[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical work and research activity using memory tests typically use measures of recall. While these measures are useful, they may restrict the nature of memory assessments. A memory test was developed to record encoding and recall times. Analyses were then conducted to determine whether these encoding and recall times related to recall performance. Results indicated that encoding time and recall time related significantly to recall performance. Data also revealed that while the strength of the relationship between encoding time and recall errors generally remained constant, the relationship between recall time and recall errors decreased as task demands increased.
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 04/1995; 10(2):89-99. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many individuals experience memory impairment subsequent to traumatic brain injuries (TBI). These memory deficits may result from general impairment of information processing rather than damage to memory critical neurological systems. The investigators examined learning time and recall errors for easy and hard word pairs in a distraction and no-distraction condition to examine learning patterns. Although results indicated that individuals with and without TBI generally showed the same learning and retrieval patterns, individuals with TBI did so in an accentuated manner. This suggests that attentional deficits associated with TBI are not responsible for subsequent memory deficits.
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 12/1994; 9(6):491-500. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The construct validity of a computer-assisted battery of neuropsychological tests (CNT) was explored with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers. A principal components analysis of inpatient scores revealed simple reaction time, response accuracy, visuomotor skill, and complex processing and memory components. A similar factorial structure was found in normal subjects. However, complex processing and memory measures emerged as separate vigilance and memory components in volunteers. CNT tasks were correlated with nine subtests of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE). Simple reaction time, and complex processing and memory measures discriminated impaired from nonimpaired inpatients as defined by the NCSE. Recommendations for research on CNT, and computer-assisted tests in general, are made.
Journal of Clinical Psychology 12/1993; 49(6):874-82. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 35 psychiatric inpatients with diagnosed with unipolar or bipolar depression were given tests of memory, depression, and affective aprosody prior to the initiation of pulse unilateral nondominant ECT. Following ECT treatment, patients were given the same battery of tests using alternate forms of the same tests. The results of this study showed significant treatment effects in all three dependent variables without significant interaction between variables. The implications of these findings were discussed.
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 02/1993; 8(1):35-40. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present investigation sought to enhance clinical utility of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE; Northern California Neurobehavioral Group, Inc.) by providing reference scores for an inpatient psychiatric sample and assessing construct validity. A total of 866 patients (aged 15-92 years) received an NCSE 2 to 4 days after admission. Examination of means, standard deviations, z scores, and percent who passed each screening item revealed consistently poorer performance for psychiatric patients relative to the original normative sample. Pearson product-moment correlations between age and each NCSE subtest similarly yielded significant negative correlations, particularly on tests predicted to be differentially sensitive to aging. Intercorrelations between subtests, however, failed to yield expected patterns of performance. We conclude that the NCSE provides a moderately valid screening instrument for cognitive impairment.
Journal of Clinical Psychology 02/1993; 49(1):80-9. · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subcortical hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging is a common incidental finding in healthy elderly subjects. The relationship of such changes to cognitive functioning remains unclear, however, because only a small number of studies have examined this issue with conflicting results. We therefore assessed 66 healthy adult volunteers (mean [+/- SD] age, 61.8 +/- 15.8 years) with magnetic resonance imaging scans rated for subcortical hyperintensity, and with two neuropsychological instruments selected a priori on the basis of previous reports in the literature. Findings were highly significant for both the Benton Facial Recognition Test and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol. However, in both cases, the majority of variance was accounted for by age and educational level. Effects of subcortical hyperintensity were not significant. We conclude that subcortical hyperintensity in healthy adults does not relate to cognitive functioning, at least with these two instruments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two hundred eighty-one patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or advanced AIDS-related complex were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of orally administered zidovudine (azidothymidine or AZT). Significant clinical benefits and adverse experiences have been reported from this trial. Because neuropsychiatric dysfunction is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a brief affective and neuropsychological examination was administered over 16 weeks of the trial to evaluate any changes in neuropsychological function that occurred with drug administration. Patients receiving zidovudine, particularly those with AIDS, showed improved cognition as compared with patients receiving placebo. There were no changes in affective symptoms. The zidovudine recipients also had a statistically significant reduction in the intensity of symptomatic distress during the trial that may account in part for the observed cognitive changes. Some improvement in various cognitive measures was also seen in patients with AIDS-related complex. The results of this study suggest HIV-associated cognitive abnormalities may be partially ameliorated after the administration of zidovudine.
New England Journal of Medicine 01/1989; 319(24):1573-8. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mini-Mental State Examination and the WAIS-R were administered to 105 patients in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. MMSE scores correlated 0.83 with full scale IQ, which indicates that the MMSE may be a reasonable alternative measure of overall intellectual functioning in Alzheimer patients, for whom more extensive testing is impractical or clinically inappropriate. The prediction formula is presented, along with a prediction table. Folstein and McHugh report that, as the WAIS Performance IQ falls below 100 in demented patients, that there is a concomitant decline in the MMSE below 24 points. Data from our laboratory further support what some clinicians have long suggested, ie, that in those cases where only the mental status examination can be given, this short test can provide a reasonably valid and reliable prediction of the patient's IQ score.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 07/1988; 36(6):509-10. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three experienced divers were subjected simultaneously to world record hyperbaric pressures using an oxygen-helium-10% nitrogen breathing mixture. The simulated depth reached by these divers was 686 m (2250 ft). Cognitive and emotional state measures were obtained predive, during compression, decompression, and postdive. Although the divers showed no overt signs of nitrogen narcosis or HPNS, declines in memory, adaptive, and spatial functions were seen at 670 m. These performance deficits were reversed when the divers returned to surface pressures. The observed declines in performance are discussed in light of their implications for future dives.
Undersea biomedical research 07/1986; 13(2):225-35.