[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the differences between adolescents' own perceptions of their psychopathology and perceptions by clinically depressed parents of their adolescents' psychopathology. The study also examined parental characteristics that accounted for discrepancies between parents and adolescents. The clinical sample consisted of 61 adolescents and their parents who were diagnosed with a major depressive disorder. The adolescents and parents evaluated the adolescents' psychopathology in separate interviews with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Parents reported on current depressive symptoms and parenting practices using questionnaires. The results revealed that parent-adolescent discrepancies were greater in regard to affective and anxiety problems compared to oppositional defiant and conduct problems. Parental rejection was associated with differences in scores for affective problems after controlling for parents' current depressive symptoms and adolescents' age and gender. The findings highlight the importance of considering adolescents' affective and anxiety problems when treating depressed parents. Furthermore, the findings suggest that parental rejection may play a pivotal role when interpreting the discrepancy concerning adolescents' affective problems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although previous research has explored associations between personality and depressive symptoms, a limited number of studies have assessed the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the association. This study investigated how temperament and character were associated with depressive symptoms in 131 pairs of twin and sibling women in early adulthood, as well as 326 pairs of twin women in middle adulthood. Results indicated that genetic influences accounted for a moderate to substantial percentage of the association between these personality features and depressive symptoms, emphasizing the role of genetic influences. Nonshared environmental influences made important contributions to the association between character and depressive symptoms, particularly in the sample of middle-aged twin women. These findings suggest that unique social experiences and relationships with a partner in adulthood may play an important role in these associations between character and depressive symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although research has found that temperament and social support are associated with depression, these relationships have not been explored in conjunction with one another as they relate to depression using a genetically informative design. This study investigated how the association among the three constructs is mediated.
The sample in this study consisted of 326 pairs of adult monozygotic and dizygotic twins drawn from the Swedish Twin Registry. Twins were mothers of adolescent from married or partnered relationships. The genetic and environmental contributions to the association were evaluated by self-reported measures of temperament, social support, and depressive symptoms.
Multivariate genetic model fitting revealed that a moderate portion of genetic influences were common among the three central constructs of harm avoidance, perceived social support, and depressive symptoms.
The results may not be generalizable to depressive disorders in clinical settings. The measures were self-reported from a cross-sectional study.
The findings suggest that the heritable component may contribute to genetic influences on an individual's ability to secure social support and thus to genetic risk for depressive symptomatology in women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: General psychiatrists frequently treat adult patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Ordinarily, these psychiatrists focus solely on the treatment of their adult patients. However, new data suggest that treatment efforts might be doubly rewarded if psychiatrists tended to the children of these patients as well. This article reviews the literature on children whose parents have Major Depressive Disorder, and on preventive interventions for their children. We also review challenges to funding interventions of this sort based on systematic interviews of public and private insurance providers. We suggest a new standard of care for depressed patients: reliable screening of the patients' children for both risk of disorder and resilience as well as referral of these children, where indicated, for prevention services. We review obstacles to this standard of care: the professional reluctance of general psychiatrists to work with children and the lack of screening and preventive services for these children in most practice settings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the role of ethnic identity in psychological adjustment. A sample of 209 college students in a multiethnic region completed questionnaires on ethnic identity, self-esteem, and ego identity. The results indicated that ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, especially with the affirmation and belonging component among Japanese and Filipino American students, and with the ethnic identity achievement component among multiethnic students. The overall relationship between ethnic and ego identities was positive, particularly in ethnic identity achievement scores. The combination of strong ethnic identity and a positive attitude toward other groups was related to advanced ego identity. Ethnic identity was different among ethnic groups, revealing that the development of ethnic identity is interactive in social contexts. Suggestions for future research and implications for multiculturalism are discussed.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology 05/2005; 35(6):1111 - 1131. DOI:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02162.x · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the issue of whether prevention research methods, particularly those involving randomized prevention trials, can be used to test theories concerning the etiology of psychopathology. Based on recent empirical and theoretical work in developmental psychopathology, three aspects of etiologic theory are discussed: risk and protective mechanisms, the integration of environmental and genetic factors, and patterns of developmental progression in psychopathology across the life span. It is suggested that integration of prevention trial methods with methods from passive correlational designs, behavioral genetics, and longitudinal studies allows for unique opportunities to test hypotheses about etiology. Empirical literature on the development and prevention of internalizing disorders, particularly depression, is presented to support this argument. Limitations of prevention trials for testing theory are also reviewed.
Development and Psychopathology 02/2002; 14(4):673-94. DOI:10.1017/S0954579402004029 · 4.89 Impact Factor