A A R Ayoub

University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (21)21.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of the piggyback technique for reconstruction of the liver outflow in reduced-size liver transplants for pediatric patients has increased the incidence of hepatic venous outflow block (HVOB). Here, we proposed a new technique for hepatic venous reconstruction in pediatric living-donor liver transplantation. Three techniques were used: direct anastomosis of the orifice of the donor hepatic veins and the orifice of the recipient hepatic veins (group 1); triangular anastomosis after creating a wide triangular orifice in the recipient inferior vena cava at the confluence of all the hepatic veins (group 2); and a new technique, which is a wide longitudinal anastomosis performed at the anterior wall of the inferior vena cava (group 3). In groups 1 and 2, the incidences of HVOB were 27.7% and 5.7%, respectively. In group 3, no patient presented HVOB (P = .001). No difference was noted between groups 2 and 3. Hepatic venous reconstruction in pediatric living-donor liver transplantation must be preferentially performed by using a wide longitudinal incision at the anterior wall of the recipient inferior vena cava. As an alternative technique, triangulation of the recipient inferior vena cava, including the orifices of the 3 hepatic veins, may be used.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 07/2011; 46(7):1379-84. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PRES is a neuroclinical and radiological syndrome that results from treatment with calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressives. Severe hypertension is commonly present, but some patients may be normotensive. We report herein two children who received liver transplants, as treatment for biliary atresia in the first case and for Alagille's syndrome in the second one. In the early postoperative, both patients presented hypertension and seizures. In both cases, the image findings suggested the diagnosis of PRES. The CT scan showed alterations in the posterior area of the brain, and brain MRI demonstrated parietal and occipital areas of high signal intensity. Both children were treated by switching the immunosuppressive regimen and controlling arterial blood pressure. They displayed full recuperation without any neurologic sequelae. Probably, the pathophysiology of PRES results from sparse sympathetic innervation of the vertebrobasilar circulation, which is responsible for supplying blood to the posterior areas of the brain. In conclusion, all liver-transplanted children who present with neurological symptoms PRES should be considered in the differential diagnosis, although this is a rare complication. As treatment, we recommend rigorous control of arterial blood pressure and switching the immunosuppressive regimen.
    Pediatric Transplantation 03/2011; 15(2):157-60. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary atresia (BA) is the leading indication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) among children. However, there are technical difficulties, including the limited dimensions of anatomical structures, hypoplasia and/or thrombosis of the portal vein and previous portoenterostomy procedures. The objective of this study was to present our experience of 239 children with BA who underwent OLT between September 1989 and June 2010 compared with OLT performed for other causes. We performed a retrospective analysis of patient charts and analysis of complications and survival. BA was the most common indication for OLT (207/409; 50.6%). The median age of subjects was 26 months (range, 7-192). Their median weight was 11 kg (range, 5-63) with 110 children (53.1%) weighing ≤10 kg. We performed 126 transplantations from cadaveric donors (60.8%) and 81 from living-related donors (LRD) (39.2%). Retransplantation was required for 31 recipients (14.9%), primarily due to hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT; 64.5%). Other complications included the following: portal vein thrombosis (PVT; 13.0%), biliary stenosis and/or fistula (22.2%), bowel perforation (7.0%), and posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD; 5.3%). Among the cases of OLT for other causes, the median age of recipients was 81 months (range, 11-17 years), which was higher than that for children with BA. Retransplantation was required in 3.5% of these patients (P < .05), mostly due to HAT. The incidences of PVT, bowel perforation, and PTLD were significantly lower (P < .05). There was no significant difference between biliary complications in the 2 groups. The overall survival rates at 1 versus 5 years were 79.7% versus 68.1% for BA, and 81.2% versus 75.7% for other causes, respectively. Children who undergo OLT for BA are younger than those engrafted for other causes, displaying a higher risk of complications and retransplantations.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2011; 43(1):181-3. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posttransplantation portal vein thrombosis (PVT) can have severe health consequences, and portal hypertension and other consequences of the long-term privation of portal inflow to the graft may be hazardous, especially in young children. The Rex shunt has been used successfully to treat PVT patients since 1998. In 2007, we started to perform this surgery in patients with idiopathic PVT and late posttransplantation PVT. Herein we have reported our experience with this technique in acute posttransplantation PVT. Three patients of ages 12, 15, and 18 months underwent cadaveric (n = 1) or living donor (n = 2) orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). All patients had biliary atresia with portal vein hypoplasia; they developed acute PVT on the first postoperative day. They underwent a mesenteric-portal surgical shunt (Rex shunt) using a left internal jugular vein autograft (n = 2) or cadaveric iliac vein graft (n = 1) on the first postoperative day. The 8-month follow-up has confirmed shunt patency by postoperative Doppler ultrasound. There have been no biliary complications to date. The mesenteric-portal shunt (Rex shunt) using an autograft of the left internal jugular or a cadaveric vein graft should be considered for children with acute PVT after OLT. These children usually have small portal veins; reanastomosis is often unsuccessful. In addition, this technique has the advantage to avoid manipulation of the hepatic hilum and biliary anastomosis. Although this study was based on a limited experience, we concluded that this technique is feasible, with great benefits to and low risks for these patients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2011; 43(1):194-5. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication following solid organ transplantation that has been linked to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The aim of this article was to describe a single-center experience with the multiplicity of clinical presentations of PTLD. Among 350 liver transplantations performed in 303 children, 13 survivor children displayed a histological diagnosis of PTLD (13/242 survivors; 5.4%). The age at diagnosis ranged from 12 to 258 months (median, 47), and the time from transplantation ranged from 1 to 84 months (median, 13). Ten of these children (76.9%) were EBV-naïve prior to transplantation. Fever was present in all cases. The clinical signs at presentation were anemia (92.3%), diarrhea and vomiting (69.2%), recurrent upper airway infections (38.4%), Waldeyer ring lymphoid tissue hypertrophy (23.0%), abdominal mass lesions (30.7%), massive cervical and mediastinal adenopathy (15.3%), or gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms (30.7%). One child developed fulminant hepatic allograft failure secondary to graft involvement by PTLD. Polymorphic PTLD was diagnosed in 6 patients; 7 had the diagnosis of lymphoma. Treatment consisted of stopping immunosuppression as well as starting intravenous gancyclovir and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy. The mortality rate was 53.8%. The clinical presentation of PTLD varied from fever of unknown origin to fulminant hepatic failure. The other symptoms that may be linked to the diagnosis of PTLD are pancytopenia, tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy, cervical or mediastinal lymph node enlargement, as well as abdominal masses. Despite numerous advances, the optimal treatment approach for PTLD is not completely known and the mortality rate is still high.
    Transplantation Proceedings 06/2010; 42(5):1763-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Late portal vein thrombosis (PVT) can be extremely well tolerated, although portal hypertension and other consequences of the long-term deprivation of portal inflow to the graft may be hazardous, especially in young children. Recently, the "Rex shunt" has been used successfully to treat these patients. We now report the initial experience with this novel technique. A 3-year-old girl with PVT at 7 months after whole organ cadaveric liver transplant displayed portal hypertension with an episode of gastrointestinal bleeding, requiring a mesenteric-portal surgical shunt ("Rex shunt") using a left internal jugular vein autograft. Upon current follow-up of 6 months, postoperative Doppler ultrasound confirmed shunt patency. Endoscopic status was significantly improved after surgery with resolution of portal hypertension. There was no recurrence of bleeding. The mesenteric-portal shunt ("Rex shunt"), using a left internal jugular vein autograft, should be considered for children with late PVT after liver transplantation. Although this is an initial experience, we may conclude that this technique is feasible, with great potential benefits and low risks for these patients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2009; 41(3):955-6. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation (OLT) in children has seen significant improvements in recent years. Long-term immunosuppressive strategies have focused on avoiding the risks of long-term immunosuppression, particularly nephrotoxicity, de novo malignancy and late infections. Since its introduction in renal transplantation in 1999, sirolimus (SRL) has been used by an increasing number of liver transplant centers. The aim of this study was to review the experience using SRL in pediatric liver transplant recipients at a single center. Between 1989 and 2006, 318 children underwent OLT including 13 who were converted to SRL therapy because of tacrolimus-related side effects. The indications were posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD; n = 11), nephrotoxicity (n = 1), and de novo autoimmune hepatitis (n = 1). One patient with PTLD previously concurrently displayed chronic rejection. SRL dosages ranged between 0.4 and 5 mg/d. The median duration of follow-up was 18 months. PTLD recurred in 1 patient. There were no episodes of acute rejection. One child developed hyperlipidemia that resolved with diet and medication. Conversion from tacrolimus to SRL in selected pediatric liver transplant recipients is safe. Children with PTLD may benefit from immunosuppression with SRL after liver transplantation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2009; 41(3):901-3. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HAT is the main cause of graft loss in pediatric living-related LTx. Revascularization of the graft by thrombectomy and re-anastomosis has been reported to be effective for graft salvage in cases of HAT and should be attempted when potential donors are not available for emergency re-transplantation. Immediate complications secondary to revascularization attempts in cases of HAT are not described. Late complications are mainly related to biliary tree ischemia. We report a case of child who experienced intimal hepatic artery dissection, which extended into intra-hepatic branches of the artery after a thrombectomy with a Fogarty balloon catheter in an attempt to restore arterial flow after HAT. This complication led to acute deterioration of the graft and the need for emergency re-transplantation.
    Pediatric Transplantation 03/2008; 12(1):91-4. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have evaluated the long-term use of MMF in liver transplanted children with renal dysfunction. The aim of this study is to report the experience of a pediatric transplantation center on the efficacy and security of long-term use of a MMF immunosuppressant protocol with reduced doses of CNIs in stable liver transplanted children with renal dysfunction secondary to prolonged use of CsA or Tac. Between 1988 and 2003, 191 children underwent OLT and 11 patients developed renal dysfunction secondary to CNIs toxicity as evaluated by biochemical renal function parameters. The interval between liver transplantation and the introduction of the protocol varied from one to 12 yr. Renal function was evaluated by biochemical parameters in five phases: immediately prior to MMF administration; 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the introduction of MMF. Among the patients, nine of them (82%) showed improvement of renal function parameters in comparison with the pretreatment values. The two patients that did not show any improvement were patients in whom the interval of time between OLT and the introduction of MMF was longer. All parameters of liver function remained unchanged. No episodes of acute or chronic rejection or increases in infection rates during the period were detected. Two patients developed transitory diarrhea and leukopenia that were reverted with reduction of MMF dosage. In conclusion, in liver transplanted pediatric patients with CNI-induced chronic renal dysfunction, the administration of MMF in addition to reduced doses of CNIs promotes long-term improvement in renal function parameters with no additional risks.
    Pediatric Transplantation 03/2007; 11(1):82-6. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over a 15-yr period of observation, among the 205 children who underwent liver transplantations, one of them developed a particular type of late graft dysfunction with clinical and histological similarity to autoimmune hepatitis. The patient had alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and did not previously have autoimmune hepatitis or any other autoimmune disease before transplantation. Infectious and surgical complications were excluded. After repeated episodes of unexplained fluctuations of liver function tests and liver biopsies demonstrating reactive or a biliary pattern, without any corresponding alteration of percutaneous cholangiography, a liver-biopsy sample taken 4 yr after the transplant showed active chronic hepatitis progressing to cirrhosis, portal lymphocyte aggregates, and a large number of plasma cells. At that time, autoantibodies (gastric parietal cell antibody, liver-kidney microsomal antibody, and anti-hepatic cytosol) were positive and serum IgG levels were high. Based on these findings of autoimmune disease, a diagnosis of 'de novo autoimmune hepatitis' was made. The treatment consisted of reducing the dose of cyclosporine, reintroduction of corticosteroids, and addition of mycophenolate mofetil. After 19 months of treatment, a new liver-biopsy sample showed marked reduction of portal and lobular inflammatory infiltrate, with regression of fibrosis and of the architectural disruption. At that time, serum autoantibodies became negative. The last liver-biopsy sample showed inactive cirrhosis and disappearance of interface hepatitis and of plasma cell infiltrate. Presently, 9 yr after the transplantation, the patient is doing well, with normal liver function tests and no evidence of cirrhosis. Her immunosuppressive therapy consists of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. In conclusion, the present case demonstrates that de novo autoimmune hepatitis can appear in liver-transplant patients despite appropriate anti-rejection immunosuppression, and triple therapy with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone could sustain the graft and prevent retransplantation.
    Pediatric Transplantation 06/2006; 10(3):371-6. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The classical method for arterial reconstruction in pediatric living donor liver transplantation using left lateral segment consists of end-to-end anastomosis between the donor left hepatic artery and the recipient right hepatic artery. In the present case, an intra-operative hepatic artery thrombosis occurred because of extensive intima wall dissection of the recipient hepatic artery. The patient was a 6-yr-old boy with fulminant hepatic failure, who underwent living donor partial liver transplantation with left lateral segment from his father. The graft was irrigated by a left hepatic artery and an accessory left hepatic artery from gastric artery, both arteries with diameter of <2 mm. These arteries were anastomosed to the recipient right and left hepatic arteries, respectively. Before performing the bile duct reconstruction it was noted that these anastomoses were occluded by clots of blood. An extensive subintimal dissection of the recipient hepatic artery was the cause of this problem. The creation of a new anastomosis by using a more proximal part of this artery without subintimal dissection was judged impossible. Then, the right gastroepiploic artery was mobilized and an anastomosis was performed with the donor left hepatic artery in an end-to-end fashion. Arterial blood flow to the graft was established successfully and the patient's postoperative recovery was excellent. Fifteen days after the transplantation, an angiotomography demonstrated a good hepatic arterial blood flow. The patient is now alive and well, 4 months after the transplantation. In conclusion, the method of hepatic graft arterialization described here is an important option for patients who undergo living donor or split liver transplantation.
    Pediatric Transplantation 03/2006; 10(1):101-4. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In pediatric patients submitted to living related liver transplantation, hepatic venous reconstruction is critical because of the diameter of the hepatic veins and the potential risk of twisting of the graft over the line of the anastomosis. The aim of the present study is to present our experience in hepatic venous reconstruction performed in pediatric living related donor liver transplantation. Fifty-four consecutive transplants were performed and two methods were utilized for the reconstruction of the hepatic vein: direct anastomosis of the orifice of the donor left or left and middle hepatic veins and the common orifice of the recipient left and middle hepatic veins (group 1-26 cases), and wide triangular anastomosis after creating a wide triangular orifice in the recipient inferior vena cava at the confluence of all the hepatic veins with an additional longitudinal incision in the inferior angle of the orifice (group 2-28 cases). In group 1, eight patients were excluded because of graft problems in the early postoperative period and five among the remaining 18 patients (27.7%) presented stricture at the site of the hepatic vein anastomosis. All these patients had to be submitted to two or three sessions of balloon dilatations of the anastomoses and in four of them a metal stent had to be placed. The liver histopathological changes were completely reversed by the placement of the stent. Among the 28 patients of the group 2, none of them presented hepatic vein stenosis (p = 0.01). The results of the present series lead to the conclusion that hepatic venous reconstruction in pediatric living donor liver transplantation must be preferentially performed by using a wide triangulation on the recipient inferior vena cava, including the orifices of the three hepatic veins. In cases of stenosis, the endovascular dilatation is the treatment of choice followed by stent placement in cases of recurrence.
    Pediatric Transplantation 07/2005; 9(3):293-8. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Basiliximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to the alpha subunit (CD(25)) of the interleukin-2 receptor of activated T lymphocytes. The advantage of basiliximab in organ transplantation is the reduce possibility to calcineurin inhibitor dosages to avoid nephrotoxicity. Basiliximab has significantly reduced the incidence of acute rejection (AR) in renal transplant recipients; however, the results are uncertain in liver transplantation (LT). The objective of this investigation was to assess the effect of basiliximab to prevent AR in the first 6 months after pediatric LT. From March 2000 to October 2001, 32 recipients of a primary orthotopic cadaveric or living donor LT were given basiliximab by intravenous bolus injection on the day of transplantation (day 0) and on day 4. Four children who received one dose were excluded from the study. The rate and the intensity of AR episodes, the incidence of chronic rejection, serum creatinine level, incidence of infections, adverse side effects, and daily oral dosage of cyclosporine (Neoral) to maintain the target blood level of 850 to 1000 mg/dL at C2, 2 hours after the administration, were analyzed in the remaining 28 recipients. Results were compared to those obtained from a matched historical group (n = 28) of similar age, weight, and hepatic diseases distribution. None of the analyzed parameters was statistically significant (P >.05) except for the daily oral dose of cyclosporine (7 to 13 mg/kg/dose, P <.05). In our series, the addition of basiliximab to the immunosuppressive therapy did not reduce the incidence of AR in pediatric LT.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2004; 36(4):956-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports the 14-year experience of a single center on 206 liver transplantations from living and cadaveric donors performed in 179 pediatric patients. Biliary atresia (57.2%) and fulminant hepatitis (9.8%) were the most frequent indications. The mean age of the recipients was 3 years, 7 months (9 months to 18 years) and mean weight was 14 kg (7 to 57 kg). The allografts were distributed as 82 (39.8%) whole cadaveric, 76 (36.9%) reduced-size cadaveric, 46 (22.3%) living donor liver transplants, and 2 (0.9%) ex situ split livers. The waiting periods were 25 days for living donors and 2.5 years for cadaveric donors (P <.001). Twenty-seven children were retransplanted with hepatic artery thrombosis the most frequent indication. The postoperative complications were: primary nonfunction (12.2%), biliary stenosis (28.8%), hepatic artery thrombosis (12.2%), portal vein stenosis (4.9%), hepatic vein stenosis (6.9%), and lymphoproliferative disorder (5.9%). The diagnosis of biliary stenosis was obtained by liver biopsy and transhepatic cholangiography and treated by balloon dilatation, although four children (3.9%) required a redo hepaticojejunostomy. The venous stenoses were percutaneously dilated with five-children (4.9%) requiring venous stents. The incidence of hepatic vein stenosis was 15.6% among living donor and 2.5% in cadaveric liver transplantation (P <.05). The overall 5-year patient and graft survivals were 70.2% and 65.1%. Liver transplantation provides excellent long-term survival. The use of grafts from living donors decreases the waiting periods but increases the incidence of hepatic vein stenosis.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2004; 36(4):941-2. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Medical and Pediatric Oncology 01/1999; 31(6):537-40.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To present the experience with the first 12 living related liver transplants performed at Hospital Sírio-Libanês in São Paulo. METHODS: The donors were the fathers (6) and the mothers (6) with age ranging from 30 to 48 years. All candidates for donation were submitted to a full informed consent form, clinical and radiological evaluation and had blood withdrawn for autotransfusion. Recipient age ranged from 7 months to 10 years whereas recipient weight varied from 6.3 to 34 kg. Six patients were considered as high risk due to complications of advanced liver disease and were submitted to urgent transplantation. RESULTS: Mean donor hospital stay was 10 days with no mortality. Technical complications were observed in 4 recipients. Seven patients presented at least one episode of bacterial, viral or fungal infection. One or more biopsy proven rejection episodes were disclosed in 7 patients. Overall recipient survival was 67%, being 83% for elective cases and 50% for urgent cases. Long term follow up ranged from 8 to 25 months. Seven out of 8 survivors present excellent quality of life and normal liver function. The other patient is currently under reduced immunosuppression due to Epstein-Barr virus infection.CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the safety and viability of living related liver transplantation which, in face of the current donor scarcity, should be considered as a valid option for the treatment of children with end stage liver disease.
    Jornal de pediatria 01/1998; 74(2):99-106. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Animal models of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) still are indispensable for the evolution of knowledge related to this disease and to fetal surgery in general. The lamb has provided the most reliable experimental design thus far. Considering the possible advantages of using rabbits (rather than lambs) namely lower costs, no need of special veterinary facilities, smaller body size, year-round availability, higher number of fetuses per pregnancy, and shorter gestational period, a successful model of CDH was developed in fetal rabbits. Sixteen pregnant New Zealand rabbits underwent hysterotomy and fetal operation. Group 1 (6 does) underwent surgery on gestational day 20 and group 2 (10 does) on gestational day 24 or 25. The normal full gestation time is 31 to 33 days. In group 1, the CDH was created by transabdominal puncture and dilatation of the fetal diaphragm. In group 2, the CDH was created through open thoracotomy, either left or right. The fetuses were delivered by cesarean section on gestational day 30. The overall fetal survival rate was 0 for group 1 and 70% for group 2. All operated fetuses in group 2 that were born alive had CDH. The histological morphometric examinations (radial alveolar count after sustained lung expansion) of the normal and operated fetuses in group 2 showed pulmonary hypoplasia in all the lungs on the same side as the CDH (statistical analysis was performed using the Neuman-Keuls test and analysis of variance; the significance level was set at .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 08/1994; 29(7):882-6. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electron microscopic examination of an infantile hemangioendothelioma (IHE) type I of the liver, appearing in a five month old child, showed a high density of pericytes in the walls of the neoplastic vessels. These vessels, in part of the IHE patients, establish an important arteriovenous shunt leading to high output, congestive cardiac failure. It is unclear whether functions ascribed to pericytes, such as participation in microvascular contractility or as suppressors of endothelial cell proliferation are involved in two noteworthy aspects of the present case. The child exhibited no congestive heart failure and the multiple nodular lesions underwent spontaneous regression.
    Journal of submicroscopic cytology and pathology 02/1991; 23(1):141-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The initial experience at the Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas--School of Medicine of São Paulo University with liver transplantation in children is presented. A staff experienced in the management of children, including pediatric surgeons, hepatologists, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, and other has been joined to draw therapeutic protocols. Afterward, more than 100 experimental liver transplant were performed in animals of medium size (dogs and pigs). From September, 1989 to July 1991, 12 liver transplants were performed on 9 children (3 retransplants) ranging in age from 2.5 to 17 years, being 5 boys and 4 girls. The donors had been selected according to the ABO blood group and body weight. Just once a blood A+ recipient received a liver from a blood O+ donor. The regular postoperative immunosuppression consisted of triple therapy with cyclosporin, prednisone and azathioprine. The postoperative stay in the Intensive Care Unit ranged from 3 to 24 days, according to the necessity of ventilatory support. These was no intraoperative mortality, arterial or venous thromboses, or early biliary complications. The overall survival is 78% (7/9). Primary non-function of the graft was the cause of death in two of our children. Although the number of cases is still small our results are comparable to those of the best liver transplant centers in the world.
    AMB; revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 01/1991; 37(4):193-9.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of a congenital hepatic hemangioma treated with surgery. METHODS: We report the case of a 6-day-old boy who presented a giant hepatic hemangioma, and describe its evolution. RESULTS: The child developed hemodynamic instability secondary to consumption coagulopathy and respiratory failure. The image studies were inconclusive. He was submitted to surgery with complete resection of the tumor. Pathology confirmed it was hemangioma. The child was discharged after 15 days and is well, without symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic hemangiomas should be treated conservatively, with surgery reserved for intractable cardiac failure and/or refractory consumptive coagulopaty.
    Jornal de pediatria 76(1):87-90. · 1.07 Impact Factor