCC included 19 688 Korean men and women who were enrolled from 1993 to 2004. Of those subjects, 9724 completed a brief 14-food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Through record linkage with the Korean Central Cancer Registry and National Death Certificate databases, we documented 166 gastric cancer cases as of December 31, 2008. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs.Results: Frequent intake of soybean/tofu was significantly associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, after adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and area of residence (P for trend = 0.036). We found a significant inverse association between soybean/tofu intake and gastric cancer risk among women (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.78). Men with a high soybean/tofu intake had a lower risk of gastric cancer, but the reduction was not statistically significant (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.52-1.13). There was no interaction between soybean/tofu intake and cigarette smoking in relation to gastric cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.268).Conclusions: Frequent soybean/tofu intake was associated with lower risk of gastric cancer.
Journal of Epidemiology 06/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck cancers (HNCs) is increasing sharply worldwide, whilst their HPV-negative counterparts are showing a decreased frequency. However, epidemiologic data related to these changes are sparse in Korea, which is rapidly adopting more westernized lifestyles. Study design: Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry, a nationwide population-based cancer registry from 1999 to 2009 were retrieved. Methods: Age-standardized rates (ASRs), their annual percent changes (APC) and male-to-female incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were analyzed and compared between HPV-related and HPV-unrelated primary sites. Results: HPV-related sites (oropharynx) had increased significantly over the period 1999-2009 (APC=2.35%, P=0.017), particularly in young men (30-59 years, APC=2.65%, P=0.031), whereas HPV-unrelated sites such as larynx and hypopharynx, decreased markedly in both sexes. Interestingly, tongue cancer was found to have increased gradually (APC=2.35%, P=0.003) in both sexes. The male-to-female IRRs and the median age of occurrence remained stable. Conclusions: Although the cultural and ethnic background differs from the United States, cancers of HPV-related sites are increasing in Korea, whereas cancers of HPV-unrelated sites are decreasing, which is similar to the trends observed in the United States. Greater public awareness in Korea of HPV-related HNCs is therefore warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the trend in colorectal cancer mortality in Asian countries. We analyzed the colorectal cancer mortality in four Asian countries using the World Health Organization mortality database and the Korea National Statistics Office database. The annual age-standardized rates and truncated rated for the three age groups (30-49, 50-69 and ≥ 70 years) for Hong Kong of China (1969-2009), Japan (1955-2009), South Korea (1985-2006), and Singapore (1966-2009) were estimated. A joinpoint regression model was used to detect significant trends in mortality rates. Colorectal cancer mortality in men started to decrease in 1992 in Japan followed by Singapore and Hong Kong of China in 1995. The mortality rates in women stared to decrease in 1980 in Singapore, followed by Hong Kong of China and Japan in 1996. In all countries and both genders, except for women in Singapore, the decrease in mortality began in the younger age groups. The colorectal cancer mortality in the four studied Asian countries has started to decrease, and the decrease occurred first in the younger age groups.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2013; 19(7):979-83. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our study aims to describe changes in carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) in Korean women diagnosed between 1993 and 2009.
All cases of CIS and invasive cervical carcinoma diagnosed from 1993 to 2009 in the Korean National Cancer Incidence database were analyzed. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) in incidence rates were compared according to age and histological type. Additionally, we used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to know the association between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate of cervical cancer.
Between 1993 and 2009, 72,240 cases of ICC were reported in Korea. Total incidence rate of ICC was 14.7 per 100,000 females. ASRs of ICC declined 3.8% per year, from 19.3 per 100,000 in 1993 to 10.5 per 100,000 in 2009. Although the overall incidence rate of adenocarcinoma remained stable, invasive squamous cell carcinoma showed a decreasing trend (APC -4.2%). For women aged 60-79 years, ASRs for squamous cell carcinoma increased from 1993 to 2001, and decreased from 2001 to 2009 (APC: -4.6%). Total 62,300 cases of CIS were diagnosed from 1993 to 2009. Total incidence rate of CIS was 12.2 per 100,000 females. ASRs of CIS increased 5.7% per year, from 7.5 per 100,000 in 1993 to 19.0 per 100,000 in 2009. Adenocarcinoma in situ increased 13.2% per year. There was a strong positive correlation between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate for CIS (p-value = 0.03) whereas screening rate showed a strong negative correlation with incidence rate for squamous ICC (p-value = 0.04).
The increasing trend in CIS, coupled with a decreasing trend in ICC, suggests the important role of cervix cancer screening. The incidence of adenocarcinoma showed a plateau, but the incidence of adenocarcinoma in situ showed an increasing trend.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e72012. · 3.73 Impact Factor