[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical work and research activity using memory tests typically use measures of recall. While these measures are useful, they may restrict the nature of memory assessments. A memory test was developed to record encoding and recall times. Analyses were then conducted to determine whether these encoding and recall times related to recall performance. Results indicated that encoding time and recall time related significantly to recall performance. Data also revealed that while the strength of the relationship between encoding time and recall errors generally remained constant, the relationship between recall time and recall errors decreased as task demands increased.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many individuals experience memory impairment subsequent to traumatic brain injuries (TBI). These memory deficits may result from general impairment of information processing rather than damage to memory critical neurological systems. The investigators examined learning time and recall errors for easy and hard word pairs in a distraction and no-distraction condition to examine learning patterns. Although results indicated that individuals with and without TBI generally showed the same learning and retrieval patterns, individuals with TBI did so in an accentuated manner. This suggests that attentional deficits associated with TBI are not responsible for subsequent memory deficits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The construct validity of a computer-assisted battery of neuropsychological tests (CNT) was explored with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers. A principal components analysis of inpatient scores revealed simple reaction time, response accuracy, visuomotor skill, and complex processing and memory components. A similar factorial structure was found in normal subjects. However, complex processing and memory measures emerged as separate vigilance and memory components in volunteers. CNT tasks were correlated with nine subtests of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE). Simple reaction time, and complex processing and memory measures discriminated impaired from nonimpaired inpatients as defined by the NCSE. Recommendations for research on CNT, and computer-assisted tests in general, are made.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present investigation sought to enhance clinical utility of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE; Northern California Neurobehavioral Group, Inc.) by providing reference scores for an inpatient psychiatric sample and assessing construct validity. A total of 866 patients (aged 15-92 years) received an NCSE 2 to 4 days after admission. Examination of means, standard deviations, z scores, and percent who passed each screening item revealed consistently poorer performance for psychiatric patients relative to the original normative sample. Pearson product-moment correlations between age and each NCSE subtest similarly yielded significant negative correlations, particularly on tests predicted to be differentially sensitive to aging. Intercorrelations between subtests, however, failed to yield expected patterns of performance. We conclude that the NCSE provides a moderately valid screening instrument for cognitive impairment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 35 psychiatric inpatients with diagnosed with unipolar or bipolar depression were given tests of memory, depression, and affective aprosody prior to the initiation of pulse unilateral nondominant ECT. Following ECT treatment, patients were given the same battery of tests using alternate forms of the same tests. The results of this study showed significant treatment effects in all three dependent variables without significant interaction between variables. The implications of these findings were discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subcortical hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging is a common incidental finding in healthy elderly subjects. The relationship of such changes to cognitive functioning remains unclear, however, because only a small number of studies have examined this issue with conflicting results. We therefore assessed 66 healthy adult volunteers (mean [+/- SD] age, 61.8 +/- 15.8 years) with magnetic resonance imaging scans rated for subcortical hyperintensity, and with two neuropsychological instruments selected a priori on the basis of previous reports in the literature. Findings were highly significant for both the Benton Facial Recognition Test and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol. However, in both cases, the majority of variance was accounted for by age and educational level. Effects of subcortical hyperintensity were not significant. We conclude that subcortical hyperintensity in healthy adults does not relate to cognitive functioning, at least with these two instruments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two hundred eighty-one patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or advanced AIDS-related complex were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of orally administered zidovudine (azidothymidine or AZT). Significant clinical benefits and adverse experiences have been reported from this trial. Because neuropsychiatric dysfunction is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a brief affective and neuropsychological examination was administered over 16 weeks of the trial to evaluate any changes in neuropsychological function that occurred with drug administration. Patients receiving zidovudine, particularly those with AIDS, showed improved cognition as compared with patients receiving placebo. There were no changes in affective symptoms. The zidovudine recipients also had a statistically significant reduction in the intensity of symptomatic distress during the trial that may account in part for the observed cognitive changes. Some improvement in various cognitive measures was also seen in patients with AIDS-related complex. The results of this study suggest HIV-associated cognitive abnormalities may be partially ameliorated after the administration of zidovudine.
New England Journal of Medicine 01/1989; 319(24):1573-8. DOI:10.1056/NEJM198812153192404 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mini-Mental State Examination and the WAIS-R were administered to 105 patients in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. MMSE scores correlated 0.83 with full scale IQ, which indicates that the MMSE may be a reasonable alternative measure of overall intellectual functioning in Alzheimer patients, for whom more extensive testing is impractical or clinically inappropriate. The prediction formula is presented, along with a prediction table. Folstein and McHugh report that, as the WAIS Performance IQ falls below 100 in demented patients, that there is a concomitant decline in the MMSE below 24 points. Data from our laboratory further support what some clinicians have long suggested, ie, that in those cases where only the mental status examination can be given, this short test can provide a reasonably valid and reliable prediction of the patient's IQ score.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 07/1988; 36(6):509-10. DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1988.tb04020.x · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) is the most widely used instrument for clinical assessment of memory, and Russell's revision permits assessment of semantic and figural and immediate and delayed functions. It has recently been pointed out, however, that the revised version (WMS-R) lacks an adequate normative base, even for use with adults. Moreover, no norms have been developed for use with adolescents and older children. The present study introduces normative data for thesis measures of the WMS-R for youngsters from 9% to 15 % years of age. Data are presented separately by age and sex group. Results indicate that normal preadolescents and adolescents generally score in a range that would be considered impaired by Russell's rating system for adults. Moreover, the relationship between memory functioning, age, and verbal intelligence appears to differ as a function of sex. Present norms are proposed for use by the clinician in the screening of memory functions in children and adolescents and by the researcher in validity studies with samples of exceptional children. Issues of internal consistency reliability are discussed with reference to guidelines for use of the subtests.
Journal of clinical child psychology 09/1986; 15(3-3):214-220. DOI:10.1207/s15374424jccp1503_3
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interpretation of clinical memory tests generally emphasizes the quantitative aspects of recall. This study presents an additional unit analysis of the Logical Memory subtest of Russell's revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale for a variety of older adult groups. Patients' neuropsychological test data were reviewed, and the paragraphs from the Logical Memory subtest were analyzed using unit analysis (Rubin, 1978). The older adults consisted of a healthy group as well as groups whose diagnoses included Alzheimer's and multi‐infarct dementias, head trauma, and metabolic and affective disorders. Quantitative analyses of recall revealed group differences. Qualitative analysis of which memory units were recalled, however, showed similarities in memory processing among these groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is the second in a series of reports on longitudinal test performance on three Wechsler Memory Scale subtests (logical memory, paired associate learning, and visual reproduction) from the Duke First Longitudinal Study. In the first paper in this series hard associates and visual reproduction were found to decline in later life. In this paper issues of selective attrition and distance from death are evaluated.
Journal of Gerontology 04/1982; 37(2):176-81. DOI:10.1093/geronj/37.2.176
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated cross-sectional and longitudinal age relationships, after age 60, for three subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale: logical memory, associate learning, and visual reproduction. Cross-sectional regression analyses indicated that age, sex, race, and education accounted for approximately 20 to 35% of the variance in test scores, with education the strongest predictor. Longitudinally, consistent linear declines were found only for hard associates and visual reproduction. Visual reproduction was related more consistently and strongly to age than the two verbal subtests. The effects of selective attrition from the study were discussed.
Journal of Gerontology 04/1982; 37(2):169-75. DOI:10.1093/geronj/37.2.169
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Examined alternate-form reliabilities for the 2 subtests used in E. W. Russell's (see record 1976-08657-001) revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction. Ss were 25 females, aged 71–93 yrs. Reliabilities for immediate recall on both subtests were adequate (.74 and .71, respectively); those for delayed recall were less adequate (.67 and .60); and those for percentage-retained scores were unacceptable (.40 and .42). Recommendations for the development of an alternate form of the revised WMS are made. In addition, immediate recall scores from the 2 subtests were compared with those reported for various age groups in other investigations. Although there were discrepancies among studies in the absolute level of scores, it is clear that lower mean scores could be expected from older groups. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 05/1980; 48(2):296-8. DOI:10.1037//0022-006X.48.2.296 · 4.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In light of recent research on "dialysis dementia," two questions were raised: (1) Is such dementia an all-or-none phenomenon or is it distributed in severity throughout the population of dialysis patients? (2) Is the dementia related to the uremia itself or to some aspect of dialysis? Memory decline was used as the operational definition of dementia. The Russell revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale was used to measure short- and long-term semantic and figural memory. Results suggested that both semantic and figural memory disturbances were distributed in varying degrees throughout the population of dialysis patients (n = 28). Further findings suggested that figural memory functioning was negatively correlated with the number of dialysis sessions and with the amount of time elapsed since the first dialysis session. Suggestions are made for further research and clinical considerations.
Perceptual and Motor Skills 03/1980; 50(1):311-8. DOI:10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.521 · 0.66 Impact Factor