R Kotchetkov

Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany

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Publications (26)99.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of Onconase on the growth of a panel of chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines was investigated. Onconase decreased cell viability of chemosensitive (IMR-32, UKF-NB-3) and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines characterised by high expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (UKF-NB-3(r)DOX(20)) or by high P-gp expression in combination with mutated p53 (UKF-NB-3(r)VCR(10), Be(2)-C), in a similar manner. Moreover, Onconase caused cell cycle block in G1 phase and induced caspase-independent cell death. Transmission electron microscope investigations suggested that Onconase-induced autophagy contributes to Onconase-induced cell death. Antitumour activity of Onconase against naïve and drug-resistant neuroblastoma xenografts was confirmed in animals.
    Cancer Letters 06/2007; 250(1):107-16. · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug resistance to chemotherapy is often associated with increased malignancy in neuroblastoma (NB). One explanation for the link between resistance and malignancy might be that resistance facilitates cancer progression and invasion. To investigate this hypothesis, adhesion, transendothelial penetration and NCAM (CD56) adhesion receptor expression of drug-resistant versus drug-sensitive NB tumor cells were evaluated. Acquired drug resistance was mimicked by exposing parental UKF-NB-2, UKF-NB-3 or IMR-32 tumor cells to increasing concentrations of vincristine- (VCR) or doxorubicin (DOX) to establish the resistant tumor cell sublines UKF-NB-2VCR, UKF-NB-2DOX, UKF-NB-3VCR, UKF-NB-3DOX, IMR-32VCR and IMR-32DOX. Additionally, the malignant behaviour of UKF-NB-4, which already possessed the intrinsic multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, was analyzed. UKF-NB-4 exposed to VCR or DOX were designated UKF-NB-4VCR or UKF-NB-4DOX. Combined phase contrast - reflection interference contrast microscopy was used to separately evaluate NB cell adhesion and penetration. NCAM was analyzed by flow cytometry, western blot and RT-PCR. VCR and DOX resistant tumor sublines showed enhanced adhesion and penetration capacity, compared to their drug naïve controls. Strongest effects were seen with UKF-NB-2VCR, UKF-NB-3VCR and IMR-32DOX. DOX or VCR treatment also evoked increased invasive behaviour of UKF-NB-4. The process of accelerated tumor invasion was accompanied by decreased NCAM surface and protein expression, and down-regulation of NCAM coding mRNA. Transfection of UKF-NB-4VCR cells with NCAM cDNA led to a significant receptor up-regulation, paralleled by diminished adhesion to an endothelial cell monolayer. It is concluded that NB cells resistant to anticancer drugs acquire increased invasive capacity relative to non-resistant parental cells, and that enhanced invasion is caused by strong down-regulation of NCAM adhesion receptors.
    BMC Cancer 02/2006; 6:294. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acquisition of P-gp-mediated multidrug-resistance does not always correlate with observed malignant behavior of NB. To characterize alterations accompanying development of multidrug-resistance in NB we established two neuroblastoma cell sublines resistant to vincristine (UKF-NB-3rVCR10) and doxorubicin (UKF-NB-3rDOX20). UKF-NB-3rVCR10 and UKF-NB-3rDOX20 overexpressed functional P-gp and developed an increased malignant phenotype: presented constitutive phosphorylation of AKT, resistance to gamma-irradiation, and had increased survival in serum-free medium. Inhibition of P-gp restored chemosensitivity but did not affect increased survival in serum-free medium and sensitivity to gamma-irradiation. Inhibition of AKT had no influence on chemoresistance but restored sensitivity to serum starvation. Both resistant cell lines acquired additional chromosomal changes. UKF-NB-3rVCR10 cells acquired a missense P53 mutation in exon 5, an increased MYCN amplification, an enhanced adhesion to endothelium, a decreased NCAM expression, a distinctly higher clonogenicity, and an increased in vivo tumorigenicity. We conclude that acquisition of increased malignant behavior in neuroblastoma occurs concomitantly with multidrug-resistance and is P-gp-independent.
    International Journal of Oncology 11/2005; 27(4):1029-37. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells are known to show medium to high cytotoxic activity against HLA-nonidentical leukemia or tumor cells. For a possible benefit of post transplant treatment with NK cells after haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) we developed a clinical scale procedure for NK cell processing observing Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Allogeneic donor NK cells were selected from 15 unstimulated leukaphereses using two rounds of immunomagnetic T cell depletion, followed by an NK cell enrichment step. CD56 (+)CD3 (-) NK cells were stimulated and expanded in vitro according to GMP. Quality control of NK cell purity, residual T cells and cytotoxic activity was done by multi-coloured flow cytometric analyses. Purification led to an absolute number of 234-1 237 x 10 (6) CD56 (+)CD3 (-) NK cells from leukapheresis harvests with a median purity of 95 % and a 4 to 6(1/2) log depletion of T cells. After two weeks stimulation with IL-2 a five-fold expansion of NK cells with a T cell contamination below 0.1 % was reached. Median cell viability was 95 % after purification and 99 % after expansion. The IL-2 stimulated NK cells showed a highly increased lytic activity against the MHC-I deficient K562 cells compared to freshly isolated NK cells and a medium cytotoxicity against patients' leukemic cells. Clinical scale enrichment and activation of allogeneic donor NK cells is feasible. High dose NK cell application may be a new treatment option for pediatric patients with leukemia or solid tumors in case of minimal residual disease or unbalanced chimerism post haplo-SCT as we could show for the first three patients .
    Klinische Pädiatrie 01/2005; 217(6):345-50. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent pathological findings reveal a higher frequency of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in tumor cells from different tumors compared with surrounding tissues. Experimental investigations suggest possible supportive effects of HCMV for tumor development and progression. One HCMV effect on tumor cells is the inhibition of apoptosis, leading to the promotion of tumor cell survival. Decreased sensitivity to treatment-induced tumor cell death is a major reason for failure of anticancer chemotherapy. HCMV infection interferes with both the intrinsic and extrinsic cellular apoptosis pathways. HCMV promotes cell survival signaling influencing the tumor suppressor p53 and its relative p73, and stimulates the antiapoptotic Ras/Raf/MEK/Erk- and PI-3K-signaling pathways. Antiapoptotic effects mediated by HCMV are inhibited by antiviral treatment in cell culture. Therefore, a better understanding of the influence of HCMV infection on tumor cell apoptosis might translate into improved anti-cancer therapy.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 07/2004; 61(11):1307-16. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic agent that is undergoing clinical evaluation for anticancer therapy. We assessed the effects of VPA on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, therapeutically relevant concentrations of VPA (0.25 to 1 mM) inhibited proliferation, migration, and tube formation. VPA 1 mM inhibited endothelial cell proliferation by 51 +/- 5%, migration by 86 +/- 11%, and tube formation by 82 +/- 3%. These changes were preceded by the hyperacetylation of histone H4, indicating the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC), and a decreased expression of the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). The inhibition of endothelial cell tube formation by VPA was prevented by addition of the nitric oxide donor (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA NONOate). The anticonvulsive active VPA derivative 2-ethyl-4-methylpentanoic acid, which does not inhibit HDAC, did not affect endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, or eNOS expression. VPA was also found to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay and in a Matrigel plug assay in mice. Embryos from VPA-treated mice showed disturbed vessel formation. These results indicate that therapeutic plasma levels of VPA inhibit angiogenesis by a mechanism involving a decrease in eNOS expression preceded by HDAC inhibition.
    Molecular Pharmacology 04/2004; 65(3):520-7. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high frequency of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome and antigens in tumor samples of patients with different malignancies is now well documented, although the causative role for HCMV in the development of the neoplasias remains to be established. HCMV infection can modulate multiple cellular regulatory and signalling pathways in a manner similar to that of oncoproteins of small DNA tumor viruses such as human papilloma virus or adenoviruses. However, in contrast to these DNA tumor viruses, HCMV infection fails to transform susceptible normal human cells. There is now growing evidence that tumor cells with disrupted regulatory and signalling pathways enable HCMV to modulate their properties including stimulation of cell proliferation, survival, invasion, production of angiogenic factors, and immunogenic properties. In contrast to previously suggested "hit and run" transformation we suggest that persistence in tumor cells is essential for HCMV to fully express its oncomodulatory effects. These effects are observed particularly in persistent HCMV infection and are mediated mainly by activity of HCMV regulatory proteins. In persistently HCMV-infected tumor cell lines - a selection of novel, slowly growing virus variants with changes in coding sequences for virus regulatory proteins takes place. As a result, oncomodulatory effects of HCMV infection may lead to a shift to more malignant phenotype of tumor cells contributing to tumor progression.
    FEMS Microbiology Reviews 03/2004; 28(1):59-77. · 13.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the term oncomodulation has been proposed to express the ability of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to modify tumor cell biology, a phenomenon that is independent from transformation. Because past studies have failed to show that HCMV can transform normal human cells, HCMV has not been regarded as an oncogenic tumor virus. However, recent investigations have revealed a high frequency of HCMV in tumor cells of malignancies such as colon cancer, malignant glioma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and carcinoma. Data from experiments with HCMV-infected tumor cell lines have highlighted the oncomodulatory potential of HCMV and provided important insights into the patho-mechanisms associated with aberrant signaling pathways and transcription factor and/or tumor suppressor function of the host cell.
    Trends in Molecular Medicine 02/2004; 10(1):19-23. · 9.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Replication restricted oncolytic viruses such as multimutated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) G207 represent a novel and attractive approach for cancer therapy, including pediatric solid tumors. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of childhood and is often diagnosed already as an advanced disseminated disease. Despite aggressive therapeutic approaches, the prognosis for patients with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma remains grim. Therefore, there is a need for novel effective drugs with superior safety and efficacy profile. In this study, we showed marked in vitro activity of HSV-1 G207 against embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells. All human embryonal (KF-RMS-1, RD, and CCA) and alveolar RMS (KFR, Rh28, Rh30, and Rh41) cell lines were highly sensitive to cytotoxic and replicative effects of G207 even at a multiplicity of infection of 0.01, except embryonal Rh1 rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which were efficiently killed only upon multiplicity of infection of 1.0. i.v. G207 treatment of xenotransplanted KFR and KF-RMS-1 tumors in mice led to significant tumor growth inhibition of both tumor entities, whereas intraneoplastic G207 treatment additionally resulted in complete tumor disappearance in 25% of animals. No difference has been found between alveolar and embryonal types of rhabdomyosarcoma. Combination treatment of both cell lines with G207 and vincristine led to strongly enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity without affecting infection efficiency and replication of G207 in KFR as well as in KF-RMS-1 cells. In vivo combination treatment using i.v. G207 and vincristine resulted in complete regression of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in five of eight animals and significant growth inhibition of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Taking into consideration the proven safety of G207 in humans, we suggest that G207 alone and in combination with vincristine should be additionally evaluated as a potential agent against human rhabdomyosarcoma.
    Cancer Research 05/2003; 63(7):1508-14. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic drug treatment of neuroblastoma often leads to the development of drug resistance and may be associated with increased malignancy. To study the effects of long-term cytotoxic treatment on malignant properties of tumor cells, we established 2 neuroblastoma cell sublines resistant to vincristine (VCR) and doxorubicin (DOX). Both established cell lines (UKF-NB-2(r)VCR(20) and UKF-NB-2(r)DOX(100)) were highly resistant to VCR, DOX and vice-versa but retained their sensitivity to cisplatin. UKF-NB-2(r)VCR(20) and UKF-NB-2(r)DOX(100) expressed significant amounts of P-glycoprotein, while parental cells were P-glycoprotein negative. GD2 expression was upregulated, whereas NCAM expression was decreased in both resistant cells. Spectral karyotype (SKY) analysis revealed complex aberrant karyotypes in all cell lines and additional acquired karyotype changes in both resistant cells. All cell lines harbored high levels of N-myc amplification. Compared to parental cells, UKF-NB-2(r)VCR(20) and UKF-NB-2(r)DOX(100) exhibited more than 2-fold increase in clonal growth in vitro, accelerated adhesion and transendothelial penetration and higher tumorigenicity in vivo. We conclude that development of drug resistance and acquisition of certain karyotypic alterations is associated with an increase of additional malignant properties that may contribute to the poor prognosis in advanced forms of NB. The 2 novel neuroblastoma cell sublines also provide useful models for the study of drug resistance in aggressive forms of neuroblastoma.
    International Journal of Cancer 04/2003; 104(1):36-43. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to induce growth-arrest and differentiation of human neuroectodermal tumors similarly to several other fatty acids. In the present study, we show that continuous VPA treatment together with Interferon-alpha (INF-alpha) synergistically inhibited cell growth of a well-established model of neuroblastoma (NB) differentiation using the human N-myc amplified cell line BE(2)-C. Suppression of tumor growth was accompanied by morphological features of neuronal differentiation and inhibition of histone deacetylase activity. Furthermore, induction of differentiation was concomitant with altered expression of genes related to malignant phenotype such as down-regulation of N-myc, induction of bcl-2 and neural cell adhesion molecule. Production of inhibitors of angiogenesis like thrombospondin-1 and activin A was up-regulated in differentiated NB cells. Treatment with VPA alone decreased the ability of BE(2)-C cells to adhere to and penetrate human endothelium. All these effects of VPA were significantly enhanced when combined with INF-alpha which on its own had little or no effect. These results suggest that combination of VPA and INF-alpha may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for NB due to enhanced inhibition of tumor cell growth, induction of tumor differentiation and suppression of malignant biology by reduced angiogenic and decreased metastatic potentials.
    International Journal of Oncology 02/2002; 20(1):97-106. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive solid tumor that fails to adequately respond to any known chemotherapeutic regimen. The development of effective chemotherapy agents would provide the best chance for long-term survival of patients. The cytotoxic effects of bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) against thyroid carcinoma cell lines with different degrees of differentiation in comparison to non-malignant cells, including human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), were tested using the MTT dye reduction assay. Induction of apoptosis was demonstrated by annexin V assay and expression of proteins related to apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometry. The antitumoral in vivo effects of BS-RNase were assessed on established xenografts of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line 8505C in nude mice using subcutaneous injections of BS-RNase (12.5 mg/kg once a day, on 20 consecutive days). All the tumor cell lines exhibited marked sensitivity against BS-RNase in comparison to HFF and RPE cells. The greatest growth inhibition was seen in the 8505C line, while IC50 values for papillary (B-CPAP) and poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells were about 6-fold higher. The cytotoxic action of BS-RNase was associated with induction of apoptosis. Expressions of Fas and Fas-ligand were not influenced by BS-RNase completely, while the down-regulation of Bcl-2 in treated cells was observed. In vivo treatment induced significant tumor regression after the course of 20 consecutive days. No apparent toxic effects of BS-RNase toward non-malignant cells were observed during the in vivo treatment. After cessation of therapy (day 20) tumor volume continued to decrease and the tumor was no longer detectable after 30 days of treatment induction in all animals. BS-RNase may have beneficial effects for treatment of aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancer.
    Anticancer research 01/2001; 21(2A):1035-42. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with excessive proinflammatory immune responses such as cytokine/chemokine production or upregulation of adhesion molecules on the host cells. It is assumed that these features of HCMV-related immunopathology can not be treated effectively with currently available anti HCMV drugs. In the present study the efficacy of ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (PFA), cidofovir (HPMPC), and ISIS 2922, an antisense oligonucleotide complementary to HCMV immediate-early (IE) mRNA, was investigated on HCMV-induced secretion and functional activity of the C-X-C chemokine IL-8 and the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). As compared with mock-infected cells IL-8 production was increased up to 9-fold and ICAM-1 expression up to 4-fold in HCMV-infected fibroblasts. Treatment of infected cells with GCV (40 microM), PFA (200 microM) or HPMPC (2 microM) suppressed completely virus replication as demonstrated by quantification of late (L) antigen expression and infectious virus production. These drugs, however, failed to inhibit IE antigen expression and did not prevent HCMV-induced upregulation of IL-8 and ICAM-1. In contrast, ISIS 2922 (1 microM) suppressed both IE and L antigen expression by 99% and inhibited infectious virus production by 10(4)-fold. Moreover, ISIS 2922 significantly suppressed HCMV-induced upregulation of both IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression on the transcriptional and on the protein level. Our results indicate that ISIS 2922 but not inhibitors of HCMV DNA prevents HCMV-induced upregulation of IL-8 and ICAM-1, both hallmarks of inflammatory processes. Thus, inhibition of HCMV IE expression with ISIS 2922 may be an important strategy for the treatment of HCMV-related immunopathogenesis.
    Journal of Medical Virology 04/2000; 60(3):313-23. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) exerts selective cytotoxicity toward different types of tumor cells. In the present study, we tested the effects of BS-RNase on cultured neuroblastoma (NB) cells resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. The selectivity of the antitumoral activity of BS-RNase was evaluated using cultures of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Human NB cell lines including IMR-32, UKF-NB-2 and UKF-NB-3 were selected for resistance against vincristine, doxorubicin or cisplatin by exposure to increasing concentrations of the respective drug. The cytotoxicity of the drugs to NB cells was evaluated using a clonogenic assay in a methylcellulose medium. Peripheral blood progenitor cells were obtained from adult healthy donors by positive selection using specific anti-CD34+ antibodies. The toxicity of BS-RNase to CD34+ cells was assessed in the direct clonogenic assay using methylcellulose medium or in ex vivo expansion culture supplemented with hematopoietic growth factors. In the clonogenic assay it was shown that BS-RNase completely inhibits growth of both parental NB cells and their sublines resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs at concentrations (up to 50 micrograms/ml) which have no significant influence on the growth of colony-forming units, granulocyte macrophage and erythroid burst-forming units. Moreover, BS-RNase had no effect on the ex vivo expansion of total hematopoietic cells or of colony-forming cells from CD34+ progenitors. BS-RNase is a highly efficient agent against NB cells resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs. The lack of toxicity to hematopoietic progenitor cells suggests that BS-RNase is also likely to have tolerable hematopoietic toxicity.
    Anticancer research 01/2000; 20(2A):853-9. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine (Gem) is a deoxycytidine analog that is effective against pancreatic cancer and other malignancies following conversion to the 5'-O-mono-, di- and tri-phosphate forms. We evaluated the cytotoxicity of GemMP[10], a novel multimeric form of 2'-deoxy-2',2"-difluorocytidine-5'-O-monophosphate (gemcitabine monophosphate) against three thyroid carcinoma cell lines established from anaplastic (8505C), papillary (B-CPAP) and poorly-differentiated papillary (BHT-101) cancer. GemMP[10] decreased tumor cell growth at concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 nM. These concentrations were 5- to 10-fold lower than those required for inhibition of tumor cell growth by monomeric Gem. GemMP[10] cytotoxicity occurred via induction of apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis of GemMP[10] treated cells revealed growth arrest in S-phase. Fas-antigen expression was increased in thyroid cancer cells treated with GemMP[10], whereas Fas-L and Bcl-2 expression were not significantly affected. These results demonstrated that GemMP[10] is a potent cytotoxic agent that serves to induce apoptosis in association with increased Fas expression in cultured thyroid cancer cell lines.
    Anticancer research 01/2000; 20(5A):2915-22. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is a homologue of RNase A with specific antitumor activities. It is selectively toxic for neuroblastoma (NB) cells in vitro with no significant effects on the viability of normal human cells. We evaluated the antitumoral effects of BS-RNase on human NB xenografts from UKF-NB-3 cells in athymic (nude) mice. The efficacy of direct intraneoplastic, subcutaneous and systemic delivery of BS-RNase was explored. Systemic administration of BS-RNase (12.5 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally, for 20 days in the course of four weeks) suppressed tumor growth but was not able to induce any cures. Subcutaneous injections (12.5 mg/kg/day for 20 days in the course of four weeks) and intratumoral BS-RNase treatment using the same schedule resulted in complete tumor regression. During 30 days following cessation of treatment no tumor regrowth was observed and animals were free of tumors. Toxic effects of BS-RNase (e.g., on bone marrow and inner organs) were not apparent. This data indicates that BS-RNase fulfills important criteria for a candidate antitumor agent specific for NB.
    Oncology Reports 01/2000; 7(2):363-7. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is a homologue of RNase A with specific antitumor activity. The cytotoxic action of this agent was examined in human neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines (SK-N-SH and UKF-NB-4) possessing the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype and NB cell lines (IMR-32, UKF-NB-1, UKF-NB-2 and UKF-NB-3) without MDR. Although MDR cells expressed large amounts of mdr-1 mRNA, contained functional P-glycoprotein and had 20- to 105-fold lower sensitivities to doxorubicin and vincristine than cells with non-MDR phenotypes, BS-RNase was equally toxic to all NB cells at concentrations employed (0.2 to 100 microg/ml). BS-RNase showed high selectivity for NB cells and was non-toxic to normal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Ultrastructural investigation and annexin V assay showed that BS-RNase is a powerful inductor of apoptosis. The antitumoral effects of BS-RNase were also demonstrated in vivo using established subcutaneous xenografts in athymic (nude) mice of the MDR-1-bearing UKF-NB-4 cell line. Intratumoral injections (12.5 mg/kg) of BS-RNase over four weeks resulted in complete tumor regression and absence of tumor regrowth over a two-week observation period after cessation of treatment. The results show that BS-RNase selectively kills NB cells by inducing apoptosis and that this agent is active against mdr-1 expressing cells both in vitro and in vivo. BS-RNase fulfills important criteria for a candidate antitumor agent in NB patients with advanced disease.
    International Journal of Oncology 12/1999; 15(5):1001-9. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. It has been shown that promoter sequences of the TSP-1 gene can be transactivated by the wild-type tumor suppressor protein p53. As human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection inactivates wild-type p53 of various cell types, we investigated whether HCMV infection is associated with reduced TSP-1 production. We found, in conjunction with accumulated p53, that TSP-1 mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced in HCMV-infected cultured human fibroblasts. To determine whether the observed TSP-1 suppression depends on p53 inactivation, the p53-defective astrocytoma cell line U373MG was infected with HCMV. In these cells TSP-1 expression was also significantly reduced by HCMV infection whereas expression of the p53 mutant variant remained unaltered. In both cell lines the decreased expression of TSP-1 mRNA occurred early after infection (4 hours), indicating that HCMV inhibits TSP-1 transcription during the immediate-early phase of infection before HCMV DNA replication. Inhibition of HCMV DNA synthesis by ganciclovir did not influence TSP-1 reduction whereas the antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 2922, complementary to HCMV immediate-early mRNA, completely prevented the HCMV-mediated TSP-1 suppression. These findings strongly suggest a novel role for HCMV in the modulation of angiogenesis due to p53-independent down-regulation of TSP-1 expression.
    American Journal Of Pathology 08/1999; 155(1):285-92. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dramatically increased number of new cases of disseminated children thyroid cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident requires development of novel strategies to treat this disease. In addition to conventional therapy using radioiodine, chemotherapy with new effective drugs can be an alternative kind of treatment. We tested the antitumor activity of (E)-2'-fluoromethylene-2'-deoxycytidine (MDL-101,731), a ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase inhibitor against three thyroid carcinoma cell lines established from anaplastic (8505C), papillary (B-CPAP) and poorly differentiated papillary (BHT-101) cancer. MDL-101,371 decreased both cell growth and DNA synthesis of tumor cells at concentrations lower than 100 nM, while the concentrations higher than 5000 nM showed only moderate effects on growth of normal human fibroblasts. The effects of MDL-101, 371 on tumor cells were associated with induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation assay. Flow cytometric analysis of the expression of apoptosis-related genes revealed the increased levels of Fas-antigen, whereas the levels of Bcl-2 were not significantly influenced in thyroid cancer cells treated with MDL-101,731. These results demonstrated that MDL-101,731 is a potent antitumor agent against cultured thyroid cancer cells due to its ability to induce apoptosis in association with increased Fas expression.
    Folia biologica 02/1999; 45(5):185-91. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We observed the effects of antiviral therapy on CMV and/or oxidative-stress-induced stimulation of proinflammatory molecules including interleukin-8 (IL-8), melanoma growth stimulatory activity-alpha (GRO-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) using human foreskin fibroblasts. Ganciclovir, foscarnet or cidofovir completely suppressed virus replication, as demonstrated by CMV late (L) antigen production. These drugs did not influence CMV immediate-early (IE) antigen expression and had no effects on CMV-induced cellular changes in IL-8, GRO-alpha and ICAM-1 levels. Phosphorothioate oligonucleotide (ISIS 2922) suppressed both CMV IE and L antigen by 99%. ISIS 2922 completely suppressed CMV-induced upregulation of both chemokines and ICAM-1. Induction of oxidative stress by H(2)O(2) upregulated IL-8 expression. Oxidative stress and CMV infection showed synergistic effects on IL-8 expression. ISIS 2922 only partially inhibited the upregulation of IL-8 in infected cells treated with H(2)O(2), whereas cotreatment with ISIS 2922 and antioxidants inhibited the upregulation almost completely. The results showed that inhibition of CMV IE expression alone or in combination with antioxidants is promising for the treatment of CMV disease.
    Intervirology 02/1999; 42(5-6):419-24. · 1.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

602 Citations
99.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2007
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • • Zentrum der Hygiene
      • • Zentrum der Chirurgie
      • • Institut für Medizinische Virologie
      Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany
  • 2005
    • University Hospital Frankfurt
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany