[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of body fluids found at crime scenes provides important information that can support a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. Previous studies have reported that DNA methylation analysis at several tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) enables successful identification of semen, and the detection of certain bacterial DNA can allow for identification of saliva and vaginal fluid. In the present study, a method for detecting bacterial DNA was integrated into a previously reported multiplex methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-polymerase chain reaction. The developed multiplex PCR was modified by the addition of a new semen-specific marker and by including amplicons for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of saliva- and vaginal fluid-specific bacteria to improve the efficacy to detect a specific type of body fluid. Using the developed multiplex system, semen was distinguishable by unmethylation at the USP49, DACT1, and PFN3 tDMRs and by hypermethylation at L81528, and saliva could be identified by detection of saliva-specific bacteria, Veillonella atypica and/or Streptococcus salivarius. Additionally, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood were differentiated from other body fluids by hypomethylation at the PFN3 tDMR and the presence of vaginal fluid-specific bacteria, Lactobacillus crispatus and/or Lactobacillus gasseri. Because the developed multiplex system uses the same biological source of DNA for individual identification profiling and simultaneously analyses various types of body fluid in one PCR reaction, this method will facilitate more efficient body fluid identification in forensic casework.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 09/2013; · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a valuable tool in the fields of forensic, population, and medical genetics. However, recording and comparing mtDNA control region or entire genome sequences would be difficult if researchers are not familiar with mtDNA nomenclature conventions. Therefore, mtDNAprofiler, a Web application, was designed for the analysis and comparison of mtDNA sequences in a string format or as a list of mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs). mtDNAprofiler which comprises four mtDNA sequence-analysis tools (mtDNA nomenclature, mtDNA assembly, mtSNP conversion, and mtSNP concordance-check) supports not only the accurate analysis of mtDNA sequences via an automated nomenclature function, but also consistent management of mtSNP data via direct comparison and validity-check functions. Since mtDNAprofiler consists of four tools that are associated with key steps of mtDNA sequence analysis, mtDNAprofiler will be helpful for researchers working with mtDNA. mtDNAprofiler is freely available at http://mtprofiler.yonsei.ac.kr.
Journal of Forensic Sciences 05/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reports on the forensic parameters of 30 insertion-deletion polymorphisms (Indels) (Investigator DIPplex® kit) in 100 individuals from a Korean population. The match probability ranged from 0.353 to 0.789, and the combined power of discrimination reached 0.99999999995. The DIPplex® kit is more discriminative in Koreans than six COfiler® short tandem repeats (STRs), but less discriminative than nine Profiler Plus® STRs. This study further demonstrated that some Indels in the DIPplex® kit could be used as Asian ancestry informative markers through a comparison with other population data.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 03/2013; · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems (Midiplex and Miniplex) were developed for the amplification of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and the efficiencies of the multiplexes for amplifying degraded DNA were validated using old skeletal remains. The Midiplex system consisted of two multiplex PCRs to amplify six overlapping amplicons ranging in length from 227 to 267 bp. The Miniplex system consisted of three multiplex PCRs to amplify 10 overlapping short amplicons ranging in length from 142 to 185 bp. Most mtDNA control region sequences of several 60-year-old and 400-500-year-old skeletal remains were successfully obtained using both PCR systems and consistent with those previously obtained by monoplex amplification. The multiplex system consisting of smaller amplicons is effective for mtDNA sequence analyses of ancient and forensic degraded samples, saving time, cost, and the amount of DNA sample consumed during analysis.
Journal of Forensic Sciences 02/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework. [BMB Reports 2012; 45(10): 545-553].
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup typing has become an essential tool to study human evolutionary history and to infer the matrilineal bio-geographic ancestry. In forensic field, the screening of mtDNA haplogroups by genotyping of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can help guarantee the quality of mtDNA sequence data as well as can reduce the need to sequence samples that do not match. Here, a multiplex mutagenically separated (MS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for simultaneous rapid detection of 14 coding region SNPs and one deletion motif representing common mtDNA haplogroups of East Asia. The multiplex MS PCR system we developed has the advantage of being a one step procedure that requires only a single PCR amplification with allele-specific primers and allowing straightforward designation of haplogroups along the branches of the phylogenetic tree. Therefore, it would be a simple, rapid, and reliable detection method useful for large-scale screening of mtDNA variations to determine East Asian mtDNA haplogroups.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four multiplex PCR systems followed by single base extension reactions were developed to score 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and identify the most frequent East Asian Y chromosome haplogroups. Select Y chromosome SNPs allowed hierarchical testing for almost all of the major East Asian haplogroups along the revised Y chromosome tree. The first multiplex consists of six SNPs defining world-wide major haplogroups (M145, RPS4Y(711), M89, M9, M214, and M175). The second multiplex includes six SNPs of subhaplogroup O (M119, P31, M95, SRY(465), 47z, and M122). The third multiplex contains six SNPs that subdivide the subhaplogroup O3 (M324, P201, M159, M7, M134, and M133). The fourth multiplex comprises four SNPs of subhaplogroup C (M217, M48, M407, and P53.1). The sizes of the PCR amplicons ranged from 70 to 100bp to facilitate their application to degraded forensic and ancient samples. Validation experiments demonstrated that the multiplexes were optimized for analysis of low template DNA and highly degraded DNA. In a test using DNA samples from 300 Korean males, 16 different Y chromosome haplogroups were identified; haplogroup O2b* was the most frequently observed (29.3%), followed by haplogroups C3 (xC3c, C3d, C3e) (16.0%) and O3a3c1 (11.0%). These multiplex sets will be useful tools for Y-chromosomal haplogroup determination in anthropological and forensic studies of East Asian populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in whole-genome epigenetic analysis indicate that chromosome segments called tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) show different DNA methylation profiles according to cell or tissue type. Therefore, body fluid-specific differential DNA methylation is a promising indicator for body fluid identification. However, DNA methylation patterns are susceptible to change in response to environmental factors and aging. Therefore, we investigated age-related methylation changes in semen-specific tDMRs using body fluids from young and elderly men. After confirming the stability of the body fluid-specific DNA methylation profile over time, two different multiplex PCR systems were constructed using methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme PCR and methylation SNaPshot, in order to analyze the methylation status of specific CpG sites from the USP49, DACT1, PRMT2, and PFN3 tDMRs. Both multiplex systems could successfully identify semen with spermatozoa and could differentiate menstrual blood and vaginal fluids from blood and saliva. Although including more markers for body fluid identification might be necessary, this study adds to the support that body fluid identification by DNA methylation profiles could be a valuable tool for forensic analysis of body fluids.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 06/2012; · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a molecular characterization of Korean Y-chromosomal haplogroups using a combination of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs). In a test using DNA samples from 706 Korean males, a total of 19 different haplogroups were identified by 26 Y-SNPs including the newly redefined markers (PK4, KL2, and P164) in haplogroup O. When genotyping the SNPs, phylogenetic nonequivalence was found between SNPs M117 and M133, which define haplogroup O3a3c1 (O3a2c1a according to the updated tree of haplogroup O by Yan et al. (European Journal of Human Genetics 19:1013-1015, 2011)), suggesting that the position of the M133 marker should be corrected. We have shown that the haplotypes consisted of DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448, and DYS388 loci, which exhibit a relatively lower mutation rate, can preserve phylogenetic information and hence can be used to roughly distinguish Y-chromosome haplogroups, whereas more rapidly mutating Y-STRs such as DYS449 and DYS458 are useful for differentiating male lineages. However, at the relatively rapidly mutating DYS447, DYS449, DYS458, and DYS464 loci, unusually short alleles and intermediate alleles with common sequence structures are informative for elucidating the substructure within the context of a particular haplogroup. In addition, some deletion mutations in the DYS385 flanking region and the null allele at DYS448 were associated with a single haplogroup background. These high-resolution haplogroup and haplotype data will improve our understanding of regional Y-chromosome variation or recent migration routes and will also help to infer haplogroup background or common ancestry.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 05/2012; 126(4):589-99. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large number of short tandem repeat (STR) markers spanning the entire human X chromosome have been described and established for use in forensic genetic testing. Due to their particular mode of inheritance, X-STRs often allow easy and informative haplotyping in kinship analyses. Moreover, some X-STRs are known to be tightly linked so that, in combination, they constitute even more complex genetic markers than each STR taken individually. As a consequence, X-STRs have proven particularly powerful in solving complex cases of disputed blood relatedness. However, valid quantification of the evidence provided by X-STR genotypes in the form of likelihood ratios requires that the recombination rates between markers are exactly known. In a collaborative family study, we used X-STR genotype data from 401 two- and three-generation families to derive valid estimates of the recombination rates between 12 forensic markers widely used in forensic testing, namely DXS10148, DXS10135, DXS8378 (together constituting linkage group I), DXS7132, DXS10079, DXS10074 (linkage group II), DXS10103, HPRTB, DXS10101 (linkage group III), DXS10146, DXS10134 and DXS7423 (linkage group IV). Our study is the first to simultaneously allow for mutation and recombination in the underlying likelihood calculations, thereby obviating the bias-prone practice of excluding ambiguous transmission events from further consideration. The statistical analysis confirms that linkage groups I and II are transmitted independently from one another whereas linkage groups II, III and IV are characterised by inter-group recombination fractions that are notably smaller than 50%. Evidence was also found for recombination within all four linkage groups, with recombination fraction estimates ranging as high as 2% in the case of DXS10146 and DXS10134.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copy number variation (CNV) is a common chromosomal alteration that can occur during in vitro cultivation of human cells and can be accompanied by the accumulation of mutations in coding region sequences. We describe here a systematic application of current molecular technologies to provide a detailed understanding of genomic and sequence profiles of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines that were derived under GMP-compliant conditions. We first examined the overall chromosomal integrity using cytogenetic techniques to determine chromosome count, and to detect the presence of cytogenetically aberrant cells in the culture (mosaicism). Assays of copy number variation, using both microarray and sequence-based analyses, provide a detailed view genomic variation in these lines and shows that in early passage cultures of these lines, the size range and distribution of CNVs are entirely consistent with those seen in the genomes of normal individuals. Similarly, genome sequencing shows variation within these lines that is completely within the range seen in normal genomes. Important gene classes, such as tumor suppressors and genetic disease genes, do not display overtly disruptive mutations that could affect the overall safety of cell-based therapeutics. Complete sequence also allows the analysis of important transplantation antigens, such as ABO and HLA types. The combined application of cytogenetic and molecular technologies provides a detailed understanding of genomic and sequence profiles of GMP produced ES lines for potential use as therapeutic agents.
Stem cell research 03/2012; 8(2):154-64. · 3.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA analysis of various body fluid stains at crime scenes facilitates the identification of individuals but does not currently determine the type and origin of the biological material. Recent advances in whole genome epigenetic analysis indicate that chromosome pieces called tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) show different DNA methylation profiles according to the type of cell or tissue. We examined the potential of tissue-specific differential DNA methylation for body fluid identification. Five tDMRs for the genes DACT1, USP49, HOXA4, PFN3, and PRMT2 were selected, and DNA methylation profiles for these tDMRs were produced by bisulfite sequencing using pooled DNA from blood, saliva, semen, menstrual blood, and vaginal fluid. The tDMRs for DACT1 and USP49 showed semen-specific hypomethylation, and the tDMRs for HOXA4, PFN3, and PRMT2 displayed varying degrees of methylation according to the type of body fluid. Preliminary tests using methylation-specific PCR for the DACT1 and USP49 tDMRs showed that these two markers could be used successfully to identify semen samples including sperm cells. Body fluid-specific differential DNA methylation may be a promising indicator for body fluid identification. Because DNA methylation profiling uses the same biological source of DNA for individual identification profiling, the determination of more body fluid-specific tDMRs and the development of convenient tDMR analysis methods will facilitate the broad implementation of body fluid identification in forensic casework.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 04/2011; 126(1):55-62. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many different molecular typing methods have been reported to complement routine serological ABO blood typing in forensics. However, these ABO genotyping methods are often time-consuming and call for an initial DNA isolation step that requires the use of expensive kits or reagents. We report here a rapid direct ABO genotyping method that eliminates the need for DNA extraction from fresh blood, hair, and body fluid stains before PCR. Using a fast PCR instrument and an optimized polymerase, the genotyping method-which employs a multiplex allele-specific primer set for the simultaneous detection of three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites (nucleotides 261, 526, and 803)-identifies A, B, O01/O02, O03, and cis-AB01 alleles in around 70 min from sample collection to electropherogram. Not only will this ABO genotyping method be efficiently used in forensic practice for rapid screening of samples before full-blown multilocus short tandem repeat profiling, but it will also demonstrate an example of rapid direct genotyping of SNPs that offers the advantages of time- and cost-efficiency, convenience, and reduced contamination during DNA analysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete mitochondrial control region data were generated for 230 unrelated Pathans from North West Frontier Province and Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. To confirm data quality and to explore the genetic structure of Pathans, mitochondrial DNA haplogroup affiliation was determined by shared haplogroup-specific polymorphisms in the control region and by the analysis of diagnostic coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a multiplex system for the assignment of eight haplogroups: M, N1'5, W, R, R0, T, J, and U. Sequence comparison revealed that 193 haplotypes were defined by 215 variable sites when major insertions were ignored at nucleotide positions 16193, 309, and 573. From a phylogenetic perspective, Pathans have a heterogeneous origin, displaying a high percentage of West Eurasian haplogroups followed by haplogroups native to South Asia and a small fraction from East Asian lineages. In population comparisons, this ethnic group differed significantly from several other ethnic groups from Pakistan and surrounding countries. These results suggest that frequency estimates for mtDNA haplotypes should be determined for endogamous ethnic groups individually instead of pooling data for these subpopulations into a single dataset for the Pakistani population. Data presented here may contribute to the accuracy of forensic mtDNA comparisons in the Pathans of Pakistan.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 12/2010; 125(6):841-8. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accuracy of forensic age estimation based on the chronology of second (M2) and third molar (M3) development was investigated using 2,087 orthopantomograms of Korean men and women aged between 3 and 23 years. The developmental stages of M2s and M3s in these subjects were classified using the criteria of Demirjian. Inter-observer reliability and statistical data on each stage of mineralization of M2s and M3s were evaluated. The left-right symmetries of the maturation degrees in the M2s and M3s were observed in both sexes, between which no arch differences were found, but statistically significant sex-specific differences were observed in some stages of M2 and M3 development. In multiple regression analysis, a strong positive relationship was observed between age and mineralization of M2s and M3s. The regression formulas for estimating the age of Koreans were presented based on sex and combination of teeth. These results suggest that the developments of second and third molars can be considered as valuable age indicators in Korean adolescents and young adults.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 11/2010; 124(6):659-65. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of missing casualties of the Korean War (1950-1953) has been performed using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles, but recent advances in DNA extraction techniques and approaches using smaller amplicons have significantly increased the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles from highly degraded skeletal remains. Therefore, 21 skeletal remains of Korean War victims and 24 samples from biological relatives of the supposed victims were selected based on circumstantial evidence and/or mtDNA-matching results and were analyzed to confirm the alleged relationship. Cumulative likelihood ratios were obtained from autosomal short tandem repeat, Y-chromosomal STR, and mtDNA-genotyping results, and mainly confirmed the alleged relationship with values over 10⁵. The present analysis emphasizes the value of mini- and Y-STR systems as well as an efficient DNA extraction method in DNA testing for the identification of old skeletal remains.
Journal of Forensic Sciences 04/2010; 55(6):1422-9. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two Korean mummies (Danwoong-mirra and Yoon-mirra) found in medieval tombs in the central region of the Korean peninsula were genetically investigated by analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) and the ABO gene. Danwoong-mirra is a male child mummy and Yoon-mirra is a pregnant female mummy, dating back about 550 and 450 years, respectively. DNA was extracted from soft tissues or bones. mtDNA, Y-STR and the ABO gene were amplified using a small size amplicon strategy and were analyzed according to the criteria of ancient DNA analysis to ensure that authentic DNA typing results were obtained from these ancient samples. Analysis of mtDNA hypervariable region sequence and coding region single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information revealed that Danwoong-mirra and Yoon-mirra belong to the East Asian mtDNA haplogroups D4 and M7c, respectively. The Y-STRs were analyzed in the male child mummy (Danwoong-mirra) using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit and an in-house Y-miniplex plus system, and could be characterized in 4 loci with small amplicon size. The analysis of ABO gene SNPs using multiplex single base extension methods revealed that the ABO blood types of Danwoong-mirra and Yoon-mirra are AO01 and AB, respectively. The small size amplicon strategy and the authentication process in the present study will be effectively applicable to future genetic analyses of various forensic and ancient samples.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recovery of DNA data from old skeletal remains is often difficult due to degraded and very low yield of extracted DNA and the presence of PCR inhibitors. Herein, we compared several silica-based DNA extraction methods from artificially degraded DNA, DNA with PCR inhibitors and DNA from old skeletal remains using quantitative real-time PCR. We present a modified large-scale silica-based extraction combined with complete demineralization, that enables maximum DNA recovery and efficient elimination of PCR inhibitors. This is performed with high concentration of EDTA solution for demineralization of bone powder followed by QIAamp spin columns and buffers from the QIAquick PCR purification kit. We have successfully used this modified technique to perform STR analysis for 55-year-old skeletal remains. The results of this study will contribute to solve the forensic cases dealing with skeletal remains.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated four X chromosomal short tandem repeat (X-STR) markers (DXS10079, DXS10103, DXS10146, and DXS10148) in 450 unrelated Koreans (300 males and 150 females), and evaluated their forensic usage in relation to the four X-STR linkage groups. Forensic statistical parameters for these X-STR markers indicated that they are highly informative for forensic application in Koreans. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in any of the four X-STR markers. In addition, we present haplotypes and their frequency data for four linkage groups each comprised of three X-STRs (DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378, DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074, DXS10103-HPRTB-DXS10101, and DXS10146-DXS10134-DXS7423) in 300 males. Haplotype diversity values in the four linkage trios were all higher than 0.98, and 77.1% of all haplotypes showed a frequency less than 0.01. Therefore, the four closely-linked X-STR trios will contribute to complex kinship testing in Koreans.