[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelin (ET-1) is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors and plays a seminal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that long-term treatment with an endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist improves coronary endothelial function in patients with early coronary atherosclerosis.
Forty-seven patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, nonobstructive coronary artery disease, and coronary endothelial dysfunction were randomized in a double-blind manner to either the ET(A) receptor antagonist atrasentan (10 mg) or placebo for 6 months. Coronary endothelium-dependent vasodilation was examined by infusing acetylcholine (10(-6) to 10(-4) mol/L) in the left anterior descending coronary artery. N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine was administered to a subgroup of patients. Endothelium-independent coronary flow reserve was examined by use of intracoronary adenosine and nitroglycerin. Baseline characteristics and incidence of adverse effects were similar between the 2 groups. There was a significant improvement in percent change of coronary blood flow in response to acetylcholine at 6 months from baseline in the atrasentan group compared with the placebo group (39.67%, 95% confidence interval 23.23% to 68.21%, versus -2.22%, 95% confidence interval -27.37% to 15.28%; P<0.001). No significant difference in the percent change of coronary artery diameter or change in coronary flow reserve was demonstrated. Coronary blood flow, coronary artery diameter, and the effect of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine were similar between the groups at baseline and at 6 months.
This study demonstrates that 6-month treatment with atrasentan improves coronary microvascular endothelial function and supports the role of the endogenous endothelin system in the regulation of endothelial function in early atherosclerosis in humans. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00271492.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is growing need for the identification of novel non-invasive methodologies for the identification of individuals at risk for adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. We examined whether endothelial dysfunction, as detected by non-invasive peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT), can predict late CV events.
Reactive hyperaemia (RH) was induced following upper arm occlusion of systolic blood pressure in 270 outpatients (54 +/- 12 years, 48% female). The natural logarithmic scaled RH index (L_RHI) was calculated from the ratio between the digital pulse volume during RH and at baseline. The patients were followed for CV adverse events (AE: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, revascularization or cardiac hospitalization) during a 7-year follow-up (inter-quartile range = 4.4-8). Cox models were used to estimate the association of EndoPAT results with AE adjusted for age. During the follow-up, AE occurred in 86 patients (31%). Seven-year AE rate was 48% in patients with L_RHI < 0.4 vs. 28% in those with L_RHI >or= 0.4 (P = 0.03). Additional univariate predictors of AE were advancing age (P = 0.02) and prior coronary bypass surgery (P = 0.01). The traditional Framingham risk score was not higher in patients with AE. Multivariate analysis identified L_RHI < 0.4 as an independent predictor of AE (P = 0.03).
A low RH signal detected by EndoPAT, consistent with endothelial dysfunction, was associated with higher AE rate during follow-up. L_RHI was an independent predictor of AE. Non-invasive assessment of peripheral vascular function may be useful for the identification of patients at risk for cardiac AEs.
European Heart Journal 02/2010; 31(9):1142-8. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and hemodynamic and metabolic responses to 6 months treatment with atrasentan, the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist. Seventy-two patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and nonobstructive coronary artery disease on coronary angiogram were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to atrasentan or placebo. Mean aortic blood pressure decreased from 92+/-10 to 80+/-10 mm Hg (P<0.001) in the atrasentan group and did not change in the placebo group (93+/-10 and 92+/-11 mm Hg; P=0.84). The difference between the groups was significant (P<0.001). No effect on heart rate was observed. In a subgroup of patients not treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, creatinine level decreased in the atrasentan versus the placebo group (P=0.011). Fasting glucose (P=0.026), glycosylated hemoglobin level (P=0.041), triglyceride l (P=0.013), lipoprotein-A (P=0.046), and uric acid levels (P=0.048) decreased significantly in the atrasentan group compared with the placebo group. No progression of angiographic coronary disease was observed. The most common adverse effects with atrasentan were nasal stuffiness, headache, and edema. In conclusion, 6 months of treatment with atrasentan results in a reduction of blood pressure and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest the beneficial role of atrasentan in the treatment of hypertension and metabolic syndrome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary endothelial dysfunction (CED) precedes atherosclerosis and is associated with cardiovascular events. Both CED and erectile dysfunction (ED) are partly mediated by impairment in the nitric oxide pathway. ED is associated with established coronary atherosclerosis, but its relationship with early coronary atherosclerosis and CED is unknown. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CED is associated with ED in men with early coronary atherosclerosis. Moreover, the role of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was investigated; ADMA is a novel endogenous competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and has been shown to be an independent marker for cardiovascular disease.
Fifty-six men without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent coronary endothelial function testing were studied. ADMA levels were determined and all men were asked to complete the International Index of Erectile Function-5 questionnaire to assess erectile function. Patients were divided according to the presence (n = 32) or absence (n = 24) of CED. Men with CED had significant impairment of erectile function (P = 0.008) and significantly higher ADMA levels (0.50 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.07 ng/mL, P = 0.017) compared with men with normal endothelial function. Erectile function positively correlated with coronary endothelial function. This correlation was independent of age, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, and smoking status.
CED is independently associated with ED and plasma ADMA concentration in men with early coronary atherosclerosis. This study further supports the role of the endothelium in systemic vascular diseases and the role of ADMA in the systemic manifestations of endothelial dysfunction.
European Heart Journal 05/2006; 27(7):824-31. · 14.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction and is a predictor of endothelial dysfunction in humans.
Patients (172) with no significant coronary artery disease (<30% stenosis) undergoing assessment of coronary endothelial function were studied. Endothelial function was assessed by the change in coronary blood flow and coronary artery diameter in response to intracoronary acetylcholine. Plasma concentrations of Lp-PLA2 were measured, and patients were divided into tertiles. Patients in tertiles 2 and 3 had a significantly lower change in coronary blood flow (63.8+/-73.2 and 32.0+/-71.7 versus 78.4+/-73.2%; P<0.001) and greater epicardial coronary artery vasoconstriction (-14.1+/-14.7 and -23.3+/-25.1 versus -9.5+/-15.2% mean diameter change; P<0.001) in response to acetylcholine. Patients with coronary endothelial dysfunction had significantly higher serum concentrations of Lp-PLA2 than those with normal endothelial function (246.2+/-71.6 versus 209+/-56.7 ng/mL; P=0.001). The odds ratio for coronary endothelial dysfunction in patients with Lp-PLA2 in the highest tertile was 3.3 (95% CI, 1.6 to 6.6).
Lp-PLA2 is independently associated with coronary artery endothelial dysfunction and is a strong predictor of endothelial dysfunction in humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the difference in endothelial function between premenopausal and postmenopausal women and to determine whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an improvement in coronary endothelial function.
Women undergoing coronary physiology studies for chest pain at the Mayo Clinic In Rochester, Minn, between December 1992 and April 2002 underwent assessment of coronary endothelium-independent and -dependent function with intracoronary administration of adenosine and acetylcholine, respectively. The coronary diameters, coronary blood flows, and coronary velocity reserves were measured.
A total of 270 women (89 premenopausal and 181 postmenopausal) participated in the study. Endothelium-dependent coronary blood flow change (baseline to peak flow) in response to acetylcholine (10(-4), 10(-5), and 10(-4) mol/L) was lower in postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women (39.7% vs 72.9%, P = .03). There was no significant difference between the postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving HRT with regard to percent change in coronary diameter (-21.8% vs -13.9%, P = .15), percent change in coronary blood flow (37.3% vs 42.7%, P = .74), or coronary velocity reserve (2.7 vs 2.7, P = .82).
This study shows that the postmenopausal state is associated with a greater abnormality in coronary endothelial function at the level of the microcirculation. Moreover, HRT status was not associated with an improvement in coronary endothelial function in postmenopausal women.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 01/2005; 79(12):1514-20. · 5.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the value of reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) as a noninvasive tool to identify individuals with coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction.
Coronary endothelial dysfunction, a systemic disorder, represents an early stage of atherosclerosis; RH-PAT is a technique to assess peripheral microvascular endothelial function.
Using RH-PAT, digital pulse volume changes during reactive hyperemia were assessed in 94 patients without obstructive coronary artery disease and either normal (n = 39) or abnormal (n = 55) coronary microvascular endothelial function; RH-PAT index, a measure of reactive hyperemia, was calculated as the ratio of the digital pulse volume during reactive hyperemia divided by that at baseline.
Average RH-PAT index was lower in patients with coronary endothelial dysfunction compared with those with normal coronary endothelial function (1.27 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.78 +/- 0.08: p < 0.001). An RH-PAT index <1.35 was found to have a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 85% to identify patients with coronary endothelial dysfunction.
Digital hyperemic response, as measured by RH-PAT, is attenuated in patients with coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction, suggesting a role for RH-PAT as a noninvasive test to identify patients with this disorder.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2005; 44(11):2137-41. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary endothelial dysfunction may potentially lead to myocardial ischemia and to the progression of heart failure. Though endothelial dysfunction is associated with advanced heart failure in humans, relatively little is known regarding their temporal relationship. Thus, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that coronary endothelial dysfunction is present in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.
Three hundred patients without symptoms of heart failure, with normal or mildly diseased coronary arteries at angiography underwent coronary vascular reactivity evaluation using intracoronary adenosine, acetylcholine (ACH) and nitroglycerin. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF): patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (ALVD), EF <45% (n = 11); and patients with EF > or =45% (n = 289, controls). Except for a lower high-density lipoprotein level in patients with ALVD, there were no significant differences between the groups in regards to conventional cardiovascular risk factors. There was no difference in the change (mean +/- SE) in epicardial diameter in response to ACH (-21.7% +/- 7.2% vs -13.8% +/- 1.5%, P =.3). The change in coronary blood flow in response to ACH was significantly attenuated in the patients with ALVD when compared to the controls (-18.5% +/- 14.9% vs 74.0% +/- 7.2%, P <.013). By multivariate analysis, EF was an independent predictor of coronary microvascular dilation with ACH (P <.001).
The current study demonstrates that coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction is present in ALVD. Thus, coronary endothelial dysfunction may be an early event in the pathophysiology of heart failure.
American heart journal 09/2003; 146(3):549-54. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke, mainly attributable to atherothrombotic disease, represents a leading cause of disability and death in the Western world. Endothelial dysfunction, which is considered a key factor in atherogenesis, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, the magnitude of the association between coronary endothelial dysfunction (CED) and cerebrovascular events is unknown. This study was performed to investigate the association between CED and cerebrovascular events.
We studied 503 patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent coronary endothelial function testing by intracoronary acetylcholine infusion. Patients were divided according to the presence (n=305) or absence (n=198) of CED, and medical records were examined for the occurrence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or transient ischemic attack either before (prevalent) or after (incident) coronary endothelial function testing. Among the study population, a total of 25 cerebrovascular events were documented, 22 in patients with CED (15 prevalent) and 3 in patients without (all prevalent) (P=0.008). Multivariable logistic regression, which included traditional cerebrovascular disease-related risk factors, identified the presence of CED as the single strongest factor associated with cerebrovascular events (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.26 to 14.83). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with CED had a significantly higher cumulative cerebrovascular event rate than those without (P=0.04).
Presence of CED in patients without obstructive CAD is independently associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular events. Thus, detection of this early stage of atherosclerosis may provide important information to identify patients who benefit from aggressive preventive strategies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to examine the effect of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) on endothelial function.
Enhanced external counterpulsation improves symptoms and exercise tolerance in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the exact mechanisms by which this technique exerts its clinical benefit are unclear.
Reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT), a noninvasive method to assess peripheral endothelial function by measuring reactive hyperemic response in the finger, was performed in 23 patients with refractory angina undergoing a 35-h course of EECP. In each patient RH-PAT measurements were performed before and after the first, at midcourse, and the last EECP session. In addition, RH-PAT response was assessed one month after completion of EECP therapy; RH-PAT index, a measure of reactive hyperemia, was calculated as the ratio of the digital pulse volume during reactive hyperemia divided by that at rest.
Enhanced external counterpulsation led to symptomatic improvement (>/=1 Canadian Cardiovascular Society class) in 17 (74%) patients; EECP was associated with a significant immediate increase in average RH-PAT index after each treatment (p < 0.05). In addition, average RH-PAT index at one-month follow-up was significantly higher than that before EECP therapy (p < 0.05). When patients were divided by their clinical response, RH-PAT index at one-month follow-up increased only in those patients who experienced clinical benefit.
Enhanced external counterpulsation enhances peripheral endothelial function with beneficial effects persisting at one-month follow-up in patients with a positive clinical response. This suggests that improvement in endothelial function may contribute to the clinical benefit of EECP in patients with symptomatic CAD.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/2003; 41(10):1761-8. · 14.09 Impact Factor