Patcharee Lertrit

Mahidol University, Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand

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Publications (39)131.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the development of a SNP typing system for human identification in the Thai population, in particular for extremely degraded DNA samples. A highly informative SNP marker set for forensic identification was identified, and a multiplex PCR-based Invader assay was developed. Fifty-one highly informative autosomal SNP markers and three sex determination SNP markers were amplified in two multiplex PCR reactions and then detected using Invader assay reactions. The average PCR product size was 71 base pairs. The match probability of the 54-SNP marker set in 124 Thai individuals was 1.48×10(-21), higher than that of STR typing, suggesting that this 54-SNP marker set is beneficial for forensic identification in the Thai population. The selected SNP marker set was also evaluated in 90 artificially degraded samples, and in 128 naturally degraded DNA samples from real forensic casework which had shown no profiles or incomplete profiles when examined using a commercial STR typing system. A total of 56 degraded samples (44%) achieved the matching probability (PM) equivalent to STR gold standard analysis (successful genotyping of 44 SNP markers) for human identification. These data indicated that our novel 54-SNP marker set provides a very useful and valuable approach for forensic identification in the Thai population, especially in the case of highly to extremely degraded DNA. In summary, we have developed a set of 54 Thai-specific SNPs for human identification which have higher discrimination power than STR genotyping. The PCRs for these 54 SNP markers were successfully combined into two multiplex reactions and detected with an Invader assay. This novel SNP genotyping system also yields high levels of genetic information from naturally degraded samples, even though there are much more difficult to recover than artificially degraded samples.
    Forensic Science International: Genetics 03/2014; 11C:166-173. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To identify disease-causing mutations and describe genotype-phenotype correlations in Thai patients with nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: Whole exome sequencing was performed in 20 unrelated patients. Eighty-six genes associated with RP, Leber congenital amaurosis, and cone-rod dystrophy were analyzed for variant detection. Results: Seventeen variants (13 novel and four known) in 13 genes were identified in 11 patients. These variants include 10 missense substitutions, two nonsense mutations, three deletions, one insertion, and one splice site change. Nine patients with identified inheritance patterns carried a total of 10 potentially pathogenic mutations located in genes CRB1, C8orf37, EYS, PROM1, RP2, and USH2A. Three of the nine patients also demonstrated additional heterozygous variants in genes ABCA4, GUCY2D, RD3, ROM1, and TULP1. In addition, two patients carried variants of uncertain significance in genes FSCN2 and NR2E3. The RP phenotypes of our patients were consistent with previous reports. Conclusions: This is the first report of mutations in Thai RP patients. These findings are useful for genotype-phenotype comparisons among different ethnic groups.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Located only a short distance off the southernmost shore of the Greater Indian subcontinent, the island of Sri Lanka has long been inhabited by various ethnic populations. Mainly comprising the Vedda, Sinhalese (Up- and Low-country) and Tamil (Sri Lankan and Indian); their history of settlements on the island and the biological relationships among them have remained obscure. It has been hypothesized that the Vedda was probably the earliest inhabitants of the area, followed by Sinhalese and Tamil from the Indian mainland. This study, in which 271 individuals, representing the Sri Lankan ethnic populations mentioned, were typed for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) and part of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS-2), provides implications for their settlement history on the island. From the phylogenetic, principal coordinate and analysis of molecular variance results, the Vedda occupied a position separated from all other ethnic people of the island, who formed relatively close affiliations among themselves, suggesting a separate origin of the former. The haplotypes and analysis of molecular variance revealed that Vedda people's mitochondrial sequences are more related to the Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils' than the Indian Tamils' sequences. MtDNA haplogroup analysis revealed that several West Eurasian haplogroups as well as Indian-specific mtDNA clades were found amongst the Sri Lankan populations. Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.112.
    Journal of Human Genetics 11/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study explored variation in the PARL gene as one of the potential nuclear modifiers in the pathogenesis of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Ten exons, their franking introns and 3'UTR of the PARL gene were analysed. Seventeen SNPs detected were investigated in 83 affected and 53 unaffected individuals from 47 independent Thai LHON pedigrees using MQLS statistics in order to minimize the influence of the family background. Three intronic SNPs (rs953419, rs3749446 and rs1402000) showed statistically significant results. Joint haplotypes were constructed based on the genotypes at 3 SNPs and 7 possible haplotypes were observed in the 136 subjects. Our findings that the frequency of the haplotype AAC, and AAT were significantly higher in the unaffected cases and the frequencies of haplotype GGT was significantly higher in LHON cases, indicate that it might have a role in the penetrance of this mitochondrial disease.
    Experimental Eye Research 08/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CCT chaperonin is a highly conserved molecular chaperone, which plays an important role in the folding of complex proteins in mammalian cells. CCT chaperonin interacts with huntingtin and results in decrease of aggregate formation followed by increase of cell survival. Using yeast-two-hybrid system, we screen for specific CCT chaperonin subunit, which can recognize and bind to androgen receptor. We show that subunit 6 of CCT chaperonin interacts with androgen receptor. Interestingly, CCT chaperonin shows higher binding affinity to polyglutamine expanded androgen receptor than that of the wild-type. We prove this interaction in mammalian cell models, which show co-localization of androgen receptor and subunit 6 of CCT in cellular cytosol. Therefore, not only huntingtin but also androgen receptor is a polyglutamine expanded protein, which is a substrate of CCT chaperonin. Our results suggest that CCT might play an essential role in modulation of folding of polyglutamine expanded proteins and could be another target for further therapeutic studies.
    European journal of medical genetics 07/2012; 55(11):599-604. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the concentrations of epitheliotrophic factors in autologous serum eye drops (ASE) prepared from sera of chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) patients with dry eyes to those prepared from non-autoimmune dry eye controls and to study the stability of the epitheliotrophic factors in different storage conditions. Twenty-percent ASE were prepared from 10 chronic SJS patients with dry eyes and 10 age-matched non-autoimmune dry eye controls. The concentrations of major epitheliotrophic factors comprising epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2), and fibronectin in those ASE preparations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline and after different storage conditions: at 4 °C for 1 week and 1 month; and at -20 °C for 1, 3 and 6 months. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of EGF, TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and fibronectin in 20% ASE between the SJS and control groups (EGF: 176.9 ± 40.9 vs. 185.5 ± 36.9 pg/mL, TGF-β1: 9.5 ± 2.1 vs. 9.5 ± 1.9 ng/mL, TGF-β2: 55.3 ± 30.0 vs. 63.91 ± 45.6 pg/mL and fibronectin: 70.5 ± 20.2 vs. 62.2 ± 21.3 µg/mL, respectively). These factors were stable at 4 °C for up to 1 month. Storage at -20 °C for up to 6 months resulted in a slight decrease in TGF-β1 (SJS: from 9.5-8.4 ng/mL, p < 0.01 and control: from 9.5-8.1 ng/mL, p < 0.01). The results suggested that the epitheliotrophic capacity of ASE from chronic SJS should be comparable to those from non-autoimmune dry eye patients, and that ASE should be sufficiently stable for up to 6 months, if stored properly at -20 °C.
    Current eye research 09/2011; 36(9):775-81. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) background on the expression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in Southeast Asian carriers of the G11778A mutation. Complete mtDNA sequences were analyzed from 53 unrelated Southeast Asian G11778A LHON pedigrees in Thailand and 105 normal Thai controls, and mtDNA haplogroups were determined. Clinical phenotypes were tested for association with mtDNA haplogroup, with adjustment for potential confounders such as sex and age at onset. mtDNA subhaplogroup B was significantly associated with LHON. Follow-up analysis narrowed the association down to subhaplogroup B5a1 (P = 0.008). Survival analyses with Cox's proportional hazards modeling on 469 samples (91 affected and 378 unaffected), adjusted for sex and heteroplasmy, revealed that haplogroup B5a1 tended to increase the risk of visual loss, but the trend was not statistically significant. Conversely, haplogroup F, the second most common haplogroup in the control population, was the least frequent haplogroup in LHON. This negative association was narrowed down to subhaplogroup F1 (P = 0.00043), suggesting that haplogroup F1 confers a protective effect. The distributions of sex, age at onset and heteroplasmy were not significantly different among haplogroups. The specific mtDNA background B5a1 was significantly associated with Southeast Asian G11778A LHON and appeared to modify the risk of visual loss.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 03/2011; 52(7):4742-8. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common mitochondrially inherited disease causing blindness, preferentially in young adult males. Most of the patients carry the G11778A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. However, the marked incomplete penetrance and the gender bias indicate some additional genetic and/or environmental factors to disease expression. Herein, we first conducted a genome-wide linkage scan with 400 microsatellite markers in 9 large Thai LHON G11778A pedigrees. Using an affecteds-only nonparametric linkage analysis, 4 regions on chromosomes 3, 12, 13 and 18 showed Zlr scores greater than 2 (P < 0.025), which is consistently significant across several linkage statistics. The most suggestive marker D3S1565 (Zlr > 2 in 10 of 16 allele sharing models tested) was then expanded to include the region 3q26.2-3q28 covering SLC7A14 (3q26.2), MFN1 (3q26.32), MRPL47 (3q26.33), MCCC1 (3q27.1), PARL (3q27.1) and OPA1 (3q28-q29). All of these candidate genes were selected from the Maestro database and had known to be localized in mitochondria. Sixty tag SNPs were genotyped in 86 cases, 211 of their relatives and 32 unrelated Thai controls, by multiplex-PCR-based Invader assay. Analyses using a powerful association testing tool that adjusts for relatedness (the M(QLS) statistic) showed the most evidence of association between two SNPs, rs3749446 and rs1402000 (located in PARL presenilins-associated rhomboid-like) and LHON expression (both P = 8.8 x 10(-5)). The mitochondrial PARL protease has been recently known to play a role with a dynamin-related OPA1 protein in preventing apoptotic events by slowing down the release of cytochrome c out of mitochondrial cristae junctions. Moreover, PARL is required to activate the intramembranous proteolyses resulting in the degradation of an accumulated pro-apoptotic protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Under these circumstances, variants of PARL are suggested to influence cell death by apoptosis which has long been believed to intrigue the neurodegeneration of LHON.
    Human Genetics 07/2010; 128(1):39-49. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated cellular glucose uptake of fibroblast cultures derived from seven patients with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) A3243G mutation and from six healthy controls with no mtDNA mutations. Heteroplasmy of fibroblast cultures were shifted by culturing for 5 days in galactose-containing medium. The proportion of mutant mtDNA decreased by 7.7% to 10% in three patient fibroblast cultures, whereas 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake increased 1.8-2.1-fold at basal state, 1.9-2.3-fold in the presence of 60 ng/ml of insulin, and 1.8-2.1-fold in 100 ng/ml of insulin. No significant changes in level of heteroplasmy or glucose uptake were observed in the other patients samples and control samples. This study showed that alteration in the proportion of fibroblast mtDNA A3243G mutation content directly affected basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.
    The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 08/2008; 39(4):745-52. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 360 base-pair fragment in HVS-1 of the mitochondrial genome were determined from ancient human remains excavated at Noen U-loke and Ban Lum-Khao, two Bronze and Iron Age archaeological sites in Northeastern Thailand, radio-carbon dated to circa 3,500-1,500 years BP and 3,200-2,400 years BP, respectively. These two neighboring populations were parts of early agricultural communities prevailing in northeastern Thailand from the fourth millennium BP onwards. The nucleotide sequences of these ancient samples were compared with the sequences of modern samples from various ethnic populations of East and Southeast Asia, encompassing four major linguistic affiliations (Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, and Austroasiatic), to investigate the genetic relationships and history among them. The two ancient samples were most closely related to each other, and next most closely related to the Chao-Bon, an Austroasiatic-speaking group living near the archaeological sites, suggesting that the genetic continuum may have persisted since prehistoric times in situ among the native, perhaps Austroasiatic-speaking population. Tai-Kadai groups formed close affinities among themselves, with a tendency to be more closely related to other Southeast Asian populations than to populations from further north. The Tai-Kadai groups were relatively distant from all groups that have presumably been in Southeast Asia for longer-that is, the two ancient groups and the Austroasiatic-speaking groups, with the exception of the Khmer group. This finding is compatible with the known history of the Thais: their late arrival in Southeast Asia from southern China after the 10th-11th century AD, followed by a period of subjugation under the Khmers.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 08/2008; 137(4):425-40. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in the Southeast Asian population, mtDNA haplogroup determination was performed by high-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism in 42 patients with LHON who were carrying the G11778A mutation and in control subjects drawn from a Thai urban population unaffected by LHON. The patients with LHON were of Thai, Thai-Chinese, and Indian origin. Three mtDNA haplogroups, M, B*, and B, were found in LHON patients in a frequency similar to that in control subjects. mtDNA haplogroup F was found in none of the patients with LHON but was the second most common haplogroup in control subjects. The G11778A mutation must have arisen in our population independently from the mutation in Caucasians. In contrast to Caucasians, no specific mtDNA haplotype was associated with the patients with LHON in the Southeast Asian population. The mitochondrial polymorphisms that modify the expression of LHON in Southeast Asians could not be identified in this study. The lack of haplogroup F in our patients with LHON may indicate the protective effect of this haplogroup in the expression of this disorder.
    Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology 01/2007; 26(4):264-7. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by the acute or subacute bilateral painless loss of central vision, predominantly in young males. G11778A is the most common mitochondrial DNA mutation responsible for the disease. Thirty-seven percent of our LHON pedigrees (which is a much higher prevalence than that generally found) carried heteroplasmic G11778A. Analyses of four large Thai LHON pedigrees spanning four to six generations strongly suggested that the transmission of the heteroplasmic G11778A mutation is under selective pressure in favour of the mutated allele and that heteroplasmy influences the disease expression.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2006; 51(12):1110-7. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by acute or subacute bilateral visual loss, and affects mostly young males. The most common mitochondrial DNA mutation responsible for LHON worldwide is G11778A. Despite different genetic backgrounds, which are believed to influence the disease expression, most features of LHON are quite common in different populations. However, there seem to be a few ethnic-specific differences. Analyses of our 30 G11778A LHON pedigrees in Thailand showed some characteristics different from those of Caucasians and Japanese. In particular, our pedigrees showed a lower male to female ratio of affected persons (2.6:1) and much higher prevalence of G11778A blood heteroplasmy (37% of the pedigrees contained at least one heteroplasmic G11778A individual). Heteroplasmicity seemed to influence disease manifestation in our patients but did not appear to alter the onset of the disease. The estimated overall penetrance of our G11778A LHON population was 37% for males and 13% for females. When each of our large pedigrees were considered separately, disease penetration varied from 9 to 45% between the pedigrees, and also varied between different branches of the same large pedigree. Survival analysis showed that the secondary LHON mutations G3316A and C3497T had a synergistic deleterious effect with the G11778A mutation, accelerating the onset of the disease in our patients.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2006; 51(4):298-304. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The proportion of mutant mtDNA in blood has been found to correlate with the frequency of visual loss in cases with mtDNA mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), especially in men. We sought to determine this correlation in a Thai population of LHON. Densitometric quantification of blood mtDNA with the 11,778 LHON mutation in 137 symptomatic cases and their asymptomatic maternal relatives in 30 Asian pedigree families was performed. Asymptomatic maternal relatives under the age of 16 years were excluded. The visual outcome in symptomatic cases with homoplasmy and heteroplasmy was compared. Heteroplasmy was detected in eight (12.9%) symptomatic and 30 (40%) asymptomatic individuals. The quantification of blood mutant mtDNA in the eight symptomatic cases ranged from 44% to 93% (mean=75%). The visual outcome of the cases with heteroplasmy was not different from that of cases with homoplasmy. There was a correlation between the proportion of mutant mtDNA and the likelihood of visual loss. The prevalence of heteroplasmy among pedigrees of the 11,778 LHON mutation in Thailand was similar to that of other Asian populations and may be greater than in 11,778 LHON pedigrees from white backgrounds. The proportion of mutated mtDNA correlated with visual loss, but the effect of heteroplasmy on clinical expression seemed not to relate to gender.
    Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology 10/2005; 25(3):173-5. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed an observational prospective analysis to study the clinical characteristics as well as a molecular genetic analysis of 17 members of a Thai family who had visual loss and/or muscle weakness. Their blood mitochondrial DNA were examined for the presence of the G11778A Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutation. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) DNA analysis was performed in four members who had visual loss. Of 17 family members, the eight members who had the 11778 LHON mutation were all from branch 'a'. Three of these eight members had FSHD with a 17-27-kb deletion of a tandem repeat in the 4q35 subtelomere, and two had been clinically diagnosed as FSHD. Four of six examined members in branch 'b' showed muscular dystrophy clinically diagnosed as FSHD. No correlation of blood DNA analysis between LHON and FSHD in affected members was found. We describe the first family with FSHD and G11778A LHON in which a mutation in mitochondrial DNA at nucleotide position 11778 of branch 'a' was found to be the origin of the mutation.
    European Journal of Neurology 06/2005; 12(5):388-91. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been controversy whether oculopharyngodistal myopathy (OPDM) commonly seen in Japan is a distinct disease entity or a variant of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) initially described in French-Canadians and has since been reported in other ethnic groups. Both diseases have autosomal dominant inheritance and OPDM patients are clinically similar to OPMD with slowly progressive ptosis, ophthalmoplegia and dysphagia except that most of the former usually have distal as opposed to proximal weakness and most of them are genetically different from the latter The authors report here 2 siblings with clinical features of OPDM. This entity is rare outside Japan and this is the first family to be reported from Thailand
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 01/2005; 87(12):1518-21.
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    ABSTRACT: A young Thai male presented with bilateral visual loss and disc pallor. The 14484 mutation responsible for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was identified on blood mitochondrial analysis. His visual loss was more severe than the visual loss described in Caucasian and Japanese patients and showed no improvement. He had no other identifiable mutations related to LHON nor any associated neurological disorder. This is the first case report of LHON with the 14484 mutation in a Thai patient.
    The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 04/2004; 35(1):167-8. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied 247 Japanese males with congenital deutan color-vision deficiency and found that 37 subjects (15.0%) had a normal genotype of a single red gene followed by a green gene(s). Two of them had missense mutations in the green gene(s), but the other 35 subjects had no mutations in either the exons or their flanking introns. However, 32 of the 35 subjects, including all 8 subjects with pigment-color defect, a special category of deuteranomaly, had a nucleotide substitution, A-71C, in the promoter of a green gene at the second position in the red/green visual-pigment gene array. Although the -71C substitution was also present in color-normal Japanese males at a frequency of 24.3%, it was never at the second position but always found further downstream. The substitution was found in 19.4% of Chinese males and 7.7% of Thai males but rarely in Caucasians or African Americans. These results suggest that the A-71C substitution in the green gene at the second position is closely associated with deutan color-vision deficiency. In Japanese and presumably other Asian populations further downstream genes with -71C comprise a reservoir of the visual-pigment genes that cause deutan color-vision deficiency by unequal crossing over between the intergenic regions.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2003; 100(6):3357-62. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied 19 patients of Southeast Asian (SEA) ethnic ancestry with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) to investigate the mtDNA haplotypes associated with the primary mutation(s). Eighteen patients carried a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) G11778A mutation (Arg340His in the respiratory complex I ND4 subunit), while one had a T14484C mutation (Met64Val in the ND6 subunit). One patient had a class II LHON mtDNA mutation, G3316A. Sequencing data of the ND genes showed many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (62 SNPs in 17 individuals; 10 LHON patients and 7 normal controls) not previously reported in Europeans or Japanese. The SEA G11778A LHON mutation was associated mostly with two mtDNA haplogroups, M (47%) and a novel lineage, characterized by the gain of a 10394 DdeI site but absence of the 10397 AluI site, designated BM (37%). A significant association was observed between one SNP, A10398G, resulting in a Thr114Ala substitution in the ND3 subunit, and the primary LHON mutation. This SNP also characterizes haplogroup J, with which the European LHON 11778 and 14484 mutations show preferential association. The combination of A10398G and other SNPs, specific for the haplogroups J, M, or BM, might act synergistically to increase the penetrance of the LHON mutations, thus allowing their detection.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2002; 47(11):594-604. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 19-year-old Thai woman presented with progressive ataxia and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Later on, she developed status epilepticus. Blood was tested by molecular DNA analysis which showed A8344G mitochondrial DNA mutation associated with myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF). We confirmed this finding in other members of this family. This is an interesting case report in Thailand of MERRF identified to have A-->G transition mutation at nucleotide 8344 of mitochondrial tRNA(lys) gene without ragged-red fibers from histopathologic studies of muscle. Molecular genetic analysis in suspicious cases of mitochondrial disorders is necessary for proper management and genetic counseling.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 07/2001; 84(7):1051-5.

Publication Stats

370 Citations
131.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Mahidol University
      • Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
    • Eijkman Institute
      Batavia, Jakarta Raya, Indonesia
  • 1991–1997
    • Saint Vincent Hospital
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1993–1994
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1992
    • University of Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1991–1992
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia