[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited data exist concerning outcomes of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) with no angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease (non-obstructive CAD). We assessed the frequency of clinical outcomes among patients with non-obstructive CAD compared with obstructive CAD.
We pooled data from eight NSTE ACS randomized clinical trials from 1994 to 2008, including 37,101 patients who underwent coronary angiography. The primary outcome was 30-day death or myocardial infarction (MI). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 30-day death or MI for non-obstructive versus obstructive CAD were generated for each trial. Summary ORs (95% CIs) across trials were generated using random effects models. Overall, 3550 patients (9.6%) had non-obstructive CAD. They were younger, more were female, and fewer had diabetes mellitus, previous MI or prior percutaneous coronary intervention than patients with obstructive CAD. Thirty-day death or MI was less frequent among patients with non-obstructive CAD (2.2%) versus obstructive CAD (13.3%) (ORadj 0.15; 95% CI, 0.11-0.20); 30-day death or spontaneous MI and six-month mortality were also less frequent among patients with non-obstructive CAD (ORadj 0.19 (0.14-0.25) and 0.37 (0.28-0.49), respectively).
Among patients with NSTE ACS, one in 10 had non-obstructive CAD. Death or MI occurred in 2.2% of these patients by 30 days. Compared with patients with obstructive CAD, the rate of major cardiac events was lower in patients with non-obstructive CAD but was not negligible, prompting the need to better understand management strategies for this group.
European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care. 03/2014; 3(1):37-45.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transition of patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease from the acute phase of the disease to the chronic stable atherosclerosis (CSA) phase has not been well characterized. We sought to compare ischemic and bleeding outcomes in hospitalized patients enrolled in clinical trials of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with patients enrolled in outpatient trials of CSA.
The risk for recurrent events will differ between the 2 populations.
Patient-level outcome data were evaluated from 3 consecutive trials of patients with ACS with long-term follow-up and 2 trials of patients with CSA. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated for ischemic and bleeding outcomes.
In total, 37 370 patients were included in these analyses. Of these, 28 489 (76.2%) were from ACS trials and 8881 (23.8%) from chronic trials. During the first year of follow-up, 1353 deaths, 1081 cardiovascular (CV) deaths, 2113 myocardial infarctions (MIs), and 397 strokes occurred across the trials. Six-month Kaplan-Meier event rates for CV death, MI, or stroke were higher in the ACS trials compared with the CSA trials (8.6% vs 2.7%), as were the 1-year CV death rate (3.6% vs 1.7%) and 1-year rates for GUSTO moderate or severe bleeding (6.0% vs 1.3%). Qualitatively, the Kaplan-Meier curves appear to show an early increased risk as well as a continued increased risk over time.
Patients with ACS enrolled while in the hospital appear to have different risk profiles for ischemic and bleeding outcomes compared with outpatients enrolled with CSA, including those patients with ACS after the acute phase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early administration of glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibitors results in improved angiographic parameters, including thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade, corrected TIMI frame count, and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Whether the same is true in the setting of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome is unknown. The goal of the early glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibition in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (EARLY ACS) angiographic substudy was to compare angiographic outcomes among patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome who were administered early routine versus delayed provisional eptifibatide. Of 9,406 patients in the EARLY ACS trial, 2,066 patients were included in the angiographic substudy (early routine eptifibatide [n = 1,042] or early placebo [n = 1,024] with delayed provisional eptifibatide after angiography and before percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]). The angiographic substudy primary end point was the incidence of TMPG 3 before and after PCI. TMPG 3 before (43.7% vs 44.9%, p = 0.58) and after PCI (52.4% vs 50.1%, p = 0.73) was similar for early routine versus delayed provisional eptifibatide, respectively. Angiographic procedural complications consisting of a composite of loss of side branch, abrupt vessel closure, distal embolization, and no reflow occurred less frequently in early routine group versus delayed provisional group (9.3% vs 13.6%, respectively, p = 0.01). In the EARLY ACS angiographic substudy, the use of early routine eptifibatide resulted in fewer angiographic procedural complications. These data provide support for the use of eptifibatide in the catheterization laboratory during high-risk cases merely to prevent angiographic procedural complications.
The American journal of cardiology 01/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vorapaxar is an antagonist of the protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), the principal platelet thrombin receptor. The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction (TRACER) trial evaluated vorapaxar compared to placebo in non-ST-elevation (NSTE)-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. It was the study's objective to assess the pharmacodynamic effects of vorapaxar versus placebo that included aspirin or a thienopyridine or, frequently, a combination of both agents in NSTE-ACS patients. In a substudy involving 249 patients, platelet aggregation was assessed by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) in 85 subjects (41 placebo, 44 vorapaxar) using the agonists thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP, 15 μM), adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 20 μM), and the combination of collagen-related peptide (2.5 μg/ml) + ADP (5 μM) + TRAP (15 μM) (CAT). VerifyNow® IIb/IIIa and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation assays were performed, and platelet PAR-1 expression, plasma platelet/endothelial and inflammatory biomarkers were determined before and during treatment. LTA responses to TRAP and CAT and VerifyNow results were markedly inhibited by vorapaxar. Maximal LTA response to TRAP (median, interquartile range) 2 hours post loading dose: placebo 68% (53-75%) and vorapaxar 3% (2-6%), p<0.0001. ADP inhibition was greater in the vorapaxar group at 4 hours and one month (p<0.01). In contrast to the placebo group, PAR-1 receptor number in the vorapaxar group at one month was significantly lower than the baseline (179 vs 225; p=0.004). There were significant changes in selected biomarker levels between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, vorapaxar caused a potent inhibition of PAR-1-mediated platelet aggregation. Further studies are needed to explore vorapaxar effect on P2Y12 inhibition, PAR-1 expression and biomarkers and its contribution to clinical outcomes.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 01/2014; 111(5). · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
This study sought to evaluate the clinical impact of intraprocedural stent thrombosis (IPST), a relatively new endpoint.
In the prospective, double-blind, active-controlled CHAMPION PHOENIX (Clinical Trial Comparing Cangrelor to Clopidogrel Standard of Care Therapy in Subjects Who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial, cangrelor significantly reduced periprocedural and 30-day ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), including IPST.
An independent core laboratory blinded to treatment assignment performed a frame-by-frame angiographic analysis in 10,939 patients for the development of IPST, defined as new or worsening thrombus related to stent deployment at any time during the procedure. Adverse events were adjudicated by an independent, blinded clinical events committee.
IPST developed in 89 patients (0.8%), including 35 of 5,470 (0.6%) and 54 of 5,469 (1.0%) patients in the cangrelor and clopidogrel arms, respectively (odds ratio: 0.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.42 to 0.99; p = 0.04). Compared to patients without IPST, IPST was associated with a marked increase in composite ischemia (death, myocardial infarction [MI], ischemia-driven revascularization, or new-onset out-of-laboratory stent thrombosis [Academic Research Consortium]) at 48 h and at 30 days (29.2% vs. 4.5% and 31.5% vs. 5.7%, respectively; p < 0.0001 for both). After controlling for potential confounders, IPST remained a strong predictor of all adverse ischemic events at both time points.
In the large-scale CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, the occurrence of IPST was strongly predictive of subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. The potent intravenous adenosine diphosphate antagonist cangrelor substantially reduced IPST, contributing to its beneficial effects at 48 h and 30 days. (Clinical Trial Comparing Cangrelor to Clopidogrel Standard of Care Therapy in Subjects Who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] [CHAMPION PHOENIX]; NCT01156571)
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2014; 63(7):619–629. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
This study reports the treatment effect of ticagrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) and the strategy for and impact of event adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial.
In PLATO, ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
A clinical events committee (CEC) prospectively defined and adjudicated all suspected MI events, based on events reported by investigators and by triggers on biomarkers. Treatment comparisons used CEC-adjudicated data and, per protocol, excluded silent MI.
Overall, 1,299 (610 ticagrelor, 689 clopidogrel) MIs reported by the CEC occurred during the trial. Of these, 1,097 (504 ticagrelor, 593 clopidogrel) contributed to the primary composite end point. Site investigators reported 1,198 (580 ticagrelor, 618 clopidogrel) MIs. Ticagrelor significantly reduced overall MI rates (12-month CEC-adjudicated Kaplan-Meier rates: 5.8% ticagrelor, 6.9% clopidogrel; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75–0.95). Non-procedural MI (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74–1.01) and MI related to percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis tended to be lower with ticagrelor. MIs related to coronary artery bypass graft surgery were few, but a numerical excess was observed in patients assigned ticagrelor. Analyses of overall MI using investigator-reported data showed similar results but did not reach statistical significance (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78–1.00).
In patients with ACS, ticagrelor significantly reduced the incidence of MI compared with clopidogrel, with consistent results across most MI subtypes. CEC procedures identified more MI end points compared with site investigators.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2014; 61(10):E2. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated effects of PAR-1 antagonist vorapaxar versus placebo among TRACER patients with NSTE ACS undergoing CABG.
Platelet activation may play a key role in graft occlusion, and antiplatelet therapies may reduce ischemic events, but perioperative bleeding risk remains a major concern. While TRACER did not meet the primary quintuple composite outcome in the overall population with increased bleeding, an efficacy signal with vorapaxar was noted on major ischemic outcomes, and preliminary data suggested an acceptable surgical bleeding profile. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of vorapaxar among CABG patients.
Associations between treatment and ischemic and bleeding outcomes were assessed using time-to-event analysis. HRs and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox hazards modeling. Event rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.
Among 12,944 patients, 1312 (10.1%) underwent CABG during index hospitalization, with 78% on study drug at time of surgery. Compared with placebo-treated CABG patients, vorapaxar-treated patients had a 45% lower rate of the primary endpoint-a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization during index hospitalization-(HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.83; P=0.005), with a significant interaction (P=0.012). CABG-related TIMI major bleeding was numerically higher with vorapaxar but not significantly different between vorapaxar and placebo (9.7% versus 7.3%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92-2.02; P=0.12), with no excess in fatal bleeding (0% versus 0.3%) or need for reoperation (4.7% versus 4.6%).
In NSTE ACS patients undergoing CABG, vorapaxar was associated with a significant reduction in ischemic events and no significant increase in major CABG-related bleeding. These data show promise for PAR-1 antagonism in patients undergoing CABG and warrant confirmatory evidence in randomized trials.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00527943.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2013; · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of intra-procedural stent thrombosis (IPST), a relatively new endpoint.
In the prospective, double-blind, active-controlled CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, cangrelor significantly reduced periprocedural and 30-day ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), including IPST.
An independent core laboratory blinded to treatment assignment performed a frame-by-frame angiographic analysis in 10,939 patients for the development of IPST, defined as new or worsening thrombus related to stent deployment anytime during the procedure. Adverse events were adjudicated by an independent, blinded clinical events committee.
IPST developed in 89 patients (0.8%), including 35/5470 (0.6%) and 54/5469 (1.0%) in the cangrelor and clopidogrel arms, respectively (OR [95%CI] = 0.65 [0.42,0.99], p=0.04). Compared to patients without IPST, IPST was associated with a marked increase in composite ischemia (death, myocardial infarction [MI], ischemia-driven revascularization, or new onset out-of-lab stent thrombosis [ARC]) at 48 hours and at 30 days (29.2% vs. 4.5% and 31.5% vs. 5.7%, P<0.0001 for both). After controlling for potential confounders, IPST remained a strong predictor of all adverse ischemic events at both time points.
In the large-scale CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, the occurrence of IPST was strongly predictive of subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. The potent intravenous ADP antagonist cangrelor substantially reduced IPST, contributing to its beneficial effects at 48 hours and 30 days.
CHAMPION PHOENIX; NCT01156571.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2013; · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Female sex is an established risk factor for bleeding, which is an important safety end point in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). However, it is unknown whether the association between bleeding and mortality is modulated by sex in this patient population.
We examined the interaction between sex and bleeding and 30-day mortality outcomes among 2,975 women and 6,431 men with high-risk NSTE ACS enrolled in the EARLY ACS trial. The Global Utilization of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO) criteria were used to identify moderate or severe bleeds.
Women were older and had more comorbid disease compared with men. Bleeding rates were higher among women (8.2%) than among men (5.5%; P < .01). However, the association of bleeding and 30-day mortality was stronger among men (odds ratio 5.8, 95% CI 3.9-8.8) than among women (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.9; sex * bleeding interaction P < .01). Sex differences in the association of bleeding and mortality persisted in a landmark analysis of 120-hour survivors.
In a contemporary high-risk NSTE ACS cohort, women had higher bleeding rates than did men. Paradoxically, the association between bleeding and mortality was worse among men than among women.
American heart journal 10/2013; 166(4):723-728. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular systolic dysfunction is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors performed a meta-analysis investigating the effects of levosimendan in cardiac surgery patients with and without preoperative systolic dysfunction.
Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
The 1,155 patients who participated in 14 randomized controlled trials of perioperative levosimendan were included.
PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane database of clinical trials, and conference proceedings were searched for clinical trials of perioperative levosimendan in patients undergoing cardiac surgery through May 1, 2012. Studies were grouped by mean ejection fraction (EF). Those with a mean EF <40% were designated as low-EF. Pooled results demonstrated a reduction in mortality with levosimendan (risk difference [RD]-4.2%; 95% CI -7.2%, -1.1%; p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that this benefit was confined to the low-EF studies (RD -7.0%; 95% CI -11.0%, -3.1%; p < 0.001). No benefit was observed in the preserved-EF subgroup (RD +1.1%; 95% CI -3.8%, +5.9%; p = 0.66). Significant reductions also were seen in the need for dialysis (RD -4.9%; 95% CI -8.2%, -1.6%; p = 0.003), myocardial injury (RD -5.0%; 95% CI -8.3%, -1.7%; p = 0.003), and postoperative atrial fibrillation (RD -8.1%; 95% CI -13.3%, -3.0%; p = 0.002).
Levosimendan was associated with reduced mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and these benefits were greatest in patients with reduced EF. These data support the need for adequately powered randomized clinical trials to confirm the benefits of levosimendan in patients with reduced EF undergoing cardiac surgery.
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia 09/2013; · 1.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cangrelor is a potent, rapid-acting, reversible intravenous platelet inhibitor that was tested for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in three large, double-blind, randomised trials. We did a pooled analysis of data from three trials that assessed the effectiveness of cangrelor against either clopidogrel or placebo in PCI.
This prespecified, pooled analysis of patient-level data from three trials (CHAMPION-PCI, CHAMPION-PLATFORM, and CHAMPION-PHOENIX) compared cangrelor with control (clopidogrel or placebo) for prevention of thrombotic complications during and after PCI. Trial participants were patients undergoing PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (11·6%), non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (57·4%), and stable coronary artery disease (31·0%). Efficacy was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population of 24 910 patients, with a prespecified primary efficacy composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischaemia-driven revascularisation, or stent thrombosis at 48 h. The primary safety outcome was non-coronary artery bypass graft-related GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) severe or life-threatening bleeding at 48 h.
Cangrelor reduced the odds of the primary outcome by 19% (3·8% for cangrelor vs 4·7% for control; odds ratio [OR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·71–0·91, p=0·0007), and stent thrombosis by 41% (0·5% vs 0·8%, OR 0·59, 95% CI 0·43–0·80, p=0·0008). Cangrelor reduced the odds of the secondary triple composite (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or ischaemia-driven revascularisation at 48 h) by 19% (3·6% vs 4·4%, OR 0·81, 95% CI 0·71–0·92, p=0·0014). Efficacy outcomes were consistent across the trials and main patient subsets. These benefits were maintained at 30 days. There was no difference in the primary safety outcome (0·2% in both groups), in GUSTO moderate bleeding (0·6% vs 0·4%), or in transfusion (0·7% vs 0·6%), but cangrelor increased GUSTO mild bleeding (16·8% vs 13·0%, p<0·0001).
Compared with control (clopidogrel or placebo), cangrelor reduced PCI periprocedural thrombotic complications, at the expense of increased bleeding.
The Medicines Company.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eptifibatide is indicated during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with continuation for 18-24 hours post procedure but is associated with bleeding. We examined the efficacy and safety of shorter post-PCI eptifibatide infusions in high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) patients.
EARLY ACS patients treated with PCI and eptifibatide were grouped by post-procedure infusion duration: <10, 10-13, 13-17, and 17-25 (per protocol) hours. Adjusted estimated event rates for 96-hour death/myocardial infarction (MI)/recurrent ischaemia requiring urgent revascularization (RIUR), 30-day death/MI, post-PCI packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion, and GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries) moderate/severe bleeding were obtained using inverse-propensity weighting to account for informative censoring of infusions.
Among 3271 eptifibatide-treated PCI patients, there were 66 96-hour death/MI/RIUR events, 94 30-day death/MI events, 127 PRBC transfusions, and 115 GUSTO moderate/severe bleeds. Compared with per protocol, patients receiving post-PCI infusions <10 hours had similar adjusted estimated rates of 96-hour death/MI/RIUR (absolute difference 0.021 higher; 0.040 vs. 0.019, 95% CI -0.023 to 0.064; p=0.35) and 30-day death/MI (0.020 higher; 0.046 vs. 0.026, 95% CI -0.021 to 0.062; p=0.34). There were also no differences in ischaemic outcomes between infusions of 10-17 hours and per-protocol infusions. Adjusted estimated rates of PRBC transfusion were higher for the <10-hour infusion group compared with per protocol (0.048 higher; 0.079 vs. 0.031, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.091, p=0.03) but were similar for other groups. Adjusted GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding rates were similar to per-protocol rates for all groups.
In high-risk NSTE ACS patients, post-PCI eptifibatide infusions <18 hours were not associated with worse ischaemic outcomes. Shorter eptifibatide infusions in this population may be feasible.
European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care. 09/2013; 2(3):246-55.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the EARLY ACS trial, routine early eptifibatide was not superior to delayed provisional use at percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); however, among PCI-treated patients, numerically fewer ischemic end points occurred in the upstream eptifibatide group. We sought to further explore this finding using methods for examination of treatment effect in this postrandomization subgroup.
Of 9,406 patients in the EARLY ACS primary analysis cohort, 9,166 (97.4%) underwent coronary angiography. We used Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, with PCI as a time-dependent covariate, to examine the effect of routine early versus delayed provisional eptifibatide among 5,541 patients undergoing PCI and to explore the interaction between treatment with PCI and randomized treatment strategy. After multivariable adjustment, compared with delayed provisional use, routine early eptifibatide was associated with lower rate of 30-day death or myocardial infarction (MI) after PCI (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.95) but not with medical management (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.74-1.29); PCI × randomized treatment interaction term P = .24. Excluding PCI-related MI, the adjusted HR for 30-day death or MI for routine early eptifibatide versus delayed provisional use was 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.08) for post-PCI treatment and 1.01 (95% CI 0.79-1.34) for medical management; PCI × randomized treatment interaction term P = .28.
Consistent with previous literature, upstream treatment with eptifibatide was associated with improved outcomes in high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients treated with PCI; however, a nonsignificant interaction term precludes a definite conclusion.
American heart journal 09/2013; 166(3):466-473.e1. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron-deficiency anemia in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) frequently requires parenteral iron replacement, but existing therapies often require multiple administrations. We evaluated the efficacy and cardiovascular safety of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), a non-dextran parenteral iron permitting large single-dose infusions, versus iron sucrose in patients with iron-deficiency anemia and NDD-CKD.
A total of 2584 participants were randomized to two doses of FCM 750 mg in one week, or iron sucrose 200 mg administered in up to five infusions in 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change to highest hemoglobin from baseline to Day 56. The primary composite safety endpoint included all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, unstable angina, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and hyper- and hypotensive events.
The mean hemoglobin increase was 1.13 g/dL in the FCM group and 0.92 g/dL in the iron sucrose group (95% CI, 0.13-0.28). Similar results were observed across all subgroups, except Stage 2 CKD. More subjects in the FCM group achieved a hemoglobin increase of ≥1.0 g/dL between baseline and Day 56 (48.6 versus 41.0%; 95% CI, 3.6-11.6%). There was no significant difference between FCM and iron sucrose recipients with respect to the primary composite safety endpoint, including the major adverse cardiac events of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. A significant difference in the number of protocol-defined, predominantly transient hypertensive episodes was observed in the FCM group.
Two 750-mg infusions of FCM are a safe and effective alternative to multiple lower dose iron sucrose infusions in NDD-CKD patients with iron-deficiency anemia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) angiographic substudy sought to compare the efficacy of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel with respect to angiographic outcomes before and after PCI in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.
Greater platelet inhibition has been associated with improved angiographic outcomes before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, it was hypothesized that treatment with ticagrelor, which achieves more rapid, higher, and more consistent platelet inhibition, would be associated with improved angiographic outcomes when compared with those of clopidogrel treatment.
The angiographic cohort consists of 2,616 patients drawn from the 18,624-patient PLATO trial. Clopidogrel naïve or pre-treated patients were randomized to 180 mg of ticagrelor or 300 mg of clopidogrel (75 mg for clopidogrel pre-treated patients). PCI patients were administered, as per treatment group: 1) an additional 90 mg of ticagrelor if >24 h following the initial loading dose; or 2) an optional further 300 mg of clopidogrel or placebo (total 600 mg) prior to PCI. The substudy primary endpoint was the incidence of post-PCI TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) myocardial perfusion grade 3 (TMPG 3) among patients who received a study drug prior to PCI.
In total, 21.3% of patients were pretreated with clopidogrel prior to randomization. There was a short time interval between randomization and PCI (median: 0.68 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.30 to 2.21] h) among all patients. Post-PCI TMPG 3 was similar between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups (47.1% vs. 46.9%; p = 0.96). Likewise, the following pre-PCI outcomes were similar in the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups, respectively: TMPG 3 (30.5% vs. 31.2%), TIMI flow grade 3 (37.1% vs. 39.3%), corrected TIMI frame count (median: 100 vs. 71 frames), TIMI thrombus grade 0 (24.1% vs. 27.6%), minimum lumen diameter (median: 0.3 [IQR: 0.0 to 0.6] vs. 0.3 [IQR: 0.0 to 0.6] mm) and percentage of diameter stenosis (median: 89 [IQR: 78 to 100] vs. 89 [IQR: 77 to 100]).
Neither coronary flow nor myocardial perfusion, evaluated on coronary angiograms performed before or following PCI procedures within a few hours after the start of oral antiplatelet treatment in the setting of acute coronary syndromes, demonstrated a difference with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristics were aligned with clinical outcomes and the effect of ticagrelor within the diverse spectrum of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients enrolled in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial.
There were 8884 PLATO patients who had baseline ECGs assessed by a core laboratory; of these, 4935 had an ECG at hospital discharge that also was assessed. Associations with study treatment on vascular death or myocardial infarction within 1 year were examined.
At baseline, most patients had either no or ≤0.5 mm of ST-segment depression (57%); 26% had 1.0 mm, and 17% had more extensive depression (>1.0 mm). Across the baseline ST-segment depression strata, there was a consistent treatment benefit with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel on vascular death/myocardial infarction. The extent of residual ST-segment depression at discharge was similar in the treatment groups, and the treatment effect did not differ by the extent of discharge ST-segment depression. There was a progressive increase in vascular death/myocardial infarction with increasing extent of baseline ST-segment depression (1.0 mm [vs no/0.5 mm]: hazard ratio [HR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.45; >1.0 mm: HR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24-1.78; P <.001) and at discharge (HR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61; HR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.54-2.95; P <.001).
The treatment effect of ticagrelor among non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients was consistently expressed across all baseline ST-segment depression strata. There was no indication of an anti-ischemic benefit of ticagrelor as reflected on the discharge ECG. Our data affirm the independent prognostic relationship of both baseline and hospital discharge ST-segment depression on outcomes within 1 year in non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients.
The American journal of medicine 06/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical trials indicate that CD34+ cells represent an effective angiogenic stem cell component. Early-phase clinical trials suggest that intramyocardial administration of autologous CD34+ cells may improve functional capacity and symptoms of angina. RENEW is a pivotal phase 3 trial designed to determine the efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized CD34+ stem cells for the treatment for patients with refractory angina and chronic myocardial ischemia. Patients (n = 444) receiving maximally tolerated antianginal therapies and lacking conventional revascularization options with Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III or IV angina and ischemia on stress testing will be randomized 2:1:1 to cell therapy (G-CSF-mediated stem cell mobilization, apheresis, and intramyocardial injection of 1 × 10(5) autologous CD34(+) cells/kg), active control (G-CSF-mediated stem cell mobilization, apheresis, and intramyocardial placebo injection), or open-label standard of care. The primary efficacy end point is change in exercise treadmill time in the treated vs active control patients, with 90% power to detect a 60-second difference in exercise time between cell-treated (n = 200) and active control (n = 100) patients. Key secondary end points include total number of anginal episodes per week and the incidence of independently adjudicated major adverse cardiac events and serious adverse events. RENEW will be the first adequately powered study aimed at definitively determining the efficacy of a cell therapy (intramyocardially delivered autologous CD34+ cells) for improvement of functional capacity in patients with refractory angina.
American heart journal 06/2013; 165(6):854-861.e2. · 4.65 Impact Factor