Are you Jennifer A Gormley?

Claim your profile

Publications (3)7.74 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Janus kinases (JAKs) are critical regulators of cytokine pathways and attractive targets of therapeutic value in both inflammatory and myeloproliferative diseases. Although the crystal structures of active JAK1 and JAK2 kinase domains have been reported recently with the clinical compound CP-690550, the structures of both TYK2 and JAK3 with CP-690550 have remained outstanding. Here, we report the crystal structures of TYK2, a first in class structure, and JAK3 in complex with PAN-JAK inhibitors CP-690550 ((3R,4R)-3-[4-methyl-3-[N-methyl-N-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino]piperidin-1-yl]-3-oxopropionitrile) and CMP-6 (tetracyclic pyridone 2-t-butyl-9-fluoro-3,6-dihydro-7H-benz[h]-imidaz[4,5-f]isoquinoline-7-one), both of which bind in the ATP-binding cavities of both JAK isozymes in orientations similar to that observed in crystal structures of JAK1 and JAK2. Additionally, a complete thermodynamic characterization of JAK/CP-690550 complex formation was completed by isothermal titration calorimetry, indicating the critical role of the nitrile group from the CP-690550 compound. Finally, computational analysis using WaterMap further highlights the critical positioning of the CP-690550 nitrile group in the displacement of an unfavorable water molecule beneath the glycine-rich loop. Taken together, the data emphasize the outstanding properties of the kinome-selective JAK inhibitor CP-690550, as well as the challenges in obtaining JAK isozyme-selective inhibitors due to the overall structural and sequence similarities between the TYK2, JAK1, JAK2 and JAK3 isozymes. Nevertheless, subtle amino acid variations of residues lining the ligand-binding cavity of the JAK enzymes, as well as the global positioning of the glycine-rich loop, might provide the initial clues to obtaining JAK-isozyme selective inhibitors.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 07/2010; 400(3):413-33. · 3.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Janus kinase family consists of four members: JAK-1, -2, -3 and TYK-2. While JAK-2 and JAK-3 have been well characterized biochemically, there is little data on TYK-2. Recent work suggests that TYK-2 may play a critical role in the development of a number of inflammatory processes. We have carried out a series of biochemical studies to better understand TYK-2 enzymology and its inhibition profile, in particular how the TYK-2 phosphorylated forms differ from each other and from the other JAK family members. We have expressed and purified milligram quantities of the TYK-2 kinase domain (KD) to high purity and developed a method to separate the non-, mono- (pY(1054)) and di-phosphorylated forms of the enzyme. Kinetic studies (k(cat(app))/K(m(app))) indicated that phosphorylation of the TYK-2-KD (pY(1054)) increased the catalytic efficiency 4.4-fold compared to its non-phosphorylated form, while further phosphorylation to generate the di-phosphorylated enzyme imparted no further increase in activity. These results are in contrast to those obtained with the JAK-2-KD and JAK-3-KD, where little or no increase in activity occurred upon mono-phosphorylation, while di-phosphorylation resulted in a 5.1-fold increase in activity for the JAK-2-KD. Moreover, ATP-competitive inhibitors demonstrated 10-30-fold shifts in potency (K(i(app))) as a result of the TYK-2-KD phosphorylation state, while the shifts for JAK-3-KD were only 2-3-fold and showed little or no change for JAK-2-KD. Thus, the phosphorlyation state imparted differential effects on both activity and inhibition within the JAK family of kinases.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2010; 396(2):543-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Janus-associated kinases (JAKs) play critical roles in cytokine signaling, and have emerged as viable therapeutic targets in inflammation and oncology related diseases. To date, targeting JAK proteins with highly selective inhibitor compounds have remained elusive. We have expressed the active kinase domains for both JAK2 and JAK3 and devised purification protocols to resolve the non-, mono- (Y1007) and diphosphorylated (Y1007 and Y1008) states of JAK2 and non- and monophosphorylated states of JAK3 (Y980). An optimal purified protein yield of 20, 29 and 69mg per 20L cell culture was obtained for the three JAK2 forms, respectively, and 12.2 and 2.3mg per 10L fermentation for the two JAK3 forms allowing detailed biochemical and biophysical studies. To monitor the purification process we developed a novel HPLC activity assay where a sequential order of phosphorylation was observed whereby the first tyrosine residue was completely phosphorylated prior to phosphorylation of the tandem tyrosine residue. A Caliper-based microfluidics assay was used to determine the kinetic parameters (K(m) and k(cat)) for each phosphorylated state, showing that monophosphorylated (Y1007) JAK2 enzyme activity increased 9-fold over that of the nonphosphorylated species, and increased an additional 6-fold for the diphosphorylated (Y1007/Y1008) species, while phosphorylation of JAK3 resulted in a negligible increase in activity. Moreover, crystal structures have been generated for each isolated state of JAK2 and JAK3 with resolutions better than 2.4A. The generation of these reagents has enabled kinetic and structural characterization to inform the design of potent and selective inhibitors of the JAK family.
    Protein Expression and Purification 09/2009; 69(1):54-63. · 1.43 Impact Factor