Chaitanya Pant

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

Are you Chaitanya Pant?

Claim your profile

Publications (31)89.26 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the volume of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies (ERCPs) performed in hospitalized children in the United States utilizing a nationwide healthcare administrative database for the years 2000 to 2009. 22,153 cases of ERCP were identified: 6,372 diagnostic and 17,314 therapeutic (1,533 cases were recorded as undergoing both types during a single hospitalization). The number of ERCPs increased from 5,337 to 6,733 per year; diagnostic ERCPs decreased 43% and therapeutic increased 69% (significant decreasing trends for diagnostic and increasing for therapeutic ERCPs, P < 0.001 for each analysis). Our results define a recent increase in the utilization of therapeutic ERCPs in hospitalized children.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 02/2014; · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To investigate the epidemiology of GI bleeding in hospitalized children in the United States. Methods: Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for the year 2009. The data were weighted to generate national-level estimates. Results: There were 23,383 pediatric discharges with a diagnosis of GI bleeding accounting for 0.5% of all discharges. Children with a GI bleed as compared to those without were more likely to be male (54.5% vs. 45.8%; P < 0.001), older (children ≥ 11 years; 50.8% vs. 38.7%; P < 0.001), and admitted to a teaching hospital (70.5% vs. 56.4%; P < 0.001). Children 11-15 years of age had the highest incidence of GI bleeding (84.2 per 10,000 discharges) and children less than 1 year of age the lowest (24.4 per 10,000 discharges). The highest incidence of GI bleeding was attributable to cases coded as blood in stool (17.6 per 10,000 discharges) followed by hematemesis (11.2 per 10,000 discharges). Those with a GI bleed had a higher co-morbid burden (12.3% vs. 2.3%; P < 0.001) and severity of illness (40.1% vs. 14.5%; P < 0.001). The highest mortality rates associated with GI bleeding were observed in cases with intestinal perforation (8.7%) and esophageal perforation (8.4%). GI bleeding was independently associated with a higher risk of mortality (aOR 1.68, CI 1.53-1.84). Conclusions: Our results describe the epidemiology of GI bleeding in hospitalized children within the United States. We found a substantial risk of mortality attributable to GI bleeding in this patient population. Our study is limited by the exclusion of non-hospitalized children, the reliance on ICD-9-CM codes and the absence of longitudinal follow up of patients.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 01/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Current Medical Research and Opinion 01/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The incidence and prevalence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) seems to be increasing in North America and Europe. Our objective was to evaluate hospitalization rates in children with IBD in the United States during the decade 2000 to 2009. We analyzed cases with a discharge diagnosis of Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) within the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. We identified 61,779 pediatric discharges with a diagnosis of IBD (CD, 39,451 cases; UC, 22,328 cases). The number of hospitalized children with IBD increased from 11,928 to 19,568 (incidence, 43.5-71.5 cases per 10,000 discharges per year; P < 0.001). For CD, the number increased from 7757 to 12,441 (incidence, 28.3-45.0; P < 0.001) and for UC, 4171 to 7127 (15.2-26.0; P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant increasing trend for pediatric hospitalizations with IBD, CD, and UC (P < 0.001). In addition, there was an increase in IBD-related complications and comorbid disease burden (P < 0.01). There was a significant increase in the number and incidence of hospitalized children with IBD in the United States from 2000 to 2009.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 06/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To provide a comprehensive review of the literature as it relates to diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In this article, we review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of diarrhea in SOT recipients and discuss recent advances and challenges. Methods: Two investigators conducted independent literature searches using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus until January 1st, 2013. All databases were searched using a combination of the terms diarrhea, solid organ transplant, SOT, transplant associated diarrhea, and transplant recipients. Articles that discussed diarrhea in SOT recipients were reviewed and relevant cross references also read and evaluated for inclusion. Selection bias could be a possible limitation of the approach used in selecting or finding articles for this article. Findings: Posttransplant diarrhea is a common and distressing occurrence in patients, which can have significant deleterious effects on the clinical course and well-being of the organ recipient. A majority of cases are due to infectious and drug-related etiologies. However, various other etiologies including inflammatory bowel disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis. A step-wise, informed approach to posttransplant diarrhea will help the clinician achieve the best diagnostic yield. The use of diagnostic endoscopy should be preceded by exclusion of an infectious or drug-related cause of diarrhea. Empiric management with antidiarrheal agents, probiotics, and lactose-free diets may have a role in managing patients for whom no cause can be determined even after an extensive investigation. Conclusions: Physicians should be familiar with the common etiologies that result in posttransplant diarrhea. A directed approach to diagnosis and treatment will not only help to resolve the diarrhea but also prevent potentially life-threatening consequences including loss of the graft as well. Prospective studies are required to determine the etiology of posttransplant diarrhea in different clinical and geographic settings.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 06/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Journal of clinical gastroenterology 06/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To provide a comprehensive review of the literature relating to Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) in the pediatric population. Methods: Two investigators conducted independent searches of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus until March 31st, 2013. All databases were searched using the terms Clostridium difficile, CDI, CDAD, antibiotic associated diarrhea, C. difficile in combination with Pediatric and Paediatric. Articles which discussed pediatric CDI were reviewed and relevant cross references also read and evaluated for inclusion. Selection bias could be a possible limitation of this approach. Findings: There is strong evidence for an increased incidence of pediatric CDI. Increasingly, the infection is being acquired from the community, often without a preceding history of antibiotic use. The severity of the disease has remained unchanged. Several medical conditions may be associated with the development of pediatric CDI. Infection prevention and control with antimicrobial stewardship are of paramount importance. It is important to consider the age of the child while testing for CDI. Traditional therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin remains the mainstay of treatment. Newer antibiotics such as fidaxomicin appear promising especially for the treatment of recurrent infection. Conservative surgical options may be a life-saving measure in severe or fulminant cases. Conclusions: Pediatric providers should be cognizant of the increased incidence of CDI in children. Early and judicious testing coupled with the timely institution of therapy will help to secure better outcomes for this disease.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 05/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic exposure is the most important risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Most evaluations of antimicrobial risk factors have been conducted in healthcare settings. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between antibiotic exposure and community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) (i.e. symptom onset in the community with no healthcare facility admission within 12 weeks) and to determine the classes of antibiotics posing the greatest risk. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases for subject headings and text words related to CA-CDI and antibiotics. Studies that investigated the risk of CA-CDI associated with antibiotic usage were considered eligible. Data from the identified studies were combined using a random-effects model and ORs were calculated. RESULTS: Of 910 citations identified, eight studies (n = 30 184 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Antibiotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of CA-CDI (OR 6.91, 95% CI 4.17-11.44, I(2) = 95%). The risk was greatest with clindamycin (OR 20.43, 95% CI 8.50-49.09) followed by fluoroquinolones (OR 5.65, 95% CI 4.38-7.28), cephalosporins (OR 4.47, 95% CI 1.60-12.50), penicillins (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.89-5.57), macrolides (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.91-3.39) and sulphonamides/trimethoprim (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.48-2.29). Tetracyclines were not associated with an increased CDI risk (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.57-1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic exposure was an important risk factor for CA-CDI, but the risk was different amongst different antibiotic classes. The risk was greatest with clindamycin followed by fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, whereas tetracyclines were not associated with an increased risk.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 04/2013; · 5.34 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) continues to increase in hospitalized pediatric patients, we evaluated data from a United States national inpatient database. For the period of 2003 to 2009, we found an increasing trend in the incidence of CDI. These data suggest greater effort be given to prevent and treat this infection in children.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 03/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), similar to adults, are at increased risk of acquiring a Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Our objective was to characterize the health care burden associated with CDI in hospitalized pediatric patients with IBD. METHODS:: We extracted and analyzed cases with a discharge diagnosis of IBD or CDI from the U.S. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database. RESULTS:: In our primary analysis, we evaluated pediatric cases with a principal diagnosis of IBD or CDI. For the year 2009, we identified 12,610 weighted cases with IBD of which 3.5% had CDI. In children with IBD, CDI was independently associated with lengthier hospital stays (8.0 versus 6.0 days; adjusted regression coefficient, 2.1 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.8), higher charges ($45,126 versus $34,703; adjusted regression coefficient, $11,506; 95% CI, 6192-16,820), and greater need for parenteral nutrition (15.9% versus 12.1%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) and blood transfusion (17.7% versus 9.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.4). There were no deaths. We made similar observations in a subanalysis of cases with principal or secondary diagnoses of IBD or CDI. The incidence of CDI in patients with IBD increased between 2000 and 2009 from 21.7 to 28.0 cases per 1000 IBD cases per year (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in CDI complicating ulcerative colitis (28.1 versus 42.2, P < 0.001) but not for Crohn's disease (18.3 versus 20.3). CONCLUSIONS:: CDI represents a significant health care burden in hospitalized children with IBD.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 03/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and H(2) -receptor antagonists (H(2) RA) are frequently prescribed in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. There are conflicting reports regarding the role of acid suppressive therapy in predisposing hospitalized patients with cirrhosis to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP).The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between acid-suppressive therapy and the risk of SBP in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and 4 other databases for subject headings and text words related to SBP and acid-suppressive therapy. All observational studies that investigated the risk of SBP associated with PPI/H2RA therapy and utilized SBP as an endpoint were considered eligible. Data from the identified studies were combined by means of a random-effects model and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. RESULTS: Eight studies (n=3,815 patients) met inclusion criteria. The risk of hospitalized cirrhotic patients developing SBP increased when using acid-suppressive therapy. The risk was greater with PPI therapy (n= 3,815; OR 3.15, 95% CI 2.09-4.74) as compared to those on H2RA therapy (n=562; OR 1.71, 95% CI 0.97- 3.01). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacologic acid-suppression was associated with a greater risk of SBP in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients receiving a PPI have approximately 3 times the risk of developing SBP compared to those not receiving this medication. Prospective studies may help clarify this relationship and shed light on the mechanism(s) by which acid-suppressive therapy increases the risk of SBP in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11/2012; · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dear Editor: We recognize the concerns raised by Drs Mahady and Webster in their letter to the editor. We agree that quality appraisal of individual studies is indeed important for any meta-analysis, and that the validity of the summary estimates depends on the quality of the included studies. We have now used the Newcastle–Ottawa scale1 to evaluate the 30 studies included in our original meta-analysis. When only high quality studies (score �7, n � 25) were analyzed separately, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy continued to be associated with a 2-fold increase in risk for Clostridium difficile infection (odds ratio (OR), 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87–2.69), and high heterogeneity persisted.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 09/2012; 10(9):1057-1058. · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. CDI is diagnosed by toxin enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on stool samples. An earlier study evaluating EIA in IBD patients with CDI suggested that more than one stool sample be tested to increase diagnostic yield. We investigated whether repeat stool testing improves diagnostic accuracy for CDI in hospitalized IBD patients compared to hospitalized patients with CDI and no IBD. Methods: We performed retrospective data analysis from January 2005-May 2011 on 63,086 hospitalized patients who were tested for CDI using EIA or PCR. Of these, 2579 patients had IBD. Transition probabilities were calculated based on results from repeated tests. Results: Inclusive of all inpatients tested for CDI, 56,583 were tested using toxin EIA and 6503 were tested using PCR. In patients with no IBD, the first stool sample tested was positive in 90% and 94% with EIA and PCR respectively. In IBD patients tested using EIA, 101 were diagnosed with CDI. The first stool sample tested was positive in 81% of patients. Successive second and third stool samples yielded additional 14% and 5% CDI positive IBD patients. Conclusions: Approximately one in five IBD patients with CDI required repeat testing to yield a positive result with EIA. There are minimal diagnostic gains of repeat testing by EIA or PCR in patients without IBD. We recommend repeat stool testing for CDI when using EIA to increase diagnostic yield in IBD patients.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 08/2012; 28(9):1553-60. · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diarrhea is a frequent and potentially severe complication in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. One of the most common infectious etiologies of diarrhea in these patients is Clostridium difficile. Our objective was to investigate the association of C. difficile infection (CDI) with the outcomes of hospitalized SOT patients. We extracted all adult cases with discharge diagnoses of SOT or CDI from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2009 database. We collected outcome variables (mortality, length of hospital stay [LOS], hospitalization charges, complications of the transplanted organ, and colectomy), demographic information, and comorbidity data for each of the cases. The data were evaluated using univariate and multiple variable regression analyses. We identified 49,198 cases with SOT of which 2.7% had CDI. Univariate comparisons of cases with SOT + CDI to those with SOT-only revealed significant differences in the evaluated outcomes including in-hospital mortality (7.4% vs. 2.4%, P < 0.001), LOS (median 9 days vs. 4 days, P < 0.001), charges (median $53,808 vs. $31,488, P < 0.001), organ complications (38.1% vs. 33.9%, P < 0.001), and colectomy (1.1% vs. 0.3%, P < 0.001). Using multiple variable regression analyses, in the SOT cohort (SOT-only and SOT + CDI), CDI was independently associated with greater mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22, 2.76, P < 0.001), longer LOS (difference 9.6 days, 95% CI = 9.3, 9.9, P < 0.001), higher charges (difference $69,647, 95% CI = $66,190, $73,104, P < 0.001), more complications of the transplanted organ (aOR 1.36, 95% CI = 1.28, 1.44, P < 0.001), and increased need for colectomy (aOR 3.10, 95% CI = 2.35, 4.08, P < 0.001). Our results demonstrate that CDI is associated with overall significantly worse outcomes in hospitalized patients with SOT.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 06/2012; 14(5):540-7. · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, there has been a growing epidemic of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). During this time, use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) has increased exponentially. We evaluated the association between PPI therapy and the risk of CDI by performing a meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE and 4 other databases for subject headings and text words related to CDI and PPI in articles published from 1990 to 2010. All observational studies that investigated the risk of CDI associated with PPI therapy and used CDI as an end point were considered eligible. Two investigators screened articles independently for inclusion criteria, data extraction, and quality assessment; disagreements were resolved based on consensus with a third investigator. Data were combined by means of a random-effects model and odds ratios were calculated. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed based on study design and antibiotic use. Thirty studies (25 case-control and 5 cohort) reported in 29 articles met the inclusion criteria (n = 202,965). PPI therapy increased the risk for CDI (odds ratio, 2.15, 95% confidence interval, 1.81-2.55), but there was significant heterogeneity in results among studies (P < .00001). This association remained after subgroup and sensitivity analyses, although significant heterogeneity persisted among studies. PPI therapy is associated with a 2-fold increase in risk for CDI. Because of the observational nature of the analyzed studies, we were not able to study the causes of this association. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms by which PPI therapy might increase risk for CDI.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 03/2012; 10(3):225-33. · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Article: Reply.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 02/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with the outcomes of hospitalized patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We extracted all adult cases with a discharge diagnosis of ESRD or CDI from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2009 database. Outcome variables (mortality, length of hospital stay [LOS], and hospitalization charges), demographic information, and comorbidity data were collected. Data were evaluated by univariate and multiple regression analyses. We identified 184,139 cases with ESRD of which 2.8% had CDI. Comparison of patients with ESRD + CDI to those with only ESRD revealed in-hospital mortality (13.2% vs 5.3%; P < 0.001), LOS (17.3 vs 7.1 days; P < 0.001), and charges ($124,846 vs $56,663; P < 0.001) to be more than 2-fold greater. In the ESRD cohort (ESRD only and ESRD + CDI), CDI was independently associated with greater mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 2.15; 95% CI, 2.07-2.24; P < 0.001), longer LOS (mean difference, 9.4 days; 95% CI, 9.2-9.5; P < 0.001), and higher charges (mean difference, $62,824; 95% CI, 61,615-64,033; P < 0.001). Clostridium difficile infection is associated with significantly worse outcomes in hospitalized patients with ESRD.
    Journal of Investigative Medicine 02/2012; 60(2):529-32. · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Article: Reply
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 01/2012; 10(9):1057-8.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rising incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection or CDI is now a problem of pandemic proportions. The NAP1 hypervirulent strain of C. difficile is responsible for a majority of recent epidemics and the widespread use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics may have facilitated the selective proliferation of this strain. The NAP1 strain also is more likely to cause severe and fulminant colitis characterized by marked leukocytosis, renal failure, hemodynamic instability, and toxic megacolon. No single test suffices to diagnose severe CDI, instead; the clinician must rely on a combination of clinical acumen, laboratory testing, and radiologic and endoscopic modalities. Although oral vancomycin and metronidazole are considered standard therapies in the medical management of CDI, recently it has been demonstrated that vancomycin is the more effective antibiotic in cases of severe disease. Moreover, early surgical consultation is necessary in patients who do not respond to medical therapy or who demonstrate rising white blood cell counts or hemodynamic instability indicative of fulminant colitis. Subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy is the procedure of choice for fulminant colitis. When applied to select patients in a judicious and timely fashion, surgery can be a life-saving intervention. In addition to these therapeutic approaches, several investigational treatments including novel antibiotics, fecal bacteriotherapy and immunotherapy have shown promise in the care of patients with severe CDI.
    European Journal of Internal Medicine 12/2011; 22(6):561-8. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current detection methods for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can be time-consuming and have variable sensitivities. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may allow earlier and more accurate diagnosis of CDI than other currently available diagnostic tests. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR. We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed/Ovid) and 4 other online electronic databases (1995-2010) to identify diagnostic accuracy studies that compared PCR with cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCCNA) or anaerobic toxigenic culture (TC) of C. difficile. Screening for inclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment were carried out independently by 2 investigators and disagreements resolved. Data were combined by means of a random-effects model, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves and diagnostic odds ratios were calculated. Nineteen studies (7392 samples) met our inclusion criteria. The overall mean sensitivity of PCR was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88%-91%), specificity 96% (CI: 96%-97%), positive likelihood ratio 26.89 (CI: 20.81-34.74), negative likelihood ratio 0.11 (CI: .08-.15), diagnostic odds ratio 278.23 (CI: 213.56-362.50), and area under the curve 0.98 (CI: .98-.99). Test accuracy depended on the prevalence of C. difficile but not on the reference test used. At C. difficile prevalence of <10%, 10%-20% and >20% the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 71%, 79%, 93% and 99%, 98% and 96%, respectively. Real-time PCR has a high sensitivity and specificity to confirm CDI. Overall diagnostic accuracy is variable and depends on CDI prevalence.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 10/2011; 53(7):e81-90. · 9.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

108 Citations
882 Downloads
3k Views
89.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2013
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Medicine (University Hospitals Case Medical Center)
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • Cleveland Clinic
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Oklahoma City, OK, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Barrow Neurological Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport
      • School of Medicine
      Shreveport, Louisiana, United States
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Medicine
      Baton Rouge, LA, United States