Souvik Ghosh

Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan

Are you Souvik Ghosh?

Claim your profile

Publications (47)112.75 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Distribution of serotypes, prevalence of resistance to penicillin and/or erythromycin (EM), and its genetic traits were analyzed for a total of 1,061 noninvasive or colonization isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (998 and 61 isolates from children and adults, respectively) in Hokkaido, northern main island of Japan, in the year 2011, the pre-PCV7 routine immunization period. Serotype deduction was performed by sequential multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), employing mutagenic PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for discrimination of 6A/C and 6B/D. Unaltered three PBP genes and macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and mef(A/E) were detected by multiplex PCR. Among isolates from children, 25 serotypes, including the prevalent types 6B (17.5%), 19F (15.6%), 23F (12.2%), and 6C (11.6%), were identified, revealing the PCV7 and PCV13 coverage rates as 48.2% and 60.3%, respectively, while serotype 3 was the most frequent (19.0%) among isolates from adults. Most of the pediatric isolates (96.8%) exhibited resistance to EM (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], ≥1 μg/ml), with a higher prevalence of erm(B) (67.2%) than mef(A/E) (39.7%). erm(B) was associated with high-level EM resistance (MIC, ≥128 μg/ml) and distributed at high detection rates to major serotypes 23F (85.2%) and 6B (85.1%), as well as minor serotypes 3, 10A, 14, 15B, 15C, 19A, and 23A (>90%). While penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) (penicillin G-MIC, 2-3 μg/ml) was detected in 7.8% of isolates from children, the most common PBP gene genotype was gPRSP (three altered genes pbp1a, 2x, and 2b; 38.3%), which was detected at higher rates (>60%) in the dominant serotypes 23F, 6B, and 19F, and minor serotypes 6D and 15A. Dominant serotypes in the S. pneumoniae isolates were generally similar to those reported for invasive strains, despite lower coverage rates by PCV7/13. The importance of further surveillance on incidence and drug resistance in the post-PCV7 period was suggested for non-PCV7/13 serotypes 6C, 6D, 10A, 15A, 15B, 15C, 23A, and 35B.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 04/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 (nonstructural protein 4), plays a pivotal role in viral morphogenesis as well as pathogenesis. In this study, the NSP4 gene of rotavirus group A (RVA) isolates of bovine origin isolated in several states of India from 2008 to 2011 were characterized. The complete open reading frame of 23 RVA strains were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Genotype E1 was detected for the first time in bovines from India, in addition to the more common bovine genotype E2. Sequence similarity analysis of the E1 sequences showed a close genetic relatedness to human strains. Six of the bovine E2 genotypes strains clustered near bovine and unusual human strains (possible human animal reassortant) from Thailand, while the remaining E2 sequences clustered with Indian bovine strains. Analysis pointed out one positively selected site (154aa), believe to be part of an antigenic region and 123 negatively selected sites. Unexpectedly, a pentameric NSP4 structure of the coiled coil domain in the E1 carrying strains and a monomeric NSP4 in RVA strain P14 (E2) was predicted based on homology modeling, potentially affecting the biological properties of NSP4. The close relationship between bovine and human rotavirus strains further highlights the complex interaction among rotaviruses of different species.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 04/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Severe skin lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection are associated with production from bacterial cells of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a typical virulence factor of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), as well as other toxins represented by exfoliative toxins. Through a retrospective study of 26 S. aureus strains isolated from skin lesions of diabetic patients admitted to a hospital in Bangladesh, 2 PVL-gene-positive MRSA-IVa strains and 8 PVL-negative, exfoliative toxin D (ETD) gene (etd)-positive MRSA-IVa strains were isolated. A PVL-positive MRSA-IVa strain had a type I arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), belonged to ST8/agr-type I/spa-type t121 (a variant of t008), and harbored blaZ, tet(K), msrA, and aph(3')-IIIa, which are mostly typical characteristics found in USA300, a predominant CA-MRSA clone in the United States. Another PVL-positive MRSA strain, belonging to ST1929 (CC88)/agr-type III/spa-type t3341, was negative for ACME, but possessed blaZ and tet(K). The etd-positive MRSA-IVa strains possessed the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (EDIN-B)-encoding gene (edinB) and belonged to ST1931 (CC80)/agr-type III/spa-type t11023 (a variant of t044), which was genetic trait similar to that of the European CA-MRSA ST80 clone. However, unlike the European ST80 strains, the etd-positive MRSA strains detected in the present study harbored seb, sek, and seq, while they were negative for tet(K), aph(3')-IIIa, and fusB, showing susceptibility to fusidic acid. These findings suggested that etd-positive ST1931 MRSA strains belong to the same lineage as the European ST80 MRSA clone, evolving from a common ancestral clone via acquisition of a different pathogenicity island. This is the first report of a USA300-like MRSA-IV strain, PVL-positive ST1929 (CC88) MRSA-IV, and European ST80 CA-MRSA-like etd-positive ST1931 (CC80) MRSA-IV strains isolated in Bangladesh.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 02/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rotaviruses are a major etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. Since the latter of the 1990s, G3 human rotaviruses referred to as "new variant G3" have emerged and spread in China, being a dominant genotype until 2010, although their genomic evolution has not yet been well investigated. The complete genomes of 33 G3P[8] human rotavirus strains detected in Wuhan, China, from 2000 through 2013 were analyzed. Phylogenetic trees of concatenated sequences of all the RNA segments and individual genes were constructed together with published rotavirus sequences. Genotypes of 11 gene segments of all the 33 strains were assigned to G3-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1, belonging to Wa genogroup. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated full genome sequences indicated that all the modern G3P[8] strains were assigned to Cluster 2 containing only one clade of G3P[8] strains in the US detected in the 1970s, which was distinct from Cluster 1 comprising most of old G3P[8] strains. While main lineages of all the 11 gene segments persisted during the study period, different lineages appeared occasionally in RNA segments encoding VP1, VP4, VP6, and NSP1-NSP5, exhibiting various allele constellations. In contrast, only a single lineage was detected for VP7, VP2, and VP3 genes. Remarkable lineage shift was observed for NSP1 gene; lineage A1-2 emerged in 2007 and became dominant in 2008-2009 epidemic season, while lineage A1-1 persisted throughout the study period. Chinese G3P[8] rotavirus strains have evolved since 2000 by intra-genogroup reassortment with co-circulating strains, accumulating more reassorted genes over the years. This is the first large-scale whole genome-based study to assess the long-term evolution of common human rotaviruses (G3P[8]) in an Asian country.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e88850. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 (nonstructural protein 4), plays a pivotal role in viral morphogenesis as well as pathogenesis. In this study, the NSP4 gene of rotavirus group A (RVA) isolates of bovine origin isolated in several states of India from 2008 to 2011 were characterized. The complete open reading frame of 23 RVA strains were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. Genotype E1 was detected for the first time in bovines from India, in addition to the more common bovine genotype E2. Sequence similarity analysis of the E1 sequences showed a close genetic relatedness to human strains. Six of the bovine E2 genotypes strains clustered near bovine and unusual human strains (possible human animal reassortant) from Thailand, while the remaining E2 sequences clustered with Indian bovine strains. Analysis pointed out one positively selected site (154aa), believe to be part of an antigenic region and 123 negatively selected sites. Unexpectedly, a pentameric NSP4 structure of the coiled coil domain in the E1 carrying strains and a monomeric NSP4 in RVA strain P14 (E2) was predicted based on homology modeling, potentially affecting the biological properties of NSP4. The close relationship between bovine and human rotavirus strains further highlights the complex interaction among rotaviruses of different species.
    Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction India accounts for an estimated 457,000–884,000 hospitalizations and 2 million outpatient visits for diarrhea. In spite of the huge burden of rotavirus (RV) disease, RV vaccines have not been introduced in national immunization programme of India. Therefore, continuous surveillance for prevalence and monitoring of the circulating genotypes is needed to assess the disease burden prior to introduction of vaccines in this region. Methods During January 2011 through December 2013, 830 and 1000 stool samples were collected from hospitalized and out-patient department (OPD) patients, respectively, in two hospitals in Kolkata, Eastern India. After primary screening, the G-P typing was done by multiplex semi-nested PCR using type specific primers followed by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis for the VP7 gene of 25 representative strains was done. Results Among hospitalized and OPD patients, 53.4% and 47.5% cases were positive for rotaviruses, respectively. Unlike previous studies where G1 was predominant, in hospitalized cases G9 rotavirus strains were most prevalent (40%), followed by G2 (39.6%) whereas G1 and G12 occurred at 16.4% and 5.6% frequency. In OPD cases, the most prevalent strain was G2 (40.3%), followed by G1, G9 and G12 at 25.5%, 22.8%, 9.3%, respectively. Phylogenetically the G1, G2 and G9 strains from Kolkata did not cluster with corresponding genotypes of Rotarix, RotaTeq and Rotavac (116E) vaccine strains. Conclusion The study highlights the high prevalence of RV in children with gastroenteritis in Kolkata. The circulating genotypes have changed over the time with predominance of G9 and G2 strains during 2011-2013. The current G2, G9 and G1 Kolkata strains shared low amino acid homologies with current vaccine strains. Although there is substantial evidence for cross protection of vaccines against a variety of strains, still the strain variation should be monitored post vaccine introduction to determine if it has any impact on vaccine effectiveness.
    Vaccine. 01/2014; 32:A20–A28.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), a genomic island consisting of the arc and/or opp3 gene clusters found in staphylococcal species, is related to increased bacterial adaptability to hosts. Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered a major ACME reservoir; however, prevalence and genetic diversity of ACME in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have not yet been well characterized for clinical isolates in Japan. A total of 271 clinical isolates of CNS in a Japanese hospital were investigated for the presence and genotype of ACME and SCCmec. The prevalence of ACME-arcA was significantly higher (p<0.001) in S. epidermidis (45.8%) than in other CNS species (3.7%). ACME in S. epidermidis isolates (n=87) were differentiated into type I (n=33), variant forms of type I (ΔI, n=26) newly identified in this study, type II (n=6), and type ΔII (n=19). ACME-type ΔI, which were further classified into three subtypes, lacked some genetic components between the arc and opp3 clusters in archetypal type I, whereas the arc and opp3 clusters were intact. The arc cluster exhibited high sequence identity (95.8-100 %) to that of type I ACME; in contrast, the opp3 cluster was highly diverse, and showed relatively lower identities (94.8- 98.7%) to the identical regions in type I ACME. Twenty-one isolates of ΔI ACME-carrying S. epidermidis possessed SCCmec IVa and belonged to ST5 (clonal complex 2). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolaets harbouring ACME ΔI in this study clustered with previously reported S. epidermidis strains with other lineges, suggesting that S. epidermidis originally had some genetic variations in the opp3 cluster. In summary, ACME type ΔI, a truncated variant of ACME-I, was first identified in S. epidermidis, and revealed to be prevalent in ST5 MRSE clinical isolates with SCCmec IVa.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 10/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Panton-Valentine leukocidine (PVL) is a distinctive virulence factor of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), and arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) is a staphylococcal genomic island which enhances fitness and ability of bacterial cells to colonize on skin and mucous membranes. The ACME is characteristically found in USA300 which is a predominant CA-MRSA clone (ST8) in the United States and spreading globally, and has also been detected in non-ST8 MRSA at low frequency. In Japan, spread of MRSA with PVL and/or ACME and their genetic traits have not yet been well characterised. In the present study, the prevalence and genetic diversity of PVL/ACME-positive MRSA were investigated for a total of 422 MRSA clinical isolates collected from outpatients in northern Japan for a period of one year. All the isolates were genotyped for the SCCmec and coagulase genes (coa), and screened for PVL and ACME genes.The PVL/ACME-positive isolates were further studied by genetic analysis, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysis based on PVL genes (lukS-PV-lukF-PV), ACME (arc and opp3 clusters), and sarU promoter region. Among all the isolates examined, PVL genes and ACME were detected in 8 isolates (SCCmec-II, 1;IV, 6;V, 1) and 20 isolates (SCCmec-II, 14;IV, 5;V, 1), respectively. Five isolates were found to have both PVL genes and ACME (type I), and were classified into ST8/spa-t008/agr-I/coa-IIIa, which was the same genetic traits as USA300. Fifteen PVL-/ACME+ isolates had type ΔII-ACME, belonging to either ST5 or ST764 [clonal complex (CC) 5], and spa-t001, t002, or t3557. All the ST8-PVL+/ACME-I+ MRSA had identical sequences of PVL genes (haplotype R) and ACME-arc/opp3 clusters to those of USA300 clone. In contrast, in the CC5-PVL-/ACME-ΔII+ MRSA, SNPs in arc cluster were detected in 11 sites (four haplotypes), with some different profiles of virulence/resistance factors. These results indicated single clonality of PVL+/ACME-I+ ST8-MRSA and heterogeneity of PVL-/ACME-ΔII+ CC5-MRSA, and suggested their potential spread in northern Japan.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 08/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Equine group A rotaviruses (RVA) are a major cause of severe diarrhea in foals. The whole genomes of only six common and three unusual equine RVA strains have been analyzed so far. To date, there are no reports on whole genomic analyses of equine RVAs from Asian countries. We report here the whole genomic analyses of three common (strains RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/BI/1981/G3P[12], RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/HH-22/1989/G3P[12] and RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/CH-3/1987/G14P[12]) and an unusual (RVA/Horse-tc/JPN/OH-4/1982/G6P[5]) equine RVA strains isolated from diarrheic foals in Japan. Strains BI, HH-22 and CH-3 shared a largely conserved genotype constellation (G3/G14-P[12]-I2/I6-R2-C2-M3-A10-N2-T3-E2-H7) with each other and with those of common equine RVAs from other continents. Phylogenetically, most of the genes of BI, HH-22 and CH-3 were closely related to those of other common equine RVAs. On the other hand, the NSP2 genes of BI and CH-3 formed a distinct lineage, and were distantly related to the other, major equine RVA cluster within the NSP2-N2 genotype. The NSP4 gene of HH-22 appeared to originate from possible reassortment events involving common equine RVAs and co-circulating bovine or bovine-like equine RVAs, revealing the presence of a bovine RVA-like NSP4 gene on a typical equine RVA genetic backbone. All the 11 gene segments of the unusual equine RVA strain OH-4 were found to be more closely related to those of bovine and bovine-like human RVAs than to those of other RVAs, providing the first conclusive evidence for artiodactyl(likely bovine)-to-equine interspecies transmission events. Taken together, these observations provided important insights into the genetic diversity of equine RVAs.
    Veterinary Microbiology 07/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cross-resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLS(B)) antibiotics is mainly mediated by the erm (erythromycin ribosome methylation) genes that encode 23S rRNA methylases in enterococi, and various mechanisms are involved in the streptogramin B resistance. Prevalence of MLS(B) resistance and its genetic mechanisms were analyzed for a total of 159 strains of Enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Japan from 1997 to 2006. Resistance to erythromycin (EM) and clindamycin was detected in 88.1% and 89.9% of all the strains examined, respectively, and expression of resistance was totally constitutive. Although none of the strain was resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), 28 strains (17.6%) showed intermediate resistance to Q/D (MIC: 2 μg/ml). The erm(B) gene was detected in 139 strains (87.4%), and msrC was found in all the strains examined, whereas no other known MLS(B) resistance genes were identified. The erm(B) regulator region (RR) containing a coding region of the leader peptide was classified into 13 genetic variations (L1-L3, M, S1-S7, D, and R genotypes) in 56 strains. However, no relatedness was identified between the erm(B) RR genotype and EM resistance, or reduced susceptibility to Q/D, although most of Q/D-intermediate strains were assigned to the L1, L2, and S1 genotypes. Q/D-intermediate strains were classified into five multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types, including four types of clonal complex (CC)-C1, five sequence types (STs), including four STs of CC-17, and several resistance gene/virulence factor profiles. The present study revealed the occurrence of Q/D-intermediate E. faecium, which are composed of heterogeneous strains in Japan, and more genetic diversity in the erm(B) RRs than those reported previously.
    Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 02/2013; · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The group A rotavirus (RVA) G3P[9] is a rare VP7-VP4 genotype combination, detected occasionally in humans and cats. Other than the prototype G3P[9] strain, RVA/Human- tc/JPN/AU-l/1982/G3P3[9], the whole genomes of only two human G3P[9] RVA strains and two feline G3P[9] RVA strains have been analyzed so far, revealing complex evolutionary patterns, distinct from that of AU-1. We report here the whole genomic analyses of two human G3P[9] RVA strains, RVA/Human-tc/CHN/L621/2006/G3P[9] and RVA/Human-wt/CHN/E2451/2011/G3P[9], detected in patients with diarrhea in China. Strains L621 and E2451 possessed a H6 NSP5 genotype on an AU-1-like genotype constellation, not reported previously. However, not all the genes of L621 and E2451 were closely related to those of AU-1, or to each other, revealing different evolutionary patterns among the AU-1-like RVAs. The VP7, VP4, VP6 and NSP4 genes of E2451 and L621 were found to cluster together with human G3P[9] RVA strains believed to be of possible feline/canine origin, and feline or raccoon dog RVA strains. The VP1, VP3, NSP2 and NSP5 genes of E2451 and L621 formed distinct clusters in genotypes typically found in feline/canine RVA strains or RVA strains from other host species which are believed to be of feline/canine RVA origin. The VP2 genes of E2451 and L621, and NSP3 gene of L621 clustered among RVA strains from different host species which are believed to have a complete or partial feline/canine RVA origin. The NSP1 genes of E2451 and L621, and NSP3 gene of E2451 clustered with AU-1 and several other strains possessing a complete or partial feline RVA strain BA222-05-like genotype constellation. Taken together, these observations suggest that nearly all the eleven gene segments of G3P[9] RVA strains L621 and E2451 might have originated from feline/canine RVAs, and that reassortments may have occurred among these feline/canine RVA strains, before being transmitted to humans.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 02/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although P[6] group A rotaviruses (RVA) cause diarrhoea in humans, they have been also associated with endemics of predominantly asymptomatic neonatal infections. Interestingly, strains representing the endemic and asymptomatic P[6] RVAs were found to possess one of the four common human VP7 serotypes (G1-G4), and exhibited little antigenic/genetic differences with the VP4 proteins/VP4 encoding genome segments of P[6] RVAs recovered from diarrhoeic children, raising interest on their complete genetic constellations. In the present study, we report the overall genetic makeup and possible origin of three such asymptomatic human P[6] RVA strains, RVA/Human-tc/VEN/ M37/1982/G1P2A[6], RVA/Human-tc/SWE/1076/1983/G2P2A[6] and RVA/Human-tc/ AUS/McN13/1980/G3P2A[6]. G1P[6] strain M37 exhibited an unusual genotype constellation (G1-P[6]-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T2-E1-H1), not reported previously, and was found to originate from possible intergenogroup reassortment events involving acquisition of a DS-1-like NSP3 encoding genome segment by a human Wa-like RVA strain. On the other hand, G2P[6] strain 1076 exhibited a DS-1-like genotype constellation, and was found to possess several genome segments (those encoding VP1, VP3, VP6 and NSP4) of possible artiodactyl (ruminants) origin on a human RVA genetic backbone. The whole genome of G3P[6] strain McN13 was closely related to that of asymptomatic human Wa-like G3P[6] strain RV3, and both strains shared unique amino acid changes, which might have contributed to their attenuation. Taken together, the present study provided insights into the origin and complex genetic diversity of P[6] RVAs possessing the common human VP7 genotypes. This is the first report on the whole genomic analysis of a G1P[6] RVA strain.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 01/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the accurate prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Mymensingh, a local area in central-northern Bangladesh, 40 female sex workers (FSW) and 110 sexually active women (SAW, non-FSW) of reproductive age from a local community with clinical symptoms were examined by an immunochromatography test (ICT) and plasmid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during a 1-year period from July 2011 to June 2012 using the endocervical swab as a specimen. By ICT and/or PCR, the C. trachomatis detection rate was 58% and 27% in FSW and SAW, respectively, showing a significant difference (P < 0.01). Two C. trachomatis strains from FSW were determined to be serovar D by ompA-based PCR and sequencing analysis. The highest prevalence was found among women aged 15 to 35 years. A lower socioeconomic status was considered to be an important risk factor for C. trachomatis infection in FSW but not in SAW. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections in FSW and SAW in the same local area in Bangladesh.
    Japanese journal of infectious diseases. 01/2013; 66(3):256-259.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Group A rotavirus (RVA) P[10] is a rare genotype of the RVA VP4 gene. To date, the whole genome sequence of only a single P[10] RVA strain, RVA/Human-tc/IDN/ 69M/1980/G8P4[10], has been determined, revealing a DS-1-like genotype constellation. Whole genomic analyses of P[10] RVA strains with other VP7 genotypes are essential to obtain conclusive data on the origin and genetic diversity of the P10] RVAs. In the present study, the whole genome of a human G4P[10] RVA strain, RVA/Human-tc/IDN/57M/1980/G4P[10], was analyzed. Strain 57M exhibited an unusual G4-P[10]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T2-E1-H2 genotype constellation, and was found to originate from intergenogroup reassortment events involving acquisition of RVA strain 69M-like VP4, NSP3 and NSP5 genes by a co-circulating Wa-like human G4 RVA strain. Although the reference P[10] strain, 69M, exhibits a DS-1-like genotype constellation, the exact origin of this RVA remains to be elucidated. By detailed phylogenetic analyses, we found that the VP1-VP3, VP6, NSP2 and NSP4 genes of 69M originated from artiodactyl and/or artiodactyl-like human P[14] strains, whilst its NSP1, NSP3 and NSP5 genes were more related to those of typical human DS-1-like strains than those of other RVAs. On the other hand, the origin of the VP4 gene of 69M could not be established. Nevertheless, these observations clearly indicated that strain 69M might have originated from reassortment events involving at least the artiodactyl or artiodactyl-like human RVAs and the typical human DS-1-like strains. The present study provided rare evidence for intergenogroup reassortment events involving co-circulating typical human Wa-like RVAs and unusual RVAs of the DS-1-like genogroup, and revealed the presence of artiodactyl-like genes in a human P[10] strain, highlighting the complex evolutionary patterns of the P[10] RVAs.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 11/2012; · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study epidemiological features and genetic characteristics of noroviruses in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis, fecal specimens were collected in three hospitals from Jan. 2007 to May 2010 in Wuhan, China. Noroviruses were detected in 25.9 % (286/1103) and 24.6 % (202/822) of the specimens from children and adults, respectively, with genogroup II (GII) being predominant (99.2 %). The most frequent genotype among GII strains was GII.4 (2006b variant) (77.3 %) (72.0 % in children and 87.9 % in adults), followed by GII.3 (15.0 %) and GII.6 (3.4 %). Potential recombinant genotypes (polymerase/capsid) were detected in 51 GII strains (15.9 %), including the most frequent type, GII.12/GII.3 (28 strains), and GII.16/GII.2, detected for the first time in China, which were found in only children. The results indicated that genetically similar noroviruses were circulating among children and adults as a cause of gastroenteritis, except for some recombinant genotypes.
    Archives of Virology 08/2012; · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: G1P[8] rotaviruses are an important cause of diarrhea in humans in China. To date, there are no reports on the whole genomic analysis of the Chinese G1P[8] rotaviruses. To determine the origin and overall genetic makeup of the recent Chinese G1P[8] strains, the whole genomes of three strains, RVA/Human-wt/CHN/E1911/2009/G1P[8], RVA/Human-tc/CHN/R588/2005/G1P[8] and RVA/Human-tc/CHN/Y128/2004/G1P[8], detected in an infant, a child and an adult, respectively, were analyzed. Strains E1911, R588 and Y128 exhibited a typical Wa-like genotype constellation. Except for the NSP3 gene of E1911, the whole genomes of strains E1911, R588 and Y128 were found to be more closely related to those of the recent Wa-like common human strains from different countries than those of the prototype G1P[8] strain, or other old strains. On the other hand, the NSP3 gene of E1911 was genetically distinct from those of Y128, R588, or other Wa-like common human strains, and appeared to share a common origin with those of the porcine-like human G9 strains, providing evidence for intergenotype reassortment events. Comparisons of the amino acid residues defining the VP7 and VP4 antigenic domains revealed several mismatches between these Chinese G1P[8] strains and the G1 and P[8] strains contained in the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines Rotarix(TM )and RotaTeq(TM).
    Viruses 08/2012; 4(8):1289-304. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a sequel of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and PKDL patients are an important reservoir for anthroponotic transmission of VL. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of PKDL is important for the kala-azar elimination program in South Asia, including Bangladesh. While definitive diagnosis of PKDL is still based on microscopy, despite the low sensitivity of this method of diagnosis, PCR for identification of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) from Leishmania parasites is expected to be a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method. We attempted PCR-based diagnosis from skin biopsy specimens and compared PCR to other available detection methods in order to determine the acceptability and feasibility of the PCR diagnostic method in an endemic area of VL in Bangladesh. Both skin biopsy specimens and blood samples were collected from 110 patients suspected to have PKDL from 6 subdistrict health complexes in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Using microscopy, we identified 32 samples (29.1%) that were positive for Leishmania. Immunochromatography tests indicated that 85 samples (77.3%) were positive for Leishmania. In contrast, a total of 104 (94.5%) samples tested positive using nested PCR, while unaffected portions of skin from PKDL patients tested negative. Sequencing analysis of the PCR products indicated that the amplified portion had more than 98% nucleotide sequence identity to the Leishmania donovani reference strain, D10. These findings indicate that the PCR method using a skin biopsy is highly sensitive and useful for confirmatory diagnosis of PKDL.
    Japanese journal of infectious diseases. 07/2012; 65(4):315-7.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Group A rotavirus (RVA) strain K8 (RVA/Human-tc/JPN/K8/1977/G1P[9]) was found to have Wa-like VP7 and NSP1 genes and AU-1-like VP4 and NSP5 genes. To determine the exact origin and overall genetic makeup of this unusual RVA strain, the remaining genes (VP1-VP3, VP6 and NSP2-NSP4) of K8 were analysed in this study. Strain K8 exhibited a G1-P[9]-I1-R3-C3-M3-A1-N1-T3-E3-H3 genotype constellation, not reported previously. The VP6 and NSP2 genes of strain K8 were related closely to those of common human Wa-like G1P[8] and/or G3P[8] strains, whilst its VP1-VP3, NSP3 and NSP4 genes were related more closely to those of AU-1-like RVAs and/or AU-1-like genes of multi-reassortant strains than to those of other RVAs. Therefore, strain K8 might have originated from intergenogroup-reassortment events involving acquisition of four Wa-like genes, possibly from G1P[8] RVAs, by an AU-1-like P[9] strain. Whole-genomic analysis of strain K8 has provided important insights into the complex genetic diversity of RVAs.
    Journal of General Virology 05/2012; 93(Pt 8):1700-5. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Equine group A rotavirus (RVA) strain H-1 (RVA/Horse-tc/GBR/H-1/1975/G5P9[7]) was found to have VP4, VP6-7, NSP1 and NSP4 genes of porcine origin. In order to obtain conclusive information on the exact origin and evolution of this unusual equine strain, the remaining six genes (VP1-3, NSP2-3 and NSP5 genes) of strain H-1 were analyzed in the present study. By whole genomic analysis, strain H-1 exhibited a porcine RVA-like genotype constellation (G5-P[7]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1), different from those of typical equine RVA strains. The VP2-3 and NSP2-3 genes of strain H-1 were found to originate from porcine RVAs. On the other hand, it was difficult to pinpoint the exact origin of the VP1 and NSP5 genes of strain H-1, though phylogenetically, these genes appeared to be possibly derived from porcine or Wa-like human strains. Taken together, at least nine (VP2-4, VP6-7 and NSP1-4 genes) of the 11 gene segments of strain H-1 were found to be of porcine origin, revealing a porcine RVA-like genetic backbone. Therefore, strain H-1 is likely a porcine RVA strain that was transmitted to horses.
    Veterinary Microbiology 03/2012; 158(3-4):410-4. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The group A rotavirus (RVA) P[19] is a rare P-genotype of the RVA VP4 gene, reported so far in humans and pigs. Whole genomic analyses of P[19] strains are essential to study their origin and evolutionary patterns. To date, all the 11 genes of only two P[19] strains, RVA/Human-wt/IND/RMC321/1990/G9P[19] and RVA/Human-wt/IND/mani-97/2006/G9P[19], have been analyzed, providing evidence for their porcine origin. In the present study, the whole genomes of the first reported human P[19] strains, RVA/Human-tc/THA/Mc323/1989/G9P[19] and RVA/Human-tc/THA/Mc345/1989/G9P[19], were analyzed. Strains Mc323 and Mc345 exhibited a G9-P[19]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genotype constellation. With the exception of the NSP5 gene, both the strains were closely related to each other. Most of the genes of Mc323 (VP2-4, VP6-7, NSP1-4 genes) and Mc345 (VP2-4, VP6-7 and NSP1-5 genes) appeared to be of porcine origin, whilst the exact origin of VP1 and NSP5 genes of Mc323 and VP1 gene of Mc345 could not be ascertained. Therefore, strains Mc323 and Mc345 were found to have a porcine RVA genetic backbone, and are likely of porcine origin. Taken together, our observations corroborated the hypothesis that P[19] strains might be derived from porcine RVAs, providing important insights into the origin of P[19] strains, and on interspecies transmission of RVAs.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 03/2012; 12(2):471-7. · 3.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

414 Citations
112.75 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Sapporo Medical University
      • Department of Hygiene
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2012–2013
    • Mymensingh Medical College
      Mymensing, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 2011–2013
    • Wuhan Centers for Disease Prevention and Control
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2008–2011
    • National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases
      Kolkata, Bengal, India