Carolyn H McCabe

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, United States

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Publications (190)2255.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It was the objective of this study to determine whether the intrinsic platelet response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) before thienopyridine exposure contributes to residual platelet reactivity to ADP despite high level P2Y12 blockade by prasugrel (60 mg loading dose [LD]), 10 mg daily maintenance dose [MD]) or high-dose clopidogrel (600 mg LD, 150 mg daily MD). High residual platelet function during clopidogrel therapy is associated with poor clinical outcomes. It remains unknown whether the relationship between platelet reactivity prior to treatment with clopidogrel (300 mg LD, 75 mg daily MD) and residual on-treatment platelet reactivity is maintained after more potent P2Y12 inhibition. PRINCIPLE-TIMI 44 was a randomised, double-blind, two-phase crossover study of prasugrel compared with high-dose clopidogrel in 201 patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation for planned percutaneous coronary intervention. ADP-stimulated platelet-monocyte aggregates, platelet surface P-selectin and platelet aggregation were measured pre-treatment, during LD (6 h and 18-24 h) and MD (15 d). Correlations of pre-treatment to on-treatment values were determined by Spearman rank order. Prasugrel resulted in greater platelet inhibition than high-dose clopidogrel for each measure. However, for both drugs, pre-treatment reactivity to ADP predicted 6 h, 18-24 h and 15 day reactivity to ADP (correlations 0.24-0.62 for platelet-monocyte aggregates and P-selectin). In conclusion, a patient's intrinsic platelet response to ADP before exposure to thienopyridines contributes to residual platelet reactivity to ADP despite high level P2Y12 blockade with high-dose clopidogrel or even higher level P2Y12 blockade with prasugrel. Patients who are hyper-responsive to ADP pre-treatment are more likely to be hyper-responsive to ADP on-treatment, which may be relevant to therapeutic strategies.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2011; 106(2):219-26. · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the known benefit of intensive statin therapy for reducing future cardiovascular events, its effectiveness in women has been questioned by some. In the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 (PROVE IT-TIMI 22) trial, 911 (21.9%) women and 3251 (78.1%) men were randomized to intensive statin (atorvastatin 80 mg) versus standard therapy (pravastatin 40 mg) therapy for a median duration of 2.1 years. The primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina; revascularization (occurring after 30 days); or stroke. Safety end points included elevations in liver function tests, creatine kinase, and myalgias/myositis. Women had a reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) of 42.8% from baseline at 30 days (to a median of 60 mg/dL) in the intensive therapy arm, with 88.8% reaching the LDL goal of <100 mg/dL and 65.0% of <70 mg/dL, compared with a 16.8% reduction in LDL (to a median of 88 mg/dL) in the standard therapy arm. Women receiving intensive statin therapy had a significant 25% relative reduction over standard dose (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.99; P=0.04) for the primary composite end point compared with a 14% reduction for men (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99; P=0.04; P-interaction, 0.38). No differences were observed between sexes for safety (all P-interaction ≥0.11). This trial provides evidence that both women and men derived benefit from intensive statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome, and thus, sex should not be a factor in determining who should be treated with intensive statin therapy.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 05/2011; 4(3):328-36. · 5.66 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2011; 57(14).
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin K antagonists have been the standard oral antithrombotic used for more than a half century for prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. Their limitations include multiple food and drug interactions and need for frequent monitoring and dose adjustments. Edoxaban is a selective and direct factor Xa inhibitor that may provide effective, safe, and more convenient anticoagulation. ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 is a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multinational, noninferiority design megatrial comparing 2 exposure strategies of edoxaban to warfarin. Approximately 20,500 subjects will be randomized to edoxaban high exposure (60 mg daily, adjusted for drug clearance), edoxaban low exposure (30 mg daily, adjusted for drug clearance), or warfarin titrated to an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0. The edoxaban strategies provide for dynamic dose reductions in subjects with anticipated increased drug exposure. Blinded treatment is maintained through the use of sham international normalized ratios in patients receiving edoxaban. Eligibility criteria include electrical documentation of atrial fibrillation ≤12 months and a CHADS(2) score ≥2. Randomization is stratified by CHADS(2) score and anticipated drug exposure. The primary objective is to determine whether edoxaban is noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism. The primary safety end point is modified International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding. Recruitment began in November 2008. The expected median follow-up is 24 months. ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 is a phase 3 comparison of the novel oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation.
    American heart journal 10/2010; 160(4):635-41. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of a strategy using enoxaparin for up to 8 days compared with unfractionated heparin (UFH) for 48 h as an adjunct to fibrinolysis for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on 1-year clinical outcomes. Follow-up at 1 year (n = 20 275) was conducted by telephone in the ExTRACT-TIMI 25 trial to ascertain the endpoints of death, MI, and disabling stroke. The primary endpoint of death or non-fatal MI occurred in 1614 (15.8%) and 1732 (17.0%) of patients allocated to enoxaparin and UFH, respectively [hazard ratio (HR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-0.98, P = 0.01]. The enoxaparin strategy significantly reduced non-fatal MI at 1 year (5.7 vs. 6.8%, HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.92, P < 0.001). The risks of death (10.5 vs. 10.6%, HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91-1.07) and disabling stroke (1.1 vs. 1.2%, HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.75-1.26) were not reduced. The composite of death, MI, or disabling stroke favoured enoxaparin (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.98, P = 0.007). Compared with UFH for 48 h, a strategy using enoxaparin as an adjunct to fibrinolysis resulted in a sustained reduction in death or MI at 1 year with no additional benefit after 30 days. Mortality was not reduced at 1 year with the enoxaparin strategy. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00077792.
    European Heart Journal 09/2010; 31(17):2097-102. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated natriuretic peptides (NPs) are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk following acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). However, the therapeutic implications are still undefined. We hypothesized that early inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in patients with preserved left ventricular function but elevated NPs but following ACS would reduce haemodynamic stress as reflected by a greater reduction NP compared with placebo. AVANT GARDE-TIMI 43 trial, a multinational, double-blind trial, randomized 1101 patients stabilized after ACS without clinical evidence of heart failure or left ventricular function <or=40% but with an increased level of NP 3-10 days after admission to aliskiren, valsartan, their combination, and placebo. The primary endpoint was the change in NT-proBNP from baseline to Week 8. NT-proBNP declined significantly in each treatment arm, including placebo, by Week 8, though there were no differences in the reduction between treatment strategies (42% in placebo, 44% in aliskiren, 39% in valsartan, and 36% in combination arm). Although several subgroups had higher baseline levels of NP and greater reductions over the study period, there were no differences among treatment groups in any subgroup. There were no differences in clinical outcomes but there were more adverse events, including serious events and adverse events leading to early study drug discontinuation, in patients treated with active therapy. In this study of a high-risk population with elevated levels of NPs but relatively preserved systolic function and no evidence of heart failure following ACS, there was no evidence for a benefit of early initiation of inhibition of RAAS with valsartan, aliskiren, or their combination compared with placebo with respect to a reduction in NP over 8 weeks of therapy. Moreover, adverse events were reported more frequently in patients assigned to active therapy.
    European Heart Journal 08/2010; 31(16):1993-2005. · 14.72 Impact Factor
  • American heart journal 05/2010; 159(5):705-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association of bleeding with mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We studied 20 323 patients with STEMI receiving fibrinolytic therapy and an antithrombin in ExTRACT-TIMI 25. Relationships between in-hospital bleeding, patient characteristics, treatments, and in-hospital cardiovascular complications with mortality were evaluated using Cox models. Likelihood ratios estimated each variable's model contribution. High 30-day mortality after major bleeding (n = 309, 37.6% mortality) was driven by the poor prognosis of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH; n = 143, 65.4% mortality, model contribution 7.8%). The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 30-day death for any major bleeding and for ICH were 2.9 [2.4-3.6] and 10.3 [8.2-12.8], respectively. Neither non-ICH major nor minor bleeding was associated with 30-day death after adjustment. Cardiogenic shock (HR 13.5, 61% contribution) and age (HR 1.6/decade, 17% contribution) were most strongly correlated with 30-day death. Among 30-day survivors, age (HR 1.6/decade, contribution 43%) and heart rate (HR 1.2 per 10 b.p.m., contribution 18%) were most strongly associated with mortality between Days 31 and 365. Cardiogenic shock, age, and ICH were important independent correlates of 30-day and 1-year mortality in STEMI patients receiving fibrinolytic therapy. In-hospital non-ICH major and minor bleeding were not independently associated with increased mortality at 30 days or 1 year.
    European Heart Journal 04/2010; 31(17):2103-10. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathobiological basis of ischemic heart disease and thus the manifestations and response to therapy can differ between women and men. In prior studies, sex-based treatment differences have been observed with the antiischemic ranolazine, with a possibly diminished effect in women. We conducted a prospectively planned analysis of the clinical, biomarker, angiographic, and continuous ECG features and 1-year outcomes of women with unstable ischemic heart disease randomized to ranolazine or placebo in Metabolic Efficiency With Ranolazine for Less Ischemia in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 36 (MERLIN-TIMI 36). Compared with men (n=4269), women (n=2291) were older with more risk factors (P<0.001). On presentation, women were less likely than men to have significant epicardial coronary artery disease (no stenosis >or=50% on angiography, 19.4% versus 8.6%; P<0.001) or elevated troponin (57.1% versus 68.9%; P<0.001). Yet, women were more likely to have an elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (47.0% versus 40.2%; P<0.001), worse median angina frequency scores (80 versus 100; P<0.001), and an ischemic episode on continuous ECG administered during the first 7 days (22.5% versus 19.3%; P=0.0025). Women and men were at similar adjusted risk for the primary end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or recurrent ischemia (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.29; P=0.15). Ranolazine was associated with a significant reduction in recurrent ischemia in women (13.0% versus 18.2%; hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.88; P=0.002). Women with a clinical syndrome consistent with unstable ischemic heart disease, despite having less obstructive coronary artery disease, were more likely than men to report anginal episodes and had more recorded ischemic periods on continuous ECG. In this setting, ranolazine may be a particularly useful antiischemic agent in women. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00099788.
    Circulation 04/2010; 121(16):1809-17. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to reducing first events in patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), we hypothesized that high-dose atorvastatin 80 mg would also reduce recurrent cardiovascular events, and therefore total events, compared with pravastatin 40 mg during the 2-year follow-up. In the PROVE IT-TIMI 22 (Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 22) trial, more intensive lipid lowering with high-dose atorvastatin reduced the first occurrence of the primary end point (death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring rehospitalization, stroke, or revascularization > or = 30 days) compared with moderate lipid lowering with pravastatin. Poisson regression analysis was performed to compare the number of occurrences of the primary end point between high-dose atorvastatin and pravastatin in the PROVE IT-TIMI 22 trial. As previously reported, first primary end point events were reduced by 16% with atorvastatin 80 mg versus pravastatin 40 mg (n = 464 vs. n = 537, respectively; p = 0.005). Additional events were also reduced by 19% with atorvastatin 80 mg (n = 275 vs. n = 340, respectively; p = 0.009). Overall, there were 138 fewer primary efficacy events with atorvastatin 80 mg versus pravastatin 40 mg (n = 739 vs. n = 877, respectively; rate ratio: 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.77 to 0.94, p = 0.001). Although analytic techniques commonly used in clinical outcomes trials censor patients who experience a component of the primary composite end point, total cardiovascular events are important to patients, clinicians, and health care payers. Maintaining low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is central to preventing additional atherosclerotic development and subsequent cardiovascular events. Atorvastatin 80 mg, a more intensive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering agent, reduced both first and subsequent primary end point events compared with pravastatin 40 mg after ACS.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2009; 54(25):2358-62. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thrombin potently activates platelets via interaction with the protease-activated receptor 1. SCH 530348 is a novel antiplatelet agent that selectively inhibits the cellular actions of thrombin via antagonism of the protease-activated receptor 1. Because SCH 530348 does not interfere with other pathways for hemostasis, it is possible that SCH 530348 reduces thrombosis with less increase in bleeding than do other potent antiplatelet agents. TRA 2 degrees P-TIMI 50 is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SCH 530348 during long-term treatment of patients with established atherosclerotic disease receiving standard therapy (up to 27,000). Eligible patients with a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or peripheral arterial disease are randomized 1:1 to SCH 530348 2.5 mg daily or matched placebo until the end of study. Randomization is stratified by the qualifying disease and planned use of a thienopyridine. The primary end point is the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or urgent coronary revascularization. The major secondary end point is the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The evaluation of long-term safety includes bleeding defined by the GUSTO and TIMI criteria. Recruitment began in September 2007. The trial will continue until 2,279 primary end points and 1,400 secondary end points are recorded with expected completion in 36 to 44 months from first enrollment. TRA 2 degrees P-TIMI 50 is evaluating whether a new approach to platelet inhibition via interruption of thrombin-mediated platelet activation reduces major cardiovascular events with a favorable safety profile in patients with established atherosclerosis.
    American heart journal 10/2009; 158(3):335-341.e3. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Otamixaban is an intravenous direct factor Xa inhibitor. We aimed to assess its efficacy and safety in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes and to identify the optimum dose range for further assessment in a phase 3 study. In this double-blind, phase 2 trial undertaken in 196 sites in 36 countries, 3241 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes were randomly assigned via a central, telephone-based interactive voice response system to one of five doses of otamixaban (0.08 mg/kg bolus followed by infusions of 0.035 [n=125], 0.070 [676], 0.105 [662], 0.140 [658], or 0.175 [671] mg/kg/h) or to a control of unfractionated heparin (60 IU/kg intravenous bolus followed by an infusion of 12 IU/kg/h) plus eptifibatide (180 microg/kg intravenous bolus followed by an infusion of 1.0-2.0 microg/kg/min [n=449]). Both investigators and patients were unaware of treatment allocation. Enrolment into the lowest dose group was stopped early at the recommendation of the Data Monitoring Committee. The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, urgent revascularisation, or bailout glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use up to 7 days. The primary safety endpoint was TIMI major or minor bleeding not related to coronary-artery bypass grafting. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat; safety analyses were in treated patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00317395. Rates of the primary efficacy endpoint in the five otamixaban doses were 7.2% (nine of 125) with 0.035 mg/kg/h, 4.6% (31/676) with 0.070 mg/kg/h, 3.8% (25/662) with 0.105 mg/kg/h, 3.6% (24/658) with 0.140 mg/kg/h, and 4.3% (29/671) with 0.175 mg/kg/h (p=0.34 for trend). In the control group, the rate was 6.2% (28/449), yielding relative risks for the five otamixaban doses of 1.16 (95% CI 0.56-2.38), 0.74 (0.45-1.21), 0.61 (0.36-1.02), 0.58 (0.34-1.00), and 0.69 (0.42-1.15), respectively. Rates of the primary safety endpoint in the five otamixaban doses were 1.6% (two of 122), 1.6% (11/669), 3.1% (20/651), 3.4% (22/651), and 5.4% (36/664), respectively (p=0.0001 for trend); the rate in the control group was 2.7% (12/448). In patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, otamixaban infusions of 0.100-0.140 mg/kg/h might reduce ischaemic events and have a safety profile similar to unfractionated heparin plus eptifibatide. Further testing in a phase 3 trial is warranted. Sanofi-Aventis.
    The Lancet 10/2009; 374(9692):787-95. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of prasugrel and clopidogrel in the setting of a glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor. Prasugrel reduced cardiovascular events as compared with clopidogrel in TRITON-TIMI 38 (Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38) but with increased bleeding. Researchers in the TRITON-TIMI 38 randomized 13,608 subjects with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention to prasugrel versus clopidogrel. The use of a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor was at the physician's discretion. For the current analysis, end points were examined at 30 days and were stratified by use of a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor. A total of 7,414 subjects (54.5%) received a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor during their index hospitalization. There was a consistent benefit of prasugrel over clopidogrel for reducing cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke in patients who did (hazard ratio: 0.76; 95% confidence interval: 0.64 to 0.90) or did not receive a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor (hazard ratio: 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 0.97, p(interaction) = 0.83). Prasugrel significantly reduced myocardial infarction, urgent revascularization, and stent thrombosis irrespective of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use. Although subjects treated with a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor had greater rates of bleeding, the risk of Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major or minor bleeding with prasugrel versus clopidogrel was not significantly different in patients who were or were not treated with GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor (p(interaction) = 0.19). Prasugrel significantly reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes after percutaneous coronary intervention regardless of whether or not a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor is used. The use of a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor does not accentuate the relative risk of bleeding with prasugrel as compared with clopidogrel.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2009; 54(8):678-85. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prasugrel is a novel thienopyridine that reduces new or recurrent myocardial infarctions (MIs) compared with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. This effect must be balanced against an increased bleeding risk. We aimed to characterize the effect of prasugrel with respect to the type, size, and timing of MI using the universal classification of MI. We studied 13 608 patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention randomized to prasugrel or clopidogrel and treated for 6 to 15 months in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TRITON-TIMI 38). Each MI underwent supplemental classification as spontaneous, secondary, or sudden cardiac death (types 1, 2, and 3) or procedure related (Types 4 and 5) and examined events occurring early and after 30 days. Prasugrel significantly reduced the overall risk of MI (7.4% versus 9.7%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 0.85; P<0.0001). This benefit was present for procedure-related MIs (4.9% versus 6.4%; HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.88; P=0.0002) and nonprocedural (type 1, 2, or 3) MIs (2.8% versus 3.7%; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.88; P=0.0013) and consistently across MI size, including MIs with a biomarker peak > or =5 times the reference limit (HR. 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.86; P=0.0001). In landmark analyses starting at 30 days, patients treated with prasugrel had a lower risk of any MI (2.9% versus 3.7%; HR, 0.77; P=0.014), including nonprocedural MI (2.3% versus 3.1%; HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.92; P=0.0069). Treatment with prasugrel compared with clopidogrel for up to 15 months in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention significantly reduces the risk of MIs that are procedure related and spontaneous and those that are small and large, including new MIs occurring during maintenance therapy.
    Circulation 06/2009; 119(21):2758-64. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the extent of platelet inhibition by prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in a TRITON-TIMI 38 substudy. TRITON-TIMI 38 randomized acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to prasugrel or standard dose clopidogrel. Selected sites prospectively enrolled TRITON-TIMI 38 patients to evaluate adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-attenuated phosphorylation of platelet vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) (n = 125 patients) and, in a subset (n = 31 patients), ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation. VASP platelet reactivity index (PRI) was lower in prasugrel-treated patients than in clopidogrel-treated patients at 1-2 h post-PCI (>or=1 h after loading dose) (P < 0.001) and at 30 days (P < 0.001). Maximal platelet aggregation to 20 microM ADP was lower in prasugrel-treated patients than in clopidogrel-treated patients at 1-2 h (P = 0.004) and 30 days (P = 0.03). Results were similar with 5 microM ADP. Thienopyridine hyporesponsiveness, prespecified as VASP PRI >50%, was more frequent in clopidogrel-treated patients than in prasugrel-treated patients at 1-2 h (P < 0.001) and 30 days (P = 0.03). The TRITON-TIMI 38 platelet substudy shows that prasugrel results in greater inhibition of ADP-mediated platelet function in ACS patients than clopidogrel, supporting the hypothesis that greater platelet inhibition leads to a lower incidence of ischaemic events and more bleeding both early and late following PCI.
    European Heart Journal 05/2009; 30(14):1753-63. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) Risk Index (TRI) is a simple bedside score that predicts 30-day mortality in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to evaluate whether TRI was predictive of long-term mortality and clinical events. In the TIMI 2 trial, 3,153 patients (mean age 57 +/- 10 years, 82% men) were randomized to invasive (n = 1,583) versus conservative (n = 1,570) strategy postfibrinolysis with median follow-up of 3 years. TIMI Risk Index was divided into 5 groups. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Secondary analyses included recurrent MI, congestive heart failure (CHF), and combined end points. When compared with group 1, mortality in group 5 was more than 5-fold higher (hazard ratio [HR] 5.83, P < .0001) and was also increased in group 4 (HR 2.80, P < .0001) and group 3 (HR 1.96, P = .002) (c statistic 0.69). No difference was seen between groups 1 and 2 (P = .74). A similar increasing gradient effect was seen across TRI strata with group 5 having the highest risk for CHF (HR 4.13, P < .0001) and the highest risk for composite death/CHF (HR 4.35, P < .0001) over group 1. There was no difference in recurrent MI between the groups (P = .22). After controlling for other risk indicators, the relationship between TRI and mortality remained significant: group 5, HR 4.11, P < .0001; group 4, HR 2.14, P = .0009; group 3, HR 1.69, P = .02. When stratified by TRI groups, no differences in mortality or composite death/MI were found between treatment strategies. The simple TRI can predict increased long-term mortality, CHF, and composite death/CHF.
    American heart journal 05/2009; 157(4):673-9.e1. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ranolazine is a novel antianginal shown in an exploratory analysis in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic angina to be associated with a decline in hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)). We designed a prospective evaluation of the effect of ranolazine on hyperglycemia as part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled outcomes trial. We compared HbA(1c) (percentage) and the time to onset of a > or =1% increase in HbA(1c) among 4918 patients with acute coronary syndrome randomized to ranolazine or placebo in the MERLIN-TIMI 36 trial. Ranolazine significantly reduced HbA(1c) at 4 months compared with placebo (5.9% versus 6.2%; change from baseline, -0.30 versus -0.04; P<0.001). In patients with diabetes mellitus treated with ranolazine, HbA(1c) declined from 7.5 to 6.9 (change from baseline, -0.64; P<0.001). Diabetic patients were more likely to achieve an HbA(1c) <7% at 4 months with ranolazine compared with placebo (59% versus 49%; P<0.001) and were less likely to have a > or =1% increase in HbA(1c) (14.2% versus 20.6% at 1 year; hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.77; P<0.001). Moreover, ranolazine reduced recurrent ischemia in diabetic patients (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.93; P=0.008). Notably, in patients without diabetes mellitus at baseline, the incidence of new fasting glucose >110 mg/dL or HbA(1c) > or =6% was reduced by ranolazine (31.8% versus 41.2%; hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.88; P=0.003). Reported hypoglycemia did not increase with ranolazine (P=NS). Ranolazine significantly improved HbA(1c) and recurrent ischemia in patients with diabetes mellitus and reduced the incidence of increased HbA(1c) in those without evidence of previous hyperglycemia. The mechanism of this effect is under investigation.
    Circulation 04/2009; 119(15):2032-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown seasonal variation in lipids. To understand whether this variation exists in patients with acute coronary syndromes receiving statins, we examined data from the PROVE IT-TIMI 22 Study. At baseline, no significant difference in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was observed when stratified by season. However, a statistically significant difference in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol between winter (37 mg/dl) and summer (39 mg/dl) was observed (p <0.001) at baseline. On treatment, median LDL cholesterol was 102 mg/dl in winter versus 96 mg/dl in summer (p <0.001) for the pravastatin group and 68 mg/dl in winter versus 62 mg/dl in summer (p <0.001) for the atorvastatin group. Median high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 43 mg/dl in summer versus 41 mg/dl in winter in the pravastatin group and 42 mg/dl in summer versus 39 mg/dl in winter in the atorvastatin group (p <0.001). More patients achieved LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl in summer at 56% versus 47% in winter in the pravastatin group (p <0.001) and 89% versus 87% in winter for the atorvastatin group (p = 0.11). Achievement of LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dl was also higher in summer than winter. In conclusion, this was the first evidence of seasonal variability in cholesterol in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with statins. This variability affected achievement of National Cholesterol Education Program goals and may affect management decisions based on season of collection.
    The American journal of cardiology 04/2009; 103(8):1056-60. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical reperfusion with stenting for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is supported by dual antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. Prasugrel, a potent and rapid-acting thienopyridine, is a potential alternative to clopidogrel. We aimed to assess prasugrel versus clopidogrel in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI. We undertook a double-blind, randomised controlled trial in 707 sites in 30 countries. 3534 participants presenting with STEMI were randomly assigned by interactive voice response system either prasugrel (60 mg loading, 10 mg maintenance [n=1769]) or clopidogrel (300 mg loading, 75 mg maintenance [n=1765]) and were unaware of the allocation. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat. Follow-up was to 15 months, with secondary analyses at 30 days. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00097591. At 30 days, 115 (6.5%) individuals assigned prasugrel had met the primary endpoint compared with 166 (9.5%) allocated clopidogrel (hazard ratio 0.68 [95% CI 0.54-0.87]; p=0.0017). This effect continued to 15 months (174 [10.0%] vs 216 [12.4%]; 0.79 [0.65-0.97]; p=0.0221). The key secondary endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or urgent target vessel revascularisation was also significantly reduced with prasugrel at 30 days (0.75 [0.59-0.96]; p=0.0205) and 15 months (0.79 [0.65-0.97]; p=0.0250), as was stent thrombosis. Treatments did not differ with respect to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding unrelated to coronary-artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery at 30 days (p=0.3359) and 15 months (p=0.6451). TIMI life-threatening bleeding and TIMI major or minor bleeding were also similar with the two treatments, and only TIMI major bleeding after CABG surgery was significantly increased with prasugrel (p=0.0033). In patients with STEMI undergoing PCI, prasugrel is more effective than clopidogrel for prevention of ischaemic events, without an apparent excess in bleeding.
    The Lancet 03/2009; 373(9665):723-31. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemoglobin (Hgb) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) are readily-available, routinely-obtained laboratory parameters that predict acute coronary syndrome outcomes. We sought to develop a laboratory index (LI) to predict early mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and determine the additional risk stratification offered by adding the LI to the TIMI Risk Score (TRS) for STEMI. The association between Hgb and CrCl values obtained at hospitalization and 30-day mortality was evaluated in 14,373 STEMI patients undergoing fibrinolysis in Intravenous NPA for the Treatment of Infarcting Myocardium Early II-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction-17 (InTIME II-TIMI 17). Logistic regression models determined the optimal combination of laboratory variables into a LI. Prognostic utility of the LI was validated in 18,427 STEMI patients from Enoxaparin and Thrombolysis Reperfusion for Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatment (ExTRACT)-TIMI 25. In InTIME II, Hgb levels <15.0 g/dL and CrCl <100 mL/min were significantly and independently associated with increased risk of death (OR(adj) 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.29 for each 1 g/dL decrease in Hgb, P < .001, and OR(adj) 1.23, 95% CI 1.17-1.29 for each 10 mL/min decrease in CrCl, P < .001, respectively). In multivariable analysis, the optimal weighting of Hgb and CrCl to form an LI to predict mortality was (15-Hgb) + (100-CrCl)/8. The LI revealed a 10-fold increase in death across prespecified groups (P < .001). The LI offered additional risk stratification across all TRS groups and improved the discriminatory ability of the TRS (c-statistic from 0.755 to 0.789, P < .001). External validation in ExTRACT showed similar enhancement of the prognostic capacity of the TRS (c-statistic from 0.747 to 0.777, P < .001). The LI is a simple, powerful tool to predict death in STEMI, either separately or with the TRS.
    American heart journal 03/2009; 157(3):517-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18k Citations
2,255.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Center for Hematologic Oncology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Department of Radiology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié salpêtrière - Charles Foix
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992–2011
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2010
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Boston Biomedical Research Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1994–2009
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 2007
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Medicine
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Michigan-Flint
      Flint, Michigan, United States
  • 2003
    • Assaf Harofeh Medical Center
      Ayun Kara, Central District, Israel
  • 2001–2002
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2000–2001
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1999
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven
      • Department of Cardiology
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium
    • Allegheny General Hospital
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Henry Ford Hospital
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 1997
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1996
    • Good Samaritan Hospital Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States