[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viability seems to be important in preventing ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated the influence of viability, as demonstrated with low-dose dobutamine echocardiography, and the role of early revascularization on the process of left ventricular (LV) remodeling after AMI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The addition of local ultrasound (US) with a contrast agent to standard intra-arterial thrombolysis can accelerate the thrombolytic treatment of stroke and myocardial infarction. The contrast agent consists of microsized gas-filled bubbles that collapse when exposed to US, causing destabilization of the clot and making the clot surface more susceptible to fibrinolytics. In this study, we investigated the effect of additional US and microbubbles on standard low-dose intra-arterial thrombolysis in a porcine model of extensive peripheral arterial occlusion.
Extensive arterial thrombosis was induced in 10 pigs in the 4-cm external iliac artery by clamping and injection of 100 IU of bovine thrombin. A transcutaneous laser Doppler flow probe and an ultrasonic perivascular flow probe assessed microcirculation and arterial flow respectively. The urokinase-only (UK) group (n = 4) received standard thrombolytic therapy: intra-arterial bolus injection of 500,000 IU, followed by a continuous low-dose urokinase (50,000 IU/h) infusion through an intra-arterial catheter and local intermittent application of US, 1 second on, 5 seconds off, to visualize vascular patency during the first hour of therapy and to ensure microbubbles replenished the proximal portion of the occluded artery. The urokinase plus microbubbles (UK+) group (n = 6) received the same urokinase therapy with a concomitant intravenous infusion of microbubbles and local intermittent application of US. The contrast infusion protocol consisted of a bolus of two vials of 5 mL in the first 15 minutes and then three times 5 mL slowly hand-injected continuously during the next 45 min. After 3 hours of therapy, the animals were euthanized, and thrombi were harvested and weighed. All organs were cut in thin slices and macroscopically inspected for potential (hemorrhagic) adverse events, and tissue samples were taken.
Median thrombus weights were 1.1 g (range, 0.8-1.3 g) in the UK+ group vs 1.6 g (range, 1.3-1.9 g) in the UK group (P = .01). Arterial blood flow increased in four of six pigs in the UK+ group by a mean 61% vs in one of four in the UK group, with 1%. Microcirculation and lower limb arterial pressure levels improved after the start of therapy in the UK+ group, contrary to a trend of decline in the UK group. No signs of bleeding complications were observed in either group.
In this experimental pilot study, the addition of contrast-enhanced US accelerated the thrombolytic effect of low-dose intra-arterial thrombolysis in peripheral arterial occlusions. Further clinical studies are warranted.
Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 04/2014; · 3.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells can be conjugated with targeted microbubbles to form highly echogenic complexes, dubbed StemBells. The complexes can improve stem cell delivery for the local repair of damaged cardiac tissue after a myocardial infarction through propulsion by acoustic radiation forces. While the first in-vivo tests hold great promise, the system would greatly benefit from a mapping of the acoustic parameter space. Here, we develop the theoretical background based on a modified Rayleigh-Plesset type equation to describe the dynamics of the StemBells in response to ultrasound. The complex is shown to resonate as a whole entity and resonance curves are constructed from numerical simulations resembling single bubble responses at a size that relates to the effective complex radius ~10 μm. Ultra high-speed optical imaging of single StemBell complexes at different frequencies using the microbubble spectroscopy method allows for a full characterization with excellent agreement with the developed model. Moreover, from the experimental resonance curves, we obtain values for the effective viscoelastic shell parameters of the StemBell complexes. These results have enabled the demonstration of the feasibility of manipulating StemBells inside chicken embryo microvasculature in an accompanying paper.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 04/2014; 135(4):2310. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of patients survive an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Their outcome is negatively influenced by post-AMI events, such as loss of viable cardiomyocytes due to a post-AMI inflammatory response, eventually resulting in heart failure and/or death. Recent pre-clinical animal studies indicate that mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ASC) are new promising candidates that may facilitate cardiovascular regeneration in the infarcted myocardium. In this review we have compared all animal studies in which ASC were used as a therapy post-AMI and have focused on aspects that might be important for future successful clinical application of ASC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current stroke risk schemes need improvement of predictive value in patients with atrial fibrillation. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) may facilitate stroke risk assessment in such patients and guide antithrombotic treatment.
We randomised 238 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and a moderate stroke risk to aspirin or adjusted vitamin K antagonist therapy after TEE had ruled out thrombogenic features in the atria and aorta. The primary outcome was a composite of stroke, major bleeding, peripheral embolism and all-cause mortality.
Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 2.1±1.1. The incidences of the composite primary outcome at a mean follow-up of 1.6 years were 3.2% (2.02% per year) in the aspirin group compared to 6.1% (3.84% per year) in the vitamin K antagonists group with an absolute advantage of 2.9 percentage points. Aspirin was non-inferior to vitamin K antagonists (p<0.0001) because the upper limit of the 90% CI did not exceed the 7% absolute difference in event rate between the two treatment arms.
This hypothesis-generating pilot trial has found that TEE may be used for refinement of stroke risk in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation patients. A larger trial is needed to confirm these data. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NTC00224757).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim is to detect early changes in myocardial mechanics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation carriers, three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) was used for screening of family members in the HCM population. Eighty subjects were divided as: HCM mutation carriers (n = 23), manifest HCM patients (n = 28), and normal controls (n = 29). They prospectively underwent 3DSTE for left atrial (LA) and left ventricle (LV) strain analysis. HCM mutation carriers showed significantly higher LA minimum volume (ml/m(2)) (17 ± 6 vs. 14 ± 4, respectively, P = 0.03) and a significantly lower peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) (%), (27 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 7, respectively, P = 0.02) when compared to controls. However, no differences were found in global or regional LV systolic myocardial deformation between both groups. Manifest HCM patients, compared to carriers showed significantly higher LA minimum (27 ± 10 vs. 17 ± 6, respectively, P < 0.001) and maximum volume (42 ± 14 vs. 32 ± 8, respectively, P = 0.007) as well as lower LA ejection fraction (%) (35 ± 8 vs. 47 ± 9, respectively, P < 0.001) and PALS (17 ± 5 vs. 27 ± 5, respectively, P < 0.001). Comparing LV strain, HCM patients showed reduced global longitudinal (-11 ± 4 vs. -16 ± 3, respectively, P < 0.001) and area strain (-35 ± 6 vs. -40 ± 5, respectively, P = 0.005). HCM mutation carriers may be distinguished from healthy subjects using 3DSTE through detection of LA dysfunction that may indicate LV diastolic dysfunction. Further research in a larger study population with gene-specific analysis is warranted for potential clinical usefulness of 3DSTE in family screening for HCM.
The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 01/2014; · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether cardiac abnormalities after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and clinical outcome, independent from known clinical risk factors for these outcomes.
In a prospective, multicenter cohort study, we performed echocardiography and ECG and measured biochemical markers for myocardial damage in patients with aSAH. Outcomes were DCI, death, and poor clinical outcome (death or dependency for activities of daily living) at 3 months. With multivariable Poisson regression analysis, we calculated risk ratios (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. We used survival analysis to assess cumulative percentage of death in patients with and without echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities (WMAs).
We included 301 patients with a mean age of 57 years; 70% were women. A wall motion score index ≥1.2 had an adjusted RR of 1.2 (0.9-1.6) for DCI, 1.9 (1.1-3.3) for death, and 1.8 (1.1-3.0) for poor outcome. Midventricular WMAs had adjusted RRs of 1.1 (0.8-1.4) for DCI, 2.3 (1.4-3.8) for death, and 2.2 (1.4-3.5) for poor outcome. For apical WMAs, adjusted RRs were 1.3 (1.1-1.7) for DCI, 1.5 (0.8-2.7) for death, and 1.4 (0.8-2.5) for poor outcome. Elevated troponin T levels, ST-segment changes, and low voltage on the admission ECGs had a univariable association with death but were not independent predictors for outcome.
WMAs are independent risk factors for clinical outcome after aSAH. This relation is partly explained by a higher risk of DCI. Further study should aim at treatment strategies for these aSAH-related cardiac abnormalities to improve clinical outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased left ventricular mass (LVM), low ventricular ejection fraction (EF), and high pulse-wave velocity (PWV) relate to overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with ESRD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of online hemodiafiltration (HDF) versus low-flux hemodialysis (HD) on LVM, EF, and PWV.
Echocardiography was used to assess LVM and EF in 342 patients in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy followed for up to 4 years. PWV was measured in 189 patients for up to 3 years. Effect of HDF versus HD on LVM, EF, and PWV was evaluated using linear mixed models.
Patients had a mean age of 63 years, and 61% were male. At baseline, median LVM was 227 g (interquartile range [IQR], 183-279 g), and median EF was 65% (IQR, 55%-72%). Median PWV was 9.8 m/s (IQR, 7.5-12.0 m/s). There was no significant difference between the HDF and HD treatment groups in rate of change in LVM (HDF: change, -0.9 g/yr [95% confidence interval (95% CI), -8.9 to 7.7 g]; HD: change, 12.5 g/yr [95% CI, -3.0 to 27.5 g]; P for difference=0.13), EF (HDF: change, -0.3%/yr [95% CI, -2.3% to 1.8%]; HD: change, -3.4%/yr [95% CI, -5.9% to -0.9%]; P=0.17), or PWV (HDF: change, -0.0 m/s per year [95% CI, -0.4 to 0.4 m/s); HD: change, 0.0 m/s per year [95% CI, -0.3 to 0.2 m/s]; P=0.89). No differences in rate of change between treatment groups were observed for subgroups of age, sex, residual kidney function, dialysis vintage, history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or convection volume.
Treatment with online HDF did not affect changes in LVM, EF, or PWV over time compared with HD.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wistar rat is a commonly used strain for experimental animal models. Recently it was shown that results vary between studies using Wistar rats of different suppliers. Therefore we studied whether Wistar rats obtained from Harlan Laboratories (Ha, n=24) and Charles River (CR, n=22) had a different outcome in an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model. AMI was induced in both Ha and CR Wistar rats by one operator. This resulted in a significantly higher survival rate for Ha (79.2±10.2%) compared with CR rats (54.2±10.2%, p<0.05). Furthermore, CR rats had lost significantly more weight after 7days (-5.9±3.1%) compared with Ha rats (-0.8±1.7%; p<0.001), indicating a worse health status of the CR rats. Paradoxically, the induced infarct was smaller in CR rats (7.3±3.6% of the heart) compared with Ha rats (12.1±4.7%, p<0.05). This indicates that CR rats were less sensitive for the cardiomyocyte damage subsequent to AMI induction, but remarkably showed more clinical side effects indicating that Wistar rats from two suppliers had a different response within the same AMI model.
Research in Veterinary Science 01/2014; · 1.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the association of retinopathy with changes in left ventricular (LV) function.
Within the Hoorn Study, a population-based cohort study of diabetes in The Netherlands, retinal photography and echocardiography were performed in the year 2000 (baseline) and 2008 (follow-up). Retinopathy was graded according to the Eurodiab classification and further defined as absent or present retinopathy. LV systolic and diastolic function were assessed by LV ejection fraction (%), LV mass (g/m2.7) and left atrial (LA) volume indices and the ratio of LV inflow (E) and early diastolic lengthening (e’) velocities. Linear regression analyses stratified for sex were completed to investigate associations of retinopathy with changes in LV function in participants with impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes.
147 participants (58% men, mean age 66) were included in the study, of whom 13.6% were present with retinopathy at baseline. LV ejection fraction was similar among participants with and without retinopathy (60.2% versus 60.7%) at baseline. Eight years later, retinopathy was significantly associated with a lower LV ejection fraction (β 8.0 95% CI -15.37 to -0.68) in men , independent of risk factors. Microvascular endothelial dysfunction ([ED] β 4.87 95% CI -13.40 to 3.67) and low-grade inflammation ([LGI] β -5.30 95% CI -13.72 to 3.12) both diminished the association. No significant associations between retinopathy and other LV function parameters were observed.
Retinopathy was significantly associated with a lower LV ejection fraction in men but not in women. LGI and ED might explain the observed association.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 01/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To assess the prognostic value of absolute NT-proBNP concentration in combination with changes during admission and early after discharge because of acute heart failure (AHF).
In AHF, readmission and mortality rates are high. Identifying those at highest risk for events early after hospital discharge might help to select patients in need of intensive outpatient monitoring.
Methods and results
We evaluated the prognostic value of NT-proBNP concentration on admission, at discharge, 1 month after hospital discharge and change over time in 309 patients included in the PRIMA-study.
In a multivariate cox regression analysis, change in NT-proBNP concentration during admission, change from discharge to 1 month after discharge, and the absolute NT-proBNP concentration at one month after discharge were of independent prognostic value for both endpoints (HR for HF-hospital free survival 1.71, 95% CI 1.13 - 2.60, Wald 6.4, P = 0.011 versus 2.71, 95% CI 1.76-4.17, Wald 20.5, P < 0.001 versus 1.81, 95% CI 1.13 – 2.89, Wald 6.1, P=0.014).
Knowledge of change in NT-proBNP concentration during admission because of AHF in combination with change early after discharge and the absolute NT-proBNP concentration at one month after discharge allows accurate risk stratification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is known to be related to overall and cardiovascular mortality in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients. The aims of the present study are 1) to determine whether LVM is associated with mortality and various cardiovascular events and 2) to identify determinants of LVM including biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis.
Analysis was performed with data of 327 ESKD patients, a subset from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST). Echocardiography was performed at baseline. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relation of LVM tertiles with clinical events. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify factors associated with LVM.
Median age was 65 (IQR: 54-73) years, 203 (61%) were male and median LVM was 227 (IQR: 183-279) grams. The risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.11-2.99), cardiovascular death (HR = 3.66, 95% CI: 1.35-10.05) and sudden death (HR = 13.06; 95% CI: 6.60-107) was increased in the highest tertile (>260grams) of LVM. In the multivariable analysis positive relations with LVM were found for male gender (B = 38.8±10.3), residual renal function (B = 17.9±8.0), phosphate binder therapy (B = 16.9±8.5), and an inverse relation for a previous kidney transplantation (B = -41.1±7.6) and albumin (B = -2.9±1.1). Interleukin-6 (Il-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), hepcidin-25 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were not related to LVM.
We confirm the relation between a high LVM and outcome and expand the evidence for increased risk of sudden death. No relationship was found between LVM and markers of inflammation and fibrosis.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e84587. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Preservation of myocardial perfusion during general anesthesia is likely important in patients at risk for perioperative cardiac complications. Data related to the influence of general anesthesia on the normal myocardial circulation are limited. In this study, we investigated myocardial microcirculatory responses to pharmacological vasodilation and sympathetic stimulation during general anesthesia with sevoflurane in healthy humans immediately before surgical stimulation.METHODS:Six female and 7 male subjects (mean age 43 years, range 28-61) were studied at baseline while awake and during the administration of 1 minimum alveolar concentration sevoflurane. Using myocardial contrast echocardiography, myocardial blood flow (MBF) and microcirculatory variables were assessed at rest, during adenosine-induced hyperemia, and after cold pressor test-induced sympathetic stimulation. MBF was calculated from the relative myocardial blood volume multiplied by its exchange frequency (β) divided by myocardial tissue density (ρT), which was set at 1.05 g·mL(-1).RESULTS:During sevoflurane anesthesia, MBF at rest was similar to baseline values (1.05 ± 0.28 vs 1.05 ± 0.32 mL·min(-1)·g(-1); P = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.18 to 0.18). Myocardial blood volume decreased (P = 0.0044; 95% CI, 0.01-0.04) while its exchange frequency (β) increased under sevoflurane anesthesia when compared with baseline. In contrast, hyperemic MBF was reduced during anesthesia compared with baseline (2.25 ± 0.5 vs 3.53 ± 0.7 mL·min(-1)·g(-1); P = 0.0003; 95% CI, 0.72-1.84). Sympathetic stimulation during sevoflurane anesthesia resulted in a similar MBF compared to baseline (1.53 ± 0.53 and 1.55 ± 0.49 mL·min(-1)·g(-1); P = 0.74; 95% CI, -0.47 to 0.35).CONCLUSIONS:In otherwise healthy subjects who are not subjected to surgical stimulation, MBF at rest and after sympathetic stimulation is preserved during sevoflurane anesthesia despite a decrease in myocardial blood volume. However, sevoflurane anesthesia reduces hyperemic MBF, and thus MBF reserve, in these subjects.
Anesthesia and analgesia 02/2013; · 3.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effect of secondary Bjerknes forces on targeted microbubbles using high-speed optical imaging. We observed that targeted microbubbles attached to an underlying surface and subject to secondary Bjerknes forces deform in the direction of their neighboring bubble, thereby tending toward a prolate shape. The deformation induces an elastic restoring force, causing the bubbles to recoil back to their equilibrium position; typically within 100 μs after low-intensity ultrasound application. The temporal dynamics of the recoil was modeled as a simple mass-spring system, from which a value for the effective spring constant k of the order 10(-3) Nm(-1) was obtained. Moreover, the translational dynamics of interacting targeted microbubbles was predicted by a hydrodynamic point particle model, including a value of the spring stiffness k of the very same order as derived experimentally from the recoiling curves. For higher acoustic pressures, secondary Bjerknes forces rupture the molecular adhesion of the bubbles to the surface. We used this mutual attraction to quantify the binding force between a single biotinylated microbubble and an avidin-coated surface, which was found to be between 0.9 and 2 nanonewtons (nN). The observation of patches of lipids left at the initial binding site suggests that lipid anchors are pulled out of the microbubble shell, rather than biotin molecules unbinding from avidin. Understanding the effect of ultrasound application on targeted microbubbles is crucial for further advances in the realm of molecular imaging.
Ultrasound in medicine & biology 01/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: We directly compared TomTec and QLAB software packages for the three-dimensional echocardiographic (3DE) assessment of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony including their ability to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 140 heart failure patients with the LVEF ≤35% and 60 healthy volunteers underwent 3DE. A subgroup of 60 patients underwent CRT and were evaluated before and 6-12 months after implantation. The systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) was derived from the dispersion of time to minimum regional volume for all 16 LV segments and measured with both software packages and compared using Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Measurements of SDI were significantly higher using TomTec compared with QLAB in both patients (10.9 ± 3.8 vs. 9.7 ± 3.9, P < 0.001) and healthy volunteers (4.1 ± 0.8 vs. 2.4 ± 1, P < 0.001), with large biases and wide limits of agreement. A moderate correlation (r = 0.65, P < 0.001) was observed between both software packages in patients while their inter-observer and intra-observer reliability were good. Of the 60 patients undergoing CRT, reverse remodelling as a measure of response was observed in 41 patients (68%). The optimal SDI cut-off value to predict response to CRT was higher for TomTec than for QLAB (8.8 vs.7.3%, P < 0.001) and demonstrated better sensitivity and specificity (93 and 61%, respectively) compared with QLAB (88 and 33%, respectively). Response prediction in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy was excellent with a sensitivity and specificity of 95 and 100% for TomTec and 70 and 83% for QLAB using similar cut-off values of 9.1 and 9.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Different 3DE software packages for the assessment of mechanical dyssynchrony should not be used interchangeably until better software standardization is achieved. Dyssynchrony assessment with 3DE for the prediction of response to CRT seems particularly useful in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy.
European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging. 10/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
Heart failure is common in individuals with type 2 diabetes and early detection of individuals at risk may offer opportunities for prevention. We aimed to explore: 1) prospective associations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in a non-heart failure range with changes in markers of left ventricular (LV) function, and 2) possible effect modification by type 2 diabetes in a population-based cohort.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Echocardiographic measurements were performed at baseline (2000-2001) and follow-up (2007-2009), together with standardized physical examinations and BNP measurements on 300 individuals (mean age 66 years, 32% with type 2 diabetes) of the longitudinal Hoorn Study. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of baseline BNP (<100 pg/mL) in individuals without prevalent heart failure at baseline with changes in LV mass index, LV ejection fraction, left atrial volume index, and ratio of early diastolic LV inflow velocity (E) to early diastolic lengthening velocity (e') (E/e').RESULTSIn all individuals, higher BNP was associated with 8-year increases in left atrial volume index. Higher BNP was also associated with increasing LV mass index and E/e'. These associations were significantly stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with the nonsignificant associations in individuals without type 2 diabetes.CONCLUSIONS
This 8-year follow-up study shows that higher BNP levels in a non-heart failure range were associated with an increased LV mass and deteriorated LV diastolic function, particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This implies that the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes should be taken into account if BNP levels are used to assess future heart failure risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment in cardiac patients may interfere with disease management. This review describes studies examining specific cognitive impairments in cardiac patients and studies that investigate the link between echocardiographic and cognitive measures. Executive function impairments were frequently reported in different patient groups. Also, lower cardiac output and worse left ventricular diastolic function are linked to executive function deficits. In cardiac patients, special attention should be paid to these executive function impairments in view of their role in disease management and independent living. Interventions that stimulate executive function should be encouraged and integrated in cardiac treatment protocols.