R H Snider

George Washington University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

Are you R H Snider?

Claim your profile

Publications (93)539.45 Total impact

  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is difficult and chest radiographs often indeterminate, leading to incorrect diagnoses and antibiotic overuse. OBJECTIVE: To determine if serum procalcitonin (ProCT) could assist in managing patients with respiratory illness and indeterminate radiographs. DESIGN: Subjects were prospectively enrolled during 2 consecutive winters. SETTING: A 520-bed hospital in Rochester, NY. PATIENTS: Five hundred twenty-eight adults admitted with acute respiratory illness were enrolled. MEASUREMENTS: Serum ProCT, admission diagnoses, and chest radiographic findings were used to derive receiver operating characteristics curves to assess predictive accuracy of ProCT for the presence of infiltrates. RESULTS: Subjects with pneumonia had higher ProCT (median 0.27 ng/ml) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.08 ng/ml), acute bronchitis (0.09 ng/ml), or asthma (0.06 ng/ml). ProCT had moderate accuracy for the presence of infiltrates (area under curve [AUC] 0.72), when indeterminate radiographs were independently classified as infiltrates by a pulmonologist evaluating patients. CONCLUSIONS: ProCT may be useful in diagnosing pneumonia when chest radiographs are indeterminate. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2012; © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.
    Journal of Hospital Medicine 10/2012; · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serum procalcitonin levels have been used as a biomarker of invasive bacterial infection and recently have been advocated to guide antibiotic therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, rigorous studies correlating procalcitonin levels with microbiologic data are lacking. Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) have been linked to viral and bacterial infection as well as noninfectious causes. Therefore, we evaluated procalcitonin as a predictor of viral versus bacterial infection in patients hospitalized with AECOPD with and without evidence of pneumonia. Adults hospitalized during the winter with symptoms consistent with AECOPD underwent extensive testing for viral, bacterial, and atypical pathogens. Serum procalcitonin levels were measured on day 1 (admission), day 2, and at one month. Clinical and laboratory features of subjects with viral and bacterial diagnoses were compared. In total, 224 subjects with COPD were admitted for 240 respiratory illnesses. Of these, 56 had pneumonia and 184 had AECOPD alone. A microbiologic diagnosis was made in 76 (56%) of 134 illnesses with reliable bacteriology (26 viral infection, 29 bacterial infection, and 21 mixed viral bacterial infection). Mean procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in patients with pneumonia compared with AECOPD. However, discrimination between viral and bacterial infection using a 0.25 ng/mL threshold for bacterial infection in patients with AECOPD was poor. Procalcitonin is useful in COPD patients for alerting clinicians to invasive bacterial infections such as pneumonia but it does not distinguish bacterial from viral and noninfectious causes of AECOPD.
    International Journal of COPD 01/2012; 7:127-35.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Procalcitonin (ProCT) is increased in serum of septic patients and those with systemic inflammation. Endogenous levels of ProCT might influence the response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), independently of endotoxin, in clinical disease. Healthy human volunteers. Recombinant human ProCT (rhProCT). Whole blood and PMNs were exposed in vitro to exogenous rhProCT. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), IL-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β (pg/ml) were measured by multiplex suspension bead-array immunoassay, and migration and phagocytosis were measured in PMNs. In a whole-blood model, a dose-dependent increase in IL-6, TNFα, and IL-1β of the cell-free supernatant was noted. Pre-incubation with ProCT, at doses consistent with clinical sepsis, resulted in a decrease in PMN migration without alteration in phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus or indirect measurements of bacterial killing. Clinically relevant levels of ProCT influence immunologic responses that may contribute to systemic inflammatory response and septic shock.
    Agents and Actions 10/2010; 60(2):203-7. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) on gut barrier function in critically ill surgical patients. A prospective observational cohort study on patients with severe acute pancreatitis or abdominal sepsis admitted to an intensive care or high-dependency unit. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and plasma levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antiendotoxin core antibodies (EndoCAb) and procalcitonin (ProCT) were measured serially. Among 32 recruited patients, 24 (75%) and 8 patients (25%) developed IAH and ACS, respectively. The state of ACS was associated with significant reductions in plasma IgG EndoCAb (P = 0.015) and IgM EndoCAb (P = 0.016) and higher concentrations of plasma ProCT (P = 0.056) compared with absence of ACS. Resolution of IAH and ACS was associated with significant recovery of plasma IgG EndoCAb (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009, respectively) and IgM EndoCAb (P = 0.002 and P = 0.003, respectively) and reduction in plasma ProCT concentration (P = 0.049 and P = 0.019, respectively). Negative correlations were observed between IAP and plasma IgG EndoCAb (P = 0.003) and IgM EndoCAb (P = 0.002). Intra-abdominal hypertension and ACS are associated with significantly higher endotoxin exposure and ProCT concentrations, suggestive of gut barrier dysfunction. Resolution of IAH and ACS is associated with evidence for recovery of gut barrier function.
    Pancreas 10/2010; 39(7):1064-9. · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Kenneth L Becker, Richard Snider, Eric S Nylen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The worldwide yearly mortality from sepsis is substantial, greater than that of cancer of the lung and breast combined. Moreover, its incidence is increasing, and its response to therapy has not appreciably improved. In this condition, the secretion of procalcitonin (ProCT), the prohormone of calcitonin, is augmented greatly, attaining levels up to thousands of fold of normal. This hypersecretion emanates from multiple tissues throughout the body that are not traditionally viewed as being endocrine. The serum values of ProCT correlate with the severity of sepsis; they recede with its improvement and worsen with exacerbation. Accordingly, as highlighted in this review, serum ProCT has become useful as a biomarker to assist in the diagnosis of sepsis, as well as related infectious or inflammatory conditions. It is also a useful monitor of the clinical course and prognosis, and sensitive and specific assays have been developed for its measurement. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the administration of ProCT to septic animals greatly increases mortality, and several toxic effects of ProCT have been elucidated by in vitro experimental studies. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the harmful effects of ProCT, and their use markedly decreases the symptomatology and mortality of animals that harbour a highly virulent sepsis analogous to that occurring in humans. This therapy is facilitated by the long duration of serum ProCT elevation, which allows for a broad window of therapeutic opportunity. An experimental groundwork has been established that suggests a potential applicability of such therapy in septic humans.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 11/2009; 159(2):253-64. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a major cause of death in the United States and accounts for approximately 50% of the fatalities in intensive care units. Serum procalcitonin (ProCT) levels are markedly elevated in sepsis and correlate positively with severity of the illness and mortality, however, little is known about the biological activity of ProCT. To explore the biological activity of purified human ProCT at the calcitonin (CT) family of receptors. Human ProCT was purified from the TT medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line. Human CTa receptor or human CT receptor-like receptor (CLR) was transiently expressed in COS-7 cells alone or together with individual receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) to generate the CTa (CT) receptor, the AMY1 (amylin) receptor, the CGRP1 (CT gene-related peptide) receptor, and the AM1 and AM2 (adrenomedullin) receptors. Biological activity of ProCT was assessed by measurement of cAMP accumulation. ProCT was effectively inert at CTa, AM1, and AM2 receptors. In contrast, it was a potent partial agonist (50-60% of the CGRP efficacy) of the CGRP1 receptor with an EC50 as high as 0.56 nM, although the potency was batch dependent. ProCT also displayed weak partial agonist activity at the AMY1 receptor with an EC50 of approximately 100 nM. Moreover, ProCT also robustly inhibited CGRP-dependent cyclic adenosine monophosphate responses at the CGRP1 receptor. Our data provide a potential molecular mechanism for the observation that ProCT appears to be toxic while CGRP treatment appears to be beneficial in animal models of sepsis.
    Critical care medicine 06/2008; 36(5):1637-40. · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • Kenneth L Becker, Richard Snider, Eric S Nylen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of procalcitonin (ProCT) as a marker of several clinical conditions, in particular, systemic inflammation, infection, and sepsis, will be clarified, and its current limitations will be delineated. In particular, the need for a more sensitive assay will be emphasized. For these purposes, the medical literature comprising clinical studies pertaining to the measurement of serum ProCT in various clinical settings was examined. A PubMed search (1965 through November 2007) was conducted, including manual cross-referencing. Pertinent complete publications were obtained using the MeSH terms procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, sepsis, and biological markers. Textbook chapters were also read and extracted. Available clinical and other patient data from these sources were reviewed, including any data relating to precipitating factors, clinical findings, associated illnesses, and patient outcome. Published data concerning sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of ProCT assays were reviewed. Based on available data, the measurement of serum ProCT has definite utility as a marker of severe systemic inflammation, infection, and sepsis. However, publications concerning its diagnostic and prognostic utility are contradictory. In addition, patient characteristics and clinical settings vary markedly, and the data have been difficult to interpret and often extrapolated inappropriately to clinical usage. Furthermore, attempts at meta-analyses are greatly compromised by the divergent circumstances of reported studies and by the sparsity and different timing of the ProCT assays. Although a high ProCT commonly occurs in infection, it is also elevated in some noninfectious conditions. Thus, the test is not a specific indicator of either infection or sepsis. Moreover, in any individual patient, the precipitating cause of an illness, the clinical milieu, and complicating conditions may render tenuous any reliable estimations of severity or prognosis. It also is apparent that even a febrile septic patient with documented bacteremia may not necessarily have a serum ProCT that is elevated above the limit of functional sensitivity of the assay. In this regard, the most commonly applied assay (i.e., LUMItest) is insufficiently sensitive to detect potentially important mild elevations or trends. Clinical studies with a more sensitive ProCT assay that is capable of rapid and practicable day-to-day monitoring are needed and shortly may be available. In addition, investigations showing that ProCT and its related peptides may have mediator relevance point to the need for evaluating therapeutic countermeasures and studying the pathophysiologic effect of hyperprocalcitonemia in serious infection and sepsis.
    Critical care medicine 04/2008; 36(3):941-52. · 6.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children with cancer often develop febrile illnesses after cytotoxic chemotherapy. Determining which children have serious bacterial infections in this vulnerable period would be valuable. We evaluated the ability of a rapid and sensitive assay for the concentration of calcitonin precursors (CTpr) as a sensitive diagnostic marker for bacterial sepsis in febrile, neutropenic children and determined the utility of measuring cytokines to improve the predictive value of this approach. Prospective cohort study. Academic children's hospital. Fifty-six children (aged 5 months to 17 yrs) with a known malignancy who presented with fever and neutropenia. Serial blood samples were obtained (admission, 24 hrs, and 48 hrs), and concentrations of CTpr, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 were determined. Demographic and laboratory data from the patients were collected from the medical record. Sixteen (29%) of the children met the criteria for bacterial sepsis. Plasma levels of CTpr and interleukin-8, but not interleukin-6, were increased at all time points in children with sepsis compared with those without sepsis. CTpr at 24 and 48 hrs after admission were reliable markers for sepsis (area under the curve = 0.92 and 0.908, respectively). Logistic regression using CTpr at 24 hrs in addition to interleukin-8 at 48 hrs produced the best-fit models associated with sepsis. Using cutoff values of CTpr >500 pg/mL and interleukin-8 >20 pg/mL produced a screening test for sepsis with 94% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Our data show the utility of a rapid and sensitive assay for CTpr combined with interleukin-8 as a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic marker of bacterial sepsis in febrile, neutropenic children. The use of these markers as a clinical tool may allow for better prognostication for clinicians and may eventually lead to more targeted therapies for this heterogeneous population.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 04/2005; 6(2):129-35. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/2005; 39(12):1867-8. · 9.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 05/2004; 89(4):1512-25. · 6.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with an early increase in intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. Endotoxin is a potent stimulator for the production and release of procalcitonin and its components (calcitonin precursors; [CTpr]). The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of plasma CTpr as an early marker for gut barrier dysfunction in patients with acute pancreatitis. Intestinal permeability to macromolecules (polyethylene glycol 3350), serum endotoxin and antiendotoxin core antibodies, plasma CTpr, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured on admission in 60 patients with acute pancreatitis. Attacks were classified as mild (n = 48) or severe (n = 12) according to the Atlanta criteria. Compared with mild attacks of acute pancreatitis, severe attacks were significantly associated with an increase in intestinal permeability index (median: 0.02 vs. 0.006, P < 0.001), the frequency of endotoxemia (73% vs. 41%, P = 0.04), and the extent of depletion of serum IgM antiendotoxin antibodies (median: 43 MMU vs. 100 MMU, P = 0.004). Plasma CTpr levels were significantly elevated in patients with severe attacks compared with mild attacks on both the day of admission and on day 3 (median: 64 vs. 22 fmol/mL, P = 0.03; and 90 vs. 29 fmol/mL, P = 0.003 respectively). A positive and significant correlation was observed between the admission serum endotoxin and plasma CTpr levels on admission (r = 0.7, P < 0.0001) and on day 3 (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001), and between plasma CTpr on day 7 and the intestinal permeability index (r = 0.85, P = 0.0001). In contrast, only a weak positive correlation was observed between peak serum levels of CRP and plasma CTpr on admission (r = 0.3, P = 0.017) and on day 7 (r = 0.471, P = 0.049), as well as between CRP and each of the admission serum endotoxin (r = 0.3, P = 0.03) and the intestinal permeability index (r = 0.375, P = 0.007). In patients with acute pancreatitis, plasma concentrations of CTpr appear to reflect more closely the derangement in gut barrier function rather than the extent of systemic inflammation.
    Pancreas 11/2003; 27(3):239-43. · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hormonal serum marker for the presence and course of patients with medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is the mature calcitonin (CT) peptide. Other CALC-1 gene products such as the 116-amino acid polypeptide prohormone, procalcitonin, as well as its component calcitonin precursors (CTpr) may also be increased in their sera. We performed a study to evaluate the clinical utility of serum levels CTpr in these patients. Twenty-one patients with MTC (9 males, 12 females; 23-76 years of age) were evaluated. The diagnosis was confirmed by histologic examination, except for 2 (a proven RET mutation plus an abnormal pentagastrin-stimulated CT level). Nine patients had postoperative hypercalcitoninemia and 3 of these died. The specific assay for mature CT was a commercial immunoradiometric assay (hCT-IRMA); the immunoluminometric assay for CTpr (B.R.A.H.M.S Diagnostica, Berlin, Germany) detects intact procalcitonin and the free CT:CT carboxypeptide-1. All patients had detectable serum CTpr. These levels considerably exceeded those of mature CT, averaging 7.6-fold greater. CTpr levels correlated positively with mature CT (r = 0.61; p < 0.001). After pentagastrin administration, there was a parallelism of response between the two assays. Whenever there were known metastases, CTpr increased markedly. This study demonstrates the universal presence of CTpr in the blood of patients with MTC. The measurement of these peptides may offer a new dimension to the clinical evaluation of this malignancy.
    Thyroid 08/2003; 13(8):819-22. · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 04/2003; 36(6):823-4; author reply 826-7. · 9.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prior studies have demonstrated that the prohormone, procalcitonin (ProCT), and its component calcitonin precursors (CTpr) are increased in the serum of septic patients, correlate with the severity of the illness, and persist for relatively long periods of time. Animal studies in septic hamsters have revealed that the administration of ProCT is toxic and that immunoneutralization with IgG that is reactive to this molecule significantly improves survival. A large animal model of a very rapidly lethal polymicrobial sepsis has been developed in the pig in order to measure continuous physiological and metabolic parameters and also to compare the effects in this animal of an immunoneutralization, which is performed late in the course of the disease, to an identical, but early, therapy. Based upon the physiological and metabolic parameters, the late therapy, which was initiated during the fourth hour at a time when pigs were nearly moribund, was found to be as beneficial as early therapy. In both late and early therapy, the only animals to survive at the predetermined time of euthanasia were those which had received immunoneutralization therapy.
    Journal of Endotoxin Research 02/2003; 9(6):367-74. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calcitonin precursors are sensitive markers of inflammation and infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of plasma calcitonin precursor levels on the day of admission in the prediction of severity of acute pancreatitis, and to compare this with the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system. Plasma concentrations of calcitonin precursors were determined on admission in 69 patients with acute pancreatitis. APACHE II scores were calculated on admission. Attacks were classified as mild (n = 55) or severe (n = 14) according to the Atlanta criteria. Plasma calcitonin precursor levels were determined with a sensitive radioimmunoassay. On the day of hospital admission, plasma levels of calcitonin precursors were significantly greater in patients with a severe attack compared with levels in those with a mild attack of pancreatitis (median 64 versus 25 fmol/ml; P = 0.014), but the APACHE II scores were no different (median 9 versus 8; P = 0.2). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for the prediction of severe acute pancreatitis were 67, 89, 57, 93 and 85 per cent respectively for plasma calcitonin precursor levels higher than 48 fmol/ml, and 69, 45, 23, 86 and 50 per cent respectively for an APACHE II score greater than 7. Differences in the specificity and accuracy of the two prognostic indicators were significant (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001 respectively). A plasma calcitonin precursor concentration of more than 160 fmol/ml on admission was highly accurate (94 per cent) in predicting the development of septic complications and death. The assay of plasma calcitonin precursors on the day of admission to hospital has the potential to provide a more accurate prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis than the APACHE II scoring system.
    British Journal of Surgery 02/2003; 90(2):197-204. · 4.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The 116 amino acid prohormone procalcitonin and some of its component peptides (collectively termed calcitonin precursors) are important markers and mediators of sepsis. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effect of immunoneutralization of calcitonin precursors on metabolic and physiologic variables of sepsis in a porcine model. A prospective, controlled animal study. A university research laboratory. 30-kg Yorkshire pigs. Sepsis was induced in 15 pigs by intraperitoneal instillation of a suspension of cecal content (1 g/kg animal body weight) and a toxinogenic Escherichia coli solution (2 x 10(11) colony-forming units). During induction of sepsis, seven pigs received an intravenous infusion of purified rabbit antiserum, reactive to the aminoterminal portion of porcine prohormone procalcitonin. Another eight control pigs received an intravenous infusion of purified nonreactive rabbit antiserum. For all 15 animals, physiologic data (urine output, core temperature, arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, and stroke volume index) and metabolic data (serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, arterial lactate, and pH) were collected or recorded hourly until death at 15 hrs. In this large-animal model of rapidly lethal peritonitis, serum calcitonin precursors were significantly elevated. Amino-prohormone procalcitonin-reactive antiserum administration resulted in a significant improvement or a beneficial trend in a majority of the measured physiologic and metabolic derangements induced by sepsis. Specifically, arterial pressure, cardiac index, stroke volume index, pH, and creatinine were all significantly improved, while urine output and serum lactate had beneficial trends. Treated animals also experienced a statistically significant increase of short-term survival. These data from a large-animal model with polymicrobial sepsis demonstrate the salutary effect of early immunoneutralization of calcitonin precursors on physiologic and metabolic variables. Immunologic blockade of calcitonin precursors may offer a novel therapeutic approach to human sepsis.
    Critical Care Medicine 11/2002; 30(10):2313-21. · 6.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Critical Care Medicine. 01/2002; 30(10):2313-2321.
  • Journal of Endotoxin Research 01/2002; 8(3):225. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported an unexpected ubiquitous expression of calcitonin (CT)-mRNA in a hamster peritonitis model of sepsis. Using this animal model,we undertook a study to further investigate the pattern of expression of the calcitonin I (CALC-I) gene and CT gene-related peptide (CGRP)-mRNA in sepsis. Live Escherichia coli impregnated in agar pellets were implanted in the peritoneal cavities of hamsters. Twelve hours after sepsis induction, the septic and healthy control animals were sacrificed and tissues and peritoneal macrophages were collected. CGRP-mRNA content was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitated by the Taq-Man technique, and compared with the mRNA expression of CT, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The 5' untranslated regions of the mRNA and potential alternative splicing sites were identified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We found a tissue-wide, ubiquitous and uniform expression of CGRP-mRNA in all septic tissues examined. CGRP-mRNA was detectable by RT-PCR in various extraneuronal and extrathyroidal septic tissues, but not in healthy control tissues. As found for CT-mRNA in our earlier studies, CGRP-mRNA seemed to be more specifically up-regulated as compared with other classical cytokines (ie, II-6 and TNF-alpha). Importantly, the 5' untranslated sequence in control and septic thyroid was similar to the sequence obtained from septic spleen. We postulate the presence of microbial infection-specific response elements in the CALC-I gene promotor, which, upon a specific stimulus, override the tissue-selective expression pattern. This new form of endocrine plasticity may be of importance in the response to systemic inflammation.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 12/2001; 49(6):514-21. · 1.75 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
539.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1975–2012
    • George Washington University
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Endocrinology
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2010
    • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2008
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2001
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Ashburn, Virginia, United States
  • 1998–2000
    • Georgetown University
      • Department of Surgery
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 1981–1998
    • Washington DC VA Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1993
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1988
    • The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 1979
    • Washington Hospital Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States