[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The preoptic hypothalamus is implicated in sleep regulation. Neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) have been identified as potential sleep regulatory elements. However, the extent to which MnPO and VLPO neurons are activated in response to changing homeostatic sleep regulatory demands is unresolved. To address this question, we continuously recorded the extracellular activity of neurons in the rat MnPO, VLPO and dorsal lateral preoptic area (LPO) during baseline sleep and waking, during 2 h of sleep deprivation (SD) and during 2 h of recovery sleep (RS). Sleep-active neurons in the MnPO (n=11) and VLPO (n=13) were activated in response to SD, such that waking discharge rates increased by 95.8%±29.5% and 59.4±17.3%, respectively, above waking baseline values. During RS, nonREM sleep discharge rates of MnPO neurons initially increased to 65.6±15.2% above baseline values, then declined to baseline levels in association with decreases in EEG delta power. Increase in nonREM sleep discharge rates in VLPO neurons during RS averaged 40.5±7.6% above baseline. REM-active neurons (n=16) in the LPO also exhibited increased waking discharge during SD and an increase in nonREM discharge during RS. Infusion of A2A adenosine receptor antagonist into the VLPO, attenuated SD-induced increases in neuronal discharge. Populations of LPO wake/REM-active and state-indifferent neurons and dorsal LPO sleep-active neurons were unresponsive to SD. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep-active neurons in the MnPO and VLPO, and REM-active neurons in the LPO are components of neuronal circuits that mediate homeostatic responses to sustained wakefulness.
Journal of Neurophysiology 10/2013; 111(2). DOI:10.1152/jn.00504.2013 · 3.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the regulation of sleep. The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) is a key wake-promoting region and contains neurons that are active during behavioral or cortical activation. Recently, we found higher levels of NO metabolites (NOx), an indirect measure of NO levels, in the PF-LHA during prolonged-waking (SD). However, NO is highly reactive and diffuses rapidly and the NOx assay is not sensitive enough to detect rapid-changes in NO levels across spontaneous sleep-waking states. We used a novel Nafion®-modified Platinum (NF-PT) electrode for real-time detection of NO levels in the PF-LHA across sleep-wake cycles, dark-light phases, and during SD. Sprague-Dawley male rats were surgically prepared for chronic sleep-wake recording and implantation of NF-PT electrode into the PF-LHA. EEG, EMG, and electrochemical current generated by NF-PT electrode were continuously acquired for 5-7 days including one day with 3h of SD. In the PF-LHA, NO levels exhibited a waking>REM>nonREM sleep pattern (0.56±0.03μM >0.47±0.02μM >0.42±0.02μM; p<0.01). NO levels were also higher during the dark- as compared to the light-phase (0.53±0.03μM vs. 0.44±0.02μM; p<0.01). NO levels increased during 3h of SD as compared to undisturbed control (0.58±0.04μM vs. 0.47±0.01μM; p<0.05). The findings indicate that in the PF-LHA, NO is produced during behavioral or cortical activation. Since elevated levels of NO inhibits most of the PF-LHA neurons that are active during cortical activation, these findings support a hypothesis that NO produced in conjunction with the activation of PF-LHA neurons during waking/SD, inhibits the same neuronal population to promote sleep.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) are two hypothalamic regions that have been implicated in sleep regulation, and both nuclei contain sleep-active GABAergic neurons. Adenosine is an endogenous sleep regulatory substance, which promotes sleep via A1 and A2A receptors (A2AR). Infusion of A2AR agonist into the lateral ventricle or into the subarachnoid space underlying the rostral basal forebrain (SS-rBF), has been previously shown to increase sleep. We examined the effects of an A2AR agonist, CGS-21680, administered into the lateral ventricle and the SS-rBF on sleep and Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in GABAergic neurons in the MnPN and VLPO. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CGS-21680 during the second half of lights-on phase increased sleep and increased the number of MnPN and VLPO GABAergic neurons expressing Fos-IR. Similar effects were found with CGS-21680 microinjection into the SS-rBF. The induction of Fos-IR in preoptic GABAergic neurons was not secondary to drug-induced sleep, since CGS-21680 delivered to the SS-rBF significantly increased Fos-IR in MnPN and VLPO neurons in animals that were not permitted sleep. ICV of infusion of ZM-241385, an A2AR antagonist, during the last 2 h of a 3 h period of sleep deprivation caused suppression of subsequent recovery sleep and reduced Fos-IR in MnPN and VLPO GABAergic neurons. Our findings support a hypothesis that A2AR mediated activation of MnPN and VLPO GABAergic neurons contributes to adenosinergic regulation of sleep.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many physiological and molecular processes are strongly rhythmic and profoundly influenced by sleep. The continuing effort of biological, medical, and veterinary science to understand the temporal organization of cellular, physiological, be- havioral and cognitive function holds great promise for the improvement of the welfare of animals and human beings. As a result, attending veterinarians and IACUC are often charged with the responsibility of evaluating experiments on such rhythms or the effects of sleep (or its deprivation) in vertebrate animals. To produce interpretable data, animals used in such research must often be maintained in carefully controlled (often constant) conditions with minimal disruption. The lighting environment must be strictly controlled, frequent changes of cages and bedding are undesirable, and daily visual checks are often not possible. Thus deviations from the standard housing procedures specified in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals are often necessary. This report reviews requirements for experiments on biological rhythms and sleep and discusses how scientific considerations can be reconciled with the recommendations of the Guide.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 01/2013; 52(4):437-443. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the hypothesis that developmental changes in hypothalamic sleep-regulatory neuronal circuits contribute to the maturation of sleep homeostasis in rats during the fourth postnatal week. In a longitudinal study, we quantified electrographic measures of sleep during baseline and in response to sleep deprivation (SD) on postnatal days 21/29 (P21/29) and P22/30 (experiment 1). During 24-h baseline recordings on P21, total sleep time (TST) during the light and dark phases did not differ significantly. On P29, TST during the light phase was significantly higher than during the dark phase. Mean duration of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep bouts was significantly longer on P29 vs. P21, indicating improved sleep consolidation. On both P22 and P30, rats exhibited increased NREM sleep amounts and NREM electroencephalogram delta power during recovery sleep (RS) compared with baseline. Increased NREM sleep bout length during RS was observed only on P30. In experiment 2, we quantified activity of GABAergic neurons in median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) during SD and RS in separate groups of P22 and P30 rats using c-Fos and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) immunohistochemistry. In P22 rats, numbers of Fos(+)GAD(+) neurons in VLPO did not differ among experimental conditions. In P30 rats, Fos(+)GAD(+) counts in VLPO were elevated during RS. MnPN neuronal activity was state-dependent in P22 rats, but Fos(+)GAD(+) cell counts were higher in P30 rats. These findings support the hypothesis that functional emergence of preoptic sleep-regulatory neurons contributes to the maturation of sleep homeostasis in the developing rat brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regions of the neocortex most strongly activated during waking exhibit increased sleep intensity during subsequent sleep. The novel concept that aspects of sleep homeostasis are determined locally in the cortex contrasts with the established views that global changes in neocortical activity during sleep are achieved through inhibition of ascending arousal systems that originate in the brainstem and hypothalamus.
Experiments in animals and humans document asymmetries in neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) slow-wave activity (SWA), a marker of homeostatic sleep need, as a result of functional activity during waking. In addition to local, use-dependent augmentation of EEG SWA and evoked potentials, expression of plasticity-related genes and of sleep-regulatory cytokines and neuromodulators have been shown to be elevated in a use-dependent manner in neocortex. The functional consequences of local sleep are hypothesized to involve regulation of synaptic plasticity, synaptic homeostasis and energy balance.
The evidence for use-dependent modulation of neocortical activity during sleep is compelling and provides novel insights into sleep function. However, local changes in neocortex are generally expressed on a background of global sleep. It remains to be determined if events initiated in the cortex have global sleep-promoting effects and how neocortical and hypothalamic mechanisms of sleep control interact.
Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 11/2010; 16(6):530-5. DOI:10.1097/MCP.0b013e32833eec92 · 2.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lamina terminalis (LT) consists of the organum vasculosum of the LT (OVLT), the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and the subfornical organ (SFO). All subdivisions of the LT project to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). The LT and the vlPAG are implicated in several homeostatic and behavioral functions, including body fluid homeostasis, thermoregulation and the regulation of sleep and waking. By combining visualization of c-Fos protein and retrograde neuroanatomical tracer we have examined the functional correlates of LT-vlPAG projection neurons. Rats were injected with retrograde tracer into the vlPAG and, following a 1-week recovery period, they were subjected to either hypertonic saline administration (0.5 M NaCl, 1 mL/100 g i.p.), 24-h water deprivation, isoproterenol administration (increases circulating angiotensin II; 50 microg/kg s.c.), heat exposure (39 degrees C for 60 min) or permitted 180 min spontaneous sleep. Retrogradely labeled neurons from the vlPAG and double-labelled neurons were then identified and quantified throughout the LT. OVLT-vlPAG projection neurons were most responsive to hypertonic saline and water deprivation. SFO-vlPAG projection neurons were most active following isoproterenol administration, and MnPO-vlPAG projection neurons displayed significantly more Fos immunostaining following water deprivation, heat exposure and sleep. These results support the existence of functional subdivisions of LT-vlPAG-projecting neurons, and indicate three patterns of activity that correspond to thermal and sleep wake regulation, osmotic or hormonal stimuli.
European Journal of Neuroscience 12/2009; 30(12):2347-55. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.07024.x · 3.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) may promote non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep via activation of GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with EEG, EMG electrodes and a unilateral intracerebroventricular cannula. Groups of rats received injections (3 microl icv) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GHRH) (0.1 nmol/100 g body wt) or equal volume of physiological saline at the onset of the dark period and were permitted spontaneous sleep for 90 min. Separate groups of rats were sleep deprived by gentle handling for 90 min, beginning at the time of GHRH or saline injection, at the onset of the dark period. Other groups of rats received intracerebroventricular octreotide (somatostatin analog OCT) injections, intracerebroventricular injection of one of two doses of competitive GHRH antagonist, or intracerebroventricular saline injection at light onset and were then permitted 90 min spontaneous sleep-waking. Rats were killed immediately after the 90-min sleep/wake monitoring period. Brain tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry for c-Fos protein and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Single c-Fos and dual Fos-GAD cell counts were determined in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN), and in the core and the extended parts of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (cVLPO and exVLPO). Intracerebroventricular GHRH elicited a significant increase in NREM sleep amount. Double-labeled Fos+GAD cell counts were significantly elevated after GHRH injection in the MnPN and VLPO in both undisturbed and sleep-deprived groups. OCT and GHRH antagonist significantly decreased NREM sleep amount compared with control rats. OCT injection increased single c-Fos-labeled cell counts in the MnPN, but not in the VLPO. Double-labeled cell counts were significantly reduced after OCT and the high dose of GHRH antagonist injection in all areas examined. These findings identify GABAergic neurons in the MnPN and VLPO as potential targets of the sleep-regulatory actions of GHRH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) has been implicated in the regulation of arousal. The PF-LHA contains wake-active neurons that are quiescent during non-REM sleep and in the case of neurons expressing the peptide hypocretin (HCRT), quiescent during both non-REM and REM sleep. Adenosine is an endogenous sleep factor and recent evidence suggests that adenosine via A(1) receptors may act on PF-LHA neurons to promote sleep. We examined the effects of bilateral activation as well as blockade of A(1) receptors in the PF-LHA on sleep-wakefulness in freely behaving rats. The sleep-wake profiles of male Wistar rats were recorded during reverse microdialysis perfusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and two doses of adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine (CPDX; 5 microM and 50 microM) or A(1) receptor agonist, N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 5 microM and 50 microM) into the PF-LHA for 2 h followed by 4 h of aCSF perfusion. CPDX perfused into the PF-LHA during lights-on phase produced arousal (F=7.035, p<0.001) and concomitantly decreased both non-REM (F=7.295, p<0.001) and REM sleep (F=3.456, p<0.004). In contrast, CPA perfused into the PF-LHA during lights-off phase significantly suppressed arousal (F=7.891, p<0.001) and increased non-REM (F=8.18, p <0.001) and REM sleep (F=30.036, p<0.001). These results suggest that PF-LHA is one of the sites where adenosine, acting via A(1) receptors, inhibits PF-LHA neurons to promote sleep.
Brain research 09/2009; 1304:96-104. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.09.066 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work showed that sleep is associated with increased brain protein synthesis and that arrest of protein synthesis facilitates sleep. Arrest of protein synthesis is induced during the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (p-eIF2alpha). We tested a hypothesis that elevation of p-eIF2alpha would facilitate sleep. We studied the effects of intracerebroventricular infusion of salubrinal (Salub), which increases p-eIF2alpha by inhibiting its dephosphorylation. Salub increased deep slow wave sleep by 255%, while reducing active waking by 49%. Delta power within non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was increased, while power in the sigma, beta, and gamma bands during NREM was reduced. We found that Salub increased expression of p-eIF2alpha in the basal forebrain (BF) area, a sleep-wake regulatory brain region. Therefore, we quantified the p-eIF2alpha-immunolabeled neurons in the BF area; Salub administration increased the number of p-eIF2alpha-expressing noncholinergic neurons in the caudal BF. In addition, Salub also increased the intensity of p-eIF2alpha expression in both cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons, but this was more widespread among the noncholinergic neurons. Our findings support a hypothesis that sleep is facilitated by signals associated with the ER stress response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) of the hypothalamus contains sleep-active neurons including sleep-active GABAergic neurons and is involved in the regulation of nonREM/REM sleep. The hypocretinergic (HCRT) neurons of the perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) and serotonergic (5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are mostly active during waking and have been implicated in the regulation of arousal. MnPN GABAergic neurons project to the PF-LHA and DRN. It is hypothesized that MnPN promotes sleep by inhibiting multiple arousal systems including HCRT and other wake-active neurons within the PF-LHA and 5-HT neurons in the DRN. We examined the effects of inactivation of MnPN neurons by locally microinjecting 0.2 microl of 1 mM or 10 mM solutions of a GABA(A) receptor agonist, muscimol, into the MnPN on Fos expression (Fos-IR) in the PF-LHA neurons including HCRT neurons and 5-HT neurons in the DRN in anesthetized rats. Compared to artificial cerebrospinal fluid control, microinjection of muscimol into the MnPN resulted in significantly higher percentages of HCRT and non-HCRT neurons in the PF-LHA and 5-HT neurons in the DRN that exhibited Fos-IR. The percentage of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)+/Fos+ neurons in the PF-LHA did not change after muscimol treatments. These results support a hypothesis that the activation of MnPN neurons contributes to the suppression of wake-promoting systems including HCRT and other unidentified neurons in the PF-LHA and 5-HT neurons in the DRN. These results also suggest that MCH neurons may not be under MnPN inhibitory control. These findings are consistent with a hypothesized role of MnPN in sleep regulation.
Brain Research 09/2008; 1234:66-77. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.115 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal waking is associated with neuronal activity in several chemically defined ascending arousal systems. These include monoaminergic neurons in the brainstem and posterior hypothalamus, cholinergic neurons in the brainstem and basal forebrain, and hypocretin (orexin) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Collectively, these systems impart tonic activation to their neuronal targets in the diencephalon and neocortex that is reflected in the low-voltage fast-frequency electroencephalogram patterns of wakefulness. Neuronal discharge in these arousal systems declines rapidly at sleep onset. Transitions from waking to sleep, therefore, involve coordinated inhibition of multiple arousal systems. An important source of sleep-related inhibition of arousal arises from neurons located in the preoptic hypothalamus. These preoptic neurons are strongly activated during sleep, exhibiting sleep/waking state-dependent discharge patterns that are the reciprocal of that observed in the arousal systems. The majority of preoptic sleep regulatory neurons synthesize the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Anatomical and functional evidence supports the hypothesis that GABAergic neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) exert inhibitory control over the monoaminergic systems and the hypocretin system during sleep. Recent findings indicate that MnPN and VLPO neurons integrate homeostatic aspects of sleep regulation and are important targets for endogenous sleep factors, such as adenosine and growth hormone releasing hormone.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 02/2008; 1129(1):275-86. DOI:10.1196/annals.1417.027 · 4.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus contains progenitor cells, which have potential to differentiate into neurons. Previously we reported that 96 hours of total sleep deprivation reduces neurogenesis in the DG of adult rats. Loss of either non-rapid eye movement (NREM) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep could have contributed to the effect of total sleep deprivation. The present study assessed the effect of 4 days of REM sleep deprivation (REMD) on neurogenesis.
REMD was achieved by brief treadmill movement initiated by automatic online detection of REM sleep. A yoked-control (YC) rat was placed in the same treadmill and experienced the identical movement regardless the stage of the sleep-wake cycle. The thymidine analog 5- bromo- 2'- deoxy-uridine and the intrinsic proliferation marker, Ki-67, were both used to label proliferating cells.
Basic neurophysiology laboratory.
Male Sprague-Dawley male rats (300-320 g).
REM sleep was reduced by 85% in REMD rats and by 43% in YC, compared with cage control animals and by 79% in REMD rats compared with YC. NREM sleep and slow wave activity within NREM did not differ in REMD and YC groups. Cell proliferation was reduced by 63 % in REMD compared with YC rats, and by 82% and 51%, respectively, in REMD and YC rats compared with cage controls. Across all animals, cell proliferation exhibited a positive correlation with the percentage of REM sleep (r = 0.84, P < 0.001). Reduced cell proliferation in REMD rats was confirmed with the intrinsic proliferation marker, Ki-67. REMD also reduced the percentage of proliferating cells that later expressed a mature neuronal marker.
The present findings support a hypothesis that REM sleep-associated processes facilitate proliferation of granule cells in the adult hippocampal DG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study measured cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the adult rat at different times within a 12:12h light-dark cycle. The experiments were conducted in animals living in either a complex environment or in standard lab cages. A single dose of the thymidine analog 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 2h before animals were sacrificed either 4, 11, 16, or 23h after the beginning of the light phase of the light-dark cycle (designated ZT0). In both studies, we found a significant increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells in the subgranular cell layer (SGZ) following BrdU administration at ZT9 and sacrifice at ZT11, compared to other circadian times examined. BrdU administration at ZT9 was timed to primarily identify proliferating cells that were in the S phase of the cell cycle during the light phase. Our results suggest that cell proliferation is enhanced either by sleep or by other variables coupled to the light phase of the circadian cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sleep-promoting function for the rostral hypothalamus was initially inferred from the presence of chronic insomnia following damage to this brain region. Subsequently, it was determined that a unique feature of the preoptic hypothalamus and adjacent basal forebrain is the presence of neurons that are activated during sleep compared to waking. Preoptic area "sleep-active" neurons have been identified by single and multiple-unit recordings and by the presence of the protein product of the c-Fos gene in the neurons of sleeping animals. Sleep-active neurons are located in several subregions of the preoptic area, occurring with high density in the ventrolateral preoptic area (vlPOA) and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN). Neurons in the vlPOA contain the inhibitory neuromodulator, galanin, and the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA. A majority of MnPN neurons activated during sleep contain GABA. Anatomical tracer studies reveal projections from the vlPOA and MnPN to multiple arousal-regulatory systems in the posterior and lateral hypothalamus and the rostral brainstem. Cumulative evidence indicates that preoptic area neurons function to promote sleep onset and sleep maintenance by inhibitory modulation of multiple arousal systems. Recent studies suggest a role for preoptic area neurons in the homeostatic aspects of the regulation of both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep and as a potential target for endogenous somnongens, such as cytokines and adenosine.
Sleep Medicine 07/2007; 8(4):291-301. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2007.03.013 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF/LH) contains neuronal groups playing an important role in control of waking and sleep. Among the brain regions that regulate behavioral states, one of the strongest sources of projections to the PF/LH is the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) containing a sleep-active neuronal population. To evaluate the role of MnPN afferents in the control of PF/LH neuronal activity, we studied the responses of PF/LH cells to electrical stimulation or local chemical manipulation of the MnPN in freely moving rats. Single-pulse electrical stimulation evoked responses in 79% of recorded PF/LH neurons. No cells were activated antidromically. Direct and indirect transsynaptic effects depended on sleep-wake discharge pattern of PF/LH cells. The majority of arousal-related neurons, that is, cells discharging at maximal rates during active waking (AW) or during AW and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, exhibited exclusively or initially inhibitory responses to stimulation. Sleep-related neurons, the cells with elevated discharge during non-REM and REM sleep or selectively active in REM sleep, exhibited exclusively or initially excitatory responses. Activation of the MnPN via microdialytic application of L-glutamate or bicuculline resulted in reduced discharge of arousal-related and in excitation of sleep-related PF/LH neurons. Deactivation of the MnPN with muscimol caused opposite effects. The results indicate that the MnPN contains subset(s) of neurons, which exert inhibitory control over arousal-related and excitatory control over sleep-related PF/LH neurons. We hypothesize that MnPN sleep-active neuronal group has both inhibitory and excitatory outputs that participate in the inhibitory control of arousal-promoting PF/LH mechanisms.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 03/2007; 27(7):1616-30. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3498-06.2007 · 6.75 Impact Factor