E A Kaprio

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (35)155.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This report describes the general outline and progress of a multicentre study on risk factors of coronary heart disease and their determinants in children and adolescents. “Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns” comprises a cross-sectional study of 3 to 18-year old subjects in 1980, and follow-up studies in 1983 and 1986 in various parts of Finland, and in 1989 in one of the study areas (Turku). The number of participants in 1980 was 3596 (83.1%) of those invited. In 1983 and 1986 83.2% and 77.8% of them, respectively, participated. The study programme has comprised questionnaire data on, for example, general health and living conditions, physical activity, eating habits, smoking, and psychological variables. The physical examination covered height, weight, skinfold thickness, pubertal stages and blood pressure. Blood specimens were obtained to assess concentrations of serum lipids and insulin, and in 1986 also for possible genetic markers of hypercholesterolemia. A 48 hour recall on nutrient intake was obtained from some of the subjects. The follow-up studies have enabled a study of the tracking phenomenon. Other important questions under study include, for example, the possible clustering of risk factors and their determinants. The cohorts studied provide a valuable research basis for the future, with emphasis on enabling a long-term follow-up of the subjects.
    Annals of Medicine. 07/2009; 23(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A multicentre study on atherosclerosis precursors in young Finns aged three to 18 years was started in 1980 (3596 subjects) serum lipid concentrations (cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol and triglycerides) were determined (n=3554) and the apolipoproteins A-l and B measured (n=1355). Two follow-up studies were carried out in 1983 (n=2851) and 1986 (n=2489), when HDL-subfractions (HDL-2-cholesterol and HDL-3-cholesterol) were also determined. Apolipoproteins A-l and B were measured again in 1986 (n=1202). Serum total cholesterol concentration has fallen by about 1% annually during the 1980′s from 5.07 mmol/l (1980) to 4.79 mmol/l (1986) in 9-to 18-year old children and adolescents. Mean values of serum triglycerides have slightly increased during the follow-up from 0.79 mmol/l to 0.84 mmol/l, respectively. In children and young adults (3–24 years) the mean cholesterol concentration was highest at the age of six and lowest during puberty. Concentrations of serum cholesterol, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol apoprotein B and triglycerides were higher in eastern than in western Finland in 1980 and 1983, but these differences were smaller in 1986, with the exception of serum triglycerides. Both in 1983 and in 1986 HDL-2-cholesterol was lower in the west than in the east, whereas HDL-3-cholesterol was higher in the former. The favourable changes in lipid levels should be reflected in future morbidity and mortality rates from coronary heart disease in Finland.
    07/2009; 23(1):53-59.
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    ABSTRACT: The question of whether blood pressure is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood has been evaluated in a Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. In the second follow-up study, carried out in 1986, blood pressure was successfully measured in 2500 individuals aged nine to 24 years using a random zero sphygmomanometer. The mean systolic blood pressure in girls rose from 102 mmHg (95th percentile 119 mmHg) at age nine to 116 mmHg (138 mmHg) at age 24 and that in boys from 102 mmHg (95th percentile 121 mmHg) to 128 mmHg (148 mmHg). Diastolic blood pressure was more often measurable using Korotkoff's 5th than the 4th phase. The values observed were similar to those reported by the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children, but owing to differences in the methods used to measure blood pressure it cannot be reliably concluded that the blood pressures were similar in the two series. Even in childhood blood pressure measurement is important, and since it changes with the physical size of the child, observations should be compared with normal values such as those reported here. No data are yet available to suggest that children with blood pressure values in the high normal range would benefit from interventions. Thus normal blood pressure value curves should be applied with caution when assessing children.
    Pediatric Nephrology 07/2009; 23(1):47-51. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eighty-five 12–18-yr-old adolescents suffering from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and their healthy age- and sex-matched controls were investigated with respect to dental caries, salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva, counts for lactobacilli and mutans streptococci, and salivary glucose content. The diabetics had their disease well controlled according to the HbA1 levels. The results showed no statistically significant difference between diabetics and controls in DMF and DMFS indexes and the number of initial caries lesions. Mean number of initial caries lesions was 3.2 in diabetics, 2.3 in controls. Mean stimulated salivary flow rate was 1.2 ml/min in the patients, 1.4 ml/min in the controls. The pH and buffering capacity values were 7.3 and 4.8 in the patients, 7.4 and 5.1 in the controls, respectively. High counts of mutans streptococci (> 106 CFU/ml) and lactobacilli (> 105 CFU/ml) were observed more often, but not significantly so, among the patients than in the controls. The mean concentration of glucose in saliva was 10.3 μg/ml in the patients, 9.7 lμg/ml in the controls. Thus, if the patients' IDDM is well controlled, their salivary and caries data does not differ from that of healthy controls.
    European Journal Of Oral Sciences 09/2007; 100(6):310 - 313. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although existence of islet cell antibodies (ICA) is regarded as secondary to beta cell death, islet cell surface antibodies (ICSA) might play a role in the disease process. We have collected information from nine European clinics to determine whether ICSA are more common in diabetic children or their relatives in geographical areas or time periods of high incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In Finland and Sweden ("North group") with a high incidence of IDDM during childhood, 36% of the patients were positive or weakly positive for ICSA at diagnosis compared with 24% in France (p = 0.1), 11% in Berlin-Vienna (p < 0.01), and 14% in Italy (p < 0.01). This difference was seen in all age groups but was most pronounced in the youngest (0-4 y). This geographical difference was also seen among family members of whom 46% were positive or weakly positive in the North group, 25% in France (p < 0.001), 21% in Berlin-Vienna (p < 0.001), and 16% in Italy (p < 0.001). Of several analyzed antibodies (ICA, gastric parietal cell, thyroglobulin, and thyroid microsomal), only ICSA showed simultaneous positivity in all family members (r = 0.32, p < 0.01). ICSA were most common in family members of patients with short (< 8 d) duration of symptoms (p < 0.05) and showed a similar seasonality, both in patients and relatives, as the incidence of IDDM. We conclude that the geographical difference in incidence of childhood IDDM in Europe may be associated to similar geographical differences in occurrence of ICSA both in newly diagnosed diabetic children and in their relatives. Simultaneous existence of ICSA in both patients and family members and a similar seasonality for ICSA and incidence of IDDM suggest that ICSA may reflect an ongoing disease process.
    Pediatric Research 12/1996; 40(5):695-701. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The determinants of the degree of metabolic decompensation at the diagnosis of type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and the possible role of diabetic ketoacidosis in the preservation and recovery of residual beta cell function were examined in 745 Finnish children and adolescents. Children younger than 2 years or older than 10 years of age were found to be more susceptible to diabetic ketoacidosis than children between 2 and 10 years of age (< 2 years: 53.3%; 2-10 years: 16.9%; > 10 years: 33.3%). Children from families with poor parental educational level had ketoacidosis more often than those from families with high parental educational level (24.4% v 16.9%). A serum C peptide concentration of 0.10 nmol/l or more was associated with a favourable metabolic situation. Low serum C peptide concentrations, high requirement of exogenous insulin, low prevalence of remission, and high glycated haemoglobin concentrations were observed during the follow up in the group of probands having diabetic ketoacidosis at the diagnosis of IDDM. Thus diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis is related to a decreased capacity for beta cell recovery after the clinical manifestation of IDDM in children.
    Archives of Disease in Childhood 11/1996; 75(5):410-5. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied associations of 24-h serum insulin profiles with insulin dose, age, gender, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-peptide values, as well as blood glucose profiles in 77 consecutive children-nine aged 2-4, 14 aged 5-8, 26 aged 9-12, and 28 aged 13-17 years--2 years after the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Mean weight-based insulin doses in the four age groups were similar (0.7 +/- 0.2 U.kg-1.day-1 in all); body surface-area-based doses differed. Insulin doses correlated significantly with the 24-h mean and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values, and with mean values at 03.00 hours of serum insulin in the children aged 5-8 and 13-17 years. The mean insulin concentrations of the age groups (95% confidence intervals) increased with age [6.1 (3.8, 9.7), 7.6 (5.9, 9.8), 10.4 (8.6, 12.4), and 14.0 (11.6, 16.8) mU/l; p < 0.0002]. The 24-h mean of serum insulin together with HbA1c concentration predicted 32% of the variation of mean blood glucose concentrations. Of children aged less than 9 years, 50% had insulin values less than 5 mU/l (healthy subjects' lower reference limit), and 14% were of less than 2 mU/l (detection limit of the assay) at 03.00 hours. At 07.00 hours, 82% had insulin values of less than 5 mU/l, and 36% were of less than 2 mU/l, respectively. Some young children had night-time hypoglycaemia with simultaneous hypoinsulinaemia. Insulin profiles correlated poorly with the HbA1c and peak C-peptide values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Diabetologia 01/1995; 38(1):97-105. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To learn more about the preclinical phase of IDDM we observed for a median period of 46.5 months (range 0.5–69 months) a group of 57 siblings positive for ICA and/or IAA when first screened within 6 months of the diagnosis of the proband. Sequential blood samples and IVGTTs were obtained at intervals of 6–12 months. Seventeen siblings (29.8%) presented with IDDM during the observation period. The duration of the known preclinical period ranged from 0.5 to 51 months (median 29 months). The converters were younger than the other siblings (P<0.05) and had higher initial ICA levels (P<0.01). In addition they had a lower FPIR in the first IVGTT (P<0.001). On all subsequent tests the converters had higher ICA levels and a lower FPIR (P<0.05 or less), a lower glucose elimination rate from the third test onwards (P<0.01 or less) and higher IAA levels at 3 years (P<0.05). Some variation could be observed in the FPIR in the converters with an initial increase and subsequent decrease (P<0.05 for both). Their levels of complement-fixing ICA increased up to 18 months (P<0.05) and IAA levels up to 3 years (P<0.01). Those high risk siblings who progress to clinical IDDM are characterized by young age, strong and increasing signs of islet-cell specific autoimmunity, reduced insulin secreting capacity and emerging glucose intolerance. The present observations seem to be incompatible with the hypothesis of beta-cell destruction occurring at a constant, predictable rate.
    Diabetologia 04/1994; 37(4):388-393. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Associations of infant feeding patterns and milk consumption with cow's milk protein antibody titres were studied in 697 newly-diagnosed diabetic children, 415 sibling-control children and 86 birth-date-and sex-matched population-based control children in the nationwide Childhood Diabetes in Finland study. IgA and IgG antibody titres to the proteins of cow's milk formula, BLG and BSA, and IgM antibody titres to cow's milk formula proteins were measured by ELISA. Several inverse correlations were observed between the duration of breast-feeding or age at introduction of dairy products and antibody titres, and positive correlations were observed between milk consumption and antibody titres in all three populations studied. Multivariate analyses which included the infant feeding variables, milk consumption and current age simultaneously showed that the earlier the introduction of dairy products and the greater the consumption of milk was, the higher several antibody titres were. High IgA antibody titres to cow's milk formula were associated with a greater risk of IDDM both among diabeticpopulation-control and diabetic-sibling-control pairs when adjusted for other cow's milk antibody titres, dietary variables and in diabetic-sibling-control pairs also for ICA. The results suggest that young age at introduction of dairy products and high milk consumption during childhood increase the levels of cow's milk antibodies and that high IgA antibodies to cow's milk formula are independently associated with increased risk of IDDM.
    Diabetologia 04/1994; 37(4):381-387. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Finland and Sweden have the highest incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes in children in the world, about 3–4 times that of countries in the Mediterranean area, with the exception of Sardinia. We have collected information from several European clinics and from Pittsburgh, USA, in order to find out whether this difference in incidence is associated with corresponding differences of the disease pattern. Patients in Finland or Sweden (North) and Pittsburgh were younger (PPP20 mmol/l;PPP
    Acta Diabetologica 01/1994; 31(2):107-115. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship of 24-h glucose profiles to age, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and C-peptide concentration was analysed in consecutive, unselected children who had developed Type 1 diabetes 2 years earlier. Seventy-seven children in four age groups (age 2-4 years, n = 9; 5-8 years, n = 14; 9-12 years, n = 26; and 13-17 years, n = 28) were studied. Each child was hospitalized for 2 days for the investigations. Mean blood glucose concentration was 9.7 +/- 4.1 (SD) mmol l-1 in children aged 2-4 years; 10.7 +/- 4.0 mmol l-1 in those aged 5-8 years; 11.3 +/- 3.4 mmol l-1 in those aged 9-12 years; and 9.8 +/- 3.3 mmol l-1 in those aged 13-17 years. Results were > 7.0 mmol l-1 in 69% (range 56-76%) and > 10 mmol l-1 in 49% (39-57%) of the measurements. Values decreased by 30% (21-43%) between 10 pm and 3 am. The nadir of the mean profiles of the groups was always at 3 am. Glucose concentration was mmol l-1 in 25% (14-50%), < 2.5 mmol l-1 in 9.6% (0-21%), and < 2.0 mmol l-1 in 2.7% (0-4.2%) of the children at 3 am; hypoglycaemia was most common in those aged 5-8 years. Of the four profile characteristics used, mean blood glucose predicted HbA1c (R2 = 24.7%, p < 0.00005, multiple linear regression analysis), and slightly more in combination with age (R2 = 32.0%, p < 0.00005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Diabetic Medicine 07/1993; 10(6):524-9. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Association of serum lipids with metabolic control and diet were studied in 72 young subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Data on food consumption were collected by the 48-h recall method. Glycosylated haemoglobin (Hb) A1 was used as a measure of metabolic control. There were no differences between males and females in the mean values for serum total cholesterol (TC, 4.5 and 4.9 mmol/l, respectively), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, 2.7 and 3.0 mmol/l), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 1.3 and 1.4 mmol/l), or serum triglycerides (TG, 1.1 and 1.0 mmol/l). Diabetic subjects who were in better metabolic control (HbA1 < 10.5%), when compared with those in poorer control (HbA1 > or = 10.5%) had lower TC and TG values and a higher HDL-C/TC ratio. HbA1 level and intake of saturated fatty acids were positively associated with serum TC and LDL-C values and explained 14% and 15% of the variation in TC and LDL-C, respectively. HbA1 level and insulin dose per kg of body weight were positively associated with serum TG values and explained 30% of the variation in TG. Serum TC and LDL-C levels of young subjects with IDDM could be lowered by improving their metabolic control and decreasing their saturated fatty acid intake.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/1993; 47(2):141-9. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eighty-five 12-18-yr-old adolescents suffering from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and their healthy age- and sex-matched controls were investigated with respect to dental caries, salivary flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva, counts for lactobacilli and mutans streptococci, and salivary glucose content. The diabetics had their disease well controlled according to the HbA1 levels. The results showed no statistically significant difference between diabetics and controls in DMF and DMFS indexes and the number of initial caries lesions. Mean number of initial caries lesions was 3.2 in diabetics, 2.3 in controls. Mean stimulated salivary flow rate was 1.2 ml/min in the patients, 1.4 ml/min in the controls. The pH and buffering capacity values were 7.3 and 4.8 in the patients, 7.4 and 5.1 in the controls, respectively. High counts of mutans streptococci (> 10(6) CFU/ml) and lactobacilli (> 10(5) CFU/ml) were observed more often, but not significantly so, among the patients than in the controls. The mean concentration of glucose in saliva was 10.3 micrograms/ml in the patients, 9.7 1 microgram/ml in the controls. Thus, if the patients' IDDM is well controlled, their salivary and caries data does not differ from that of healthy controls.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1993; 100(6):310-3.
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    ABSTRACT: A nationwide study of childhood Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus was established in 1986 in Finland, the country with the highest incidence of this disease worldwide. The aim of the project called "Childhood Diabetes in Finland" is to evaluate the role of genetic, environmental and immunological factors and particularly the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of Type 1 diabetes. From September 1986 to April 1989, 801 families with a newly-diagnosed child aged 14 years or younger at the time of diagnosis were invited to participate in this study. The vast majority of the families agreed to participate in the comprehensive investigations of the study. HLA genotypes and haplotypes were determined in 757 families (95%). Our study also incorporates a prospective family study among non-diabetic siblings aged 3-19 years, and two case-control studies among the young-onset cases of Type 1 diabetes. During 1987-1989, the overall incidence of Type 1 diabetes was about 35.2 per 100,000 per year. It was higher in boys (38.4) than in girls (32.2). There was no clear geographic variation in incidence among the 12 provinces of Finland. Of the 1,014 cases during these 3 years only six cases were diagnosed before their first birthday. The incidence was high already in the age group 1-4-years old: 33.2 in boys and 29.5 in girls. Of the 801 families 90 (11.2%) were multiple case families, of which 66 had a parent with Type 1 diabetes at the time of diagnosis of the proband.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Diabetologia 02/1992; 35(1):70-6. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess how an isolated change in the pattern of care influences outcome of care and hospital use, a randomised prospective 2-year study was done in which 31 of 61 consecutive children with newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) were admitted to hospital at disease onset for about a week and compared with the other 30 children who were admitted for about 4 weeks. Insulin treatment and education about diabetes were similar in the two groups. Duration of initial stay in hospital had no effect on metabolic control during the 2 years but time since diagnosis was significant with respect to effect on haemoglobin A1 (p = 0.001), haemoglobin A1c (p = 0.004), and insulin dose (p less than 0.001). At 2 years, 45% of the children in the short-term group and 29% in the long-term group were C-peptide positive (p = NS); C-peptide positivity correlated with age. A change in the pattern of care of children with IDDM, led to a pronounced decrease in hospital use by this patient group. Irrespective of the length of initial stay in hospital, equally good metabolic control was obtained in both groups for 2 years.
    The Lancet 04/1991; 337(8742):656-60. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The question of whether blood pressure is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood has been evaluated in a Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. In the second follow-up study, carried out in 1986, blood pressure was successfully measured in 2500 individuals aged nine to 24 years using a random zero sphygmomanometer. The mean systolic blood pressure in girls rose from 102 mmHg (95th percentile 119 mmHg) at age nine to 116 mmHg (138 mmHg) at age 24 and that in boys from 102 mmHg (95th percentile 121 mmHg) to 128 mmHg (148 mmHg). Diastolic blood pressure was more often measurable using Korotkoff's 5th than the 4th phase. The values observed were similar to those reported by the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children, but owing to differences in the methods used to measure blood pressure it cannot be reliably concluded that the blood pressures were similar in the two series. Even in childhood blood pressure measurement is important, and since it changes with the physical size of the child, observations should be compared with normal values such as those reported here. No data are yet available to suggest that children with blood pressure values in the high normal range would benefit from interventions. Thus normal blood pressure value curves should be applied with caution when assessing children.
    Annals of Medicine 03/1991; 23(1):47-51. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A multicentre study on atherosclerosis precursors in young Finns aged three to 18 years was started in 1980 (3596 subjects) serum lipid concentrations (cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol and triglycerides) were determined (n = 3554) and the apolipoproteins A-I and B measured (n = 1355). Two follow-up studies were carried out in 1983 (n = 2851) and 1986 (n = 2489), when HDL-subfractions (HDL-2-cholesterol and HDL-3-cholesterol) were also determined. Apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured again in 1986 (n = 1202). Serum total cholesterol concentration has fallen by about 1% annually during the 1980's from 5.07 mmol/l (1980) to 4.79 mmol/l (1986) in 9- to 18-year old children and adolescents. Mean values of serum triglycerides have slightly increased during the follow-up from 0.79 mmol/l to 0.84 mmol/l, respectively. In children and young adults (3-24 years) the mean cholesterol concentration was highest at the age of six and lowest during puberty. Concentrations of serum cholesterol, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol apoprotein B and triglycerides were higher in eastern than in western Finland in 1980 and 1983, but these differences were smaller in 1986, with the exception of serum triglycerides. Both in 1983 and in 1986 HDL-2-cholesterol was lower in the west than in the east, whereas HDL-3-cholesterol was higher in the former. The favourable changes in lipid levels should be reflected in future morbidity and mortality rates from coronary heart disease in Finland.
    Annals of Medicine 03/1991; 23(1):53-9. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We wanted to determine the levels of fasting serum insulin during growth, the tracking of serum insulin, and the correlation of serum insulin with other coronary heart disease risk indicators in children and young adults. In 1986 2433 subjects, aged nine to 24 were studied, and insulin data were available from the same population in 1980 and 1983. Serum insulin levels showed a peak during puberty in both sexes and the decline in insulin continued after the age of 21. Tracking of serum insulin was only moderate, especially in females and young boys. Serum insulin correlated positively with body mass index, concentrations of serum triglycerides, and blood pressure, and inversely with the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. High triglycerides, high systolic blood pressure, and low level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol clustered among subjects within the highest insulin quartile. Our results suggest that the insulin resistance phenomenon, caused mainly by obesity and leading to unfavourable levels of other coronary heart disease risk indicators, is already developing in children and young adults. This suggests that preventing obesity in early life is important.
    Annals of Medicine 03/1991; 23(1):67-72. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity in Finnish children, adolescents and young adults aged three to 24 years was estimated in three surveys performed within the multicentre project, "Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns" (1980, 1983, 1986). Obesity was defined as either body mass index (weight/height) or skinfold thickness (triceps or subscapular) or both greater than 90th percentiles of age and sex-specific reference data for white children. Its mean prevalences among 9- to 18-year old boys and girls in three surveys (95% confidence limits) were 3.6% (3.1-4.2) and 2.1% (1.7-2.6) as estimated in terms of body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness or 4.3% (3.9-4.9) and 2.6% (2.2-3.1) according to body mass index and subscapular skinfold thickness. Thus the 9- to 18-year old boys were on average more often obese than the girls, but no statistically significant changes in the prevalence of obesity were observed over the period 1980-1986. Body mass index and triceps or subscapular skinfold thicknesses vary in sensitivity as indicators of obesity.
    Annals of Medicine 03/1991; 23(1):41-6. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the predictive validity of preadolescent Type A determinants for Type A dimensions in young adulthood (n = 375). Predictive variables, i.e. hyperactivity, aggression, social maladjustment and self-esteem were measured when the subjects were aged 12. Type A dimensions, i.e. hard-driving, competitiveness plus aggression and impatience were measured in the same subjects when they were aged 18. "Impatience" was predicted by means of preadolescent hyperactivity, and "competitiveness-aggression" by social maladjustment. "Hard-driving", which was most strongly related to CHD risk factor levels in young adulthood, was anteceded by the subject's feeling that he or she could not cope with life. This supports the hypothesis that Type A behaviour is a coping mechanism: a person tries to cope with stress by increasing his or her level of achievement.
    Annals of Medicine 03/1991; 23(1):81-4. · 4.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

798 Citations
155.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1977–2009
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Periodontology
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1996
    • Kuopio University Hospital
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Kuopio, Province of Eastern Finland, Finland