Mariana A Hacker

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Publications (35)54.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Many articles have shown that HIV infection can modify the clinical course of leprosy, but very scant epidemiological and clinical data about this co-infection are available in the peer-reviewed literature. We herein describe the geographical distribution and demographic characteristics of 92 HIV/Mycobacterium leprae co-infected patients assisted in a Brazilian Leprosy referral center. A multivariate analysis was performed in order to establish clinical factors associated with type 1 reaction. Co-infected patient admissions have steadily increased over the last years at this referral center. Most patients were men, with a mean age of 32.3 years and presenting with the paucibacillary form of leprosy. The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was the only factor associated with type 1 reaction. Most patients were living in the metropolitan area and the north sub area of Rio de Janeiro City. Co-infected patients receiving ART have a greater chance to develop type 1 reaction. Patients living with both HIV and leprosy are likely to live in regions characterized by a high density impoverished population.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 12/2013; DOI:10.1093/trstmh/trt113 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Dolores Silva · Carlos G G Ponte · Mariana A Hacker · Paulo R Z Antas
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro stimulation of whole blood or isolated peripheral blood cells with specific antigens is used for several purposes. We sought to identify a reliable, reproducible, fast and feasible in vitro method to assess human cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In contrast to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture, a whole blood assay (WBA) provides a more physiological environment, which may provide a broader assessment of serum biomarker, biosignature profiles. Twenty-three asymptomatic individuals with M. tuberculosis infection were recruited. Total cells from the WBA (diluted 1:3 in completed RPMI) and PBMC (2x10(5) cells/ml) plus M. tuberculosis Ag85A, Ag85B, ESAT-6 and M. bovis 65kDa were characterized by flow cytometry, then added in 96-well plates and on day 5 plasma and supernatants were harvested for detection of 17 cytokines by a Luminex array system. There was agreement between PBMC and WBA for IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-1β. There was evidence toward higher IL-10 (p≤0.049) and G-CSF (p≤0.012) plasma production, and higher IL-1β (p≤0.048), IL-4 (p≤0.044), IL-12p70 (p≤0.006), IL-17 (p≤0.002) and GM-CSF (p≤0.049) production for PBMC vs. WBA. Both methods provided virtually no reaction to the internal, negative control. Due to technical issues linked to data out of range, IL-8 data were not considered. These results suggest that, depending on the method employed, PBMC and/or WBA techniques provide fine conditions for the model proposed and thus whole blood cultures are well-suited low-cost proxy-measures during search for serum biomarkers.
    Acta tropica 04/2013; 127(2). DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.04.002 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze a profile of patients treated at a national leprosy outpatient referral clinic in metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, over a period of more than two decades, and the subgroup of nationally registered leprosy cases from the same residential area, as well as all registered cases statewide. An observational, descriptive analysis was carried out for patients treated from 1986 to 2007 at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic (Ambulatório Souza Araújo, ASA), a national referral center for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) that serves clients from the city of Rio de Janeiro and other municipalities in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro State. Demographic and clinical data for the subgroup of leprosy cases registered with Brazil's National Disease Notification System (Sistema Nacional de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) between 2001 and 2007 and residing in the same municipalities as the ASA patients, and for all registered cases statewide, were also analyzed. Among the ASA patients, there was a decrease in average family income (from 3.9 to 2.7 times the minimum salary between the periods 1998-2002 and 2003-2007); the proportion of multibacillary (MB) patients (from 52.7% to 46.9%); and the proportion of patients younger than 15 years old (from 12.8% to 8.7%). Among the MB patients, the average initial and final bacilloscopic indices were significantly higher in 2003-2007. Compared with the SINAN cases, more ASA cases involved disability and were younger than 15 years old. Patients living with leprosy in the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro belong to the most deprived social strata and have not benefited from the overall improvement in socioeconomic conditions in Brazil.
    Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 06/2012; 31(6):485-91. DOI:10.1590/S1020-49892012000600006 · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A need still exists to determine the clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of leprosy neuropathy at distinct times of the disease by different methods that measure the various nerve fiber functions. A prospective clinical study was performed with 10 paucibacillary (PB) and 12 multibacillary (MB) patients evaluated at diagnosis and one year after cessation of multidrug therapy (MDT). Peripheral nerve function was assessed clinically and by means of the sympathetic skin response, skin vasomotor reflex, and nerve conduction study (NCS). At diagnosis, 73% of the total 22 patients had nerve function impairment (NFI). Autonomic function (χ(2)= 5.5, P= 0.019) and NCS (χ(2)= 7.765, P= 0.01) were significantly more altered in MB than PB patients. At final evaluation, NFI of the MB patients had worsened, especially among the six who had leprosy reaction. As the NFI of PB patients showed improvement, a significant difference between the two groups (χ(2)= 12.320, P= 0.001) was observed. A high prevalence of neuropathy was observed in newly diagnosed patients. Associating different tests with a thorough clinical neurological evaluation increases detection rates.
    Brain and Behavior 05/2012; 2(3):249-55. DOI:10.1002/brb3.40
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    ABSTRACT: Drug users (DU) are a marginalized group and at risk for viral hepatitis, who seldom access health services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 111 DU with chronic HBV/HCV and 15 in-depth interviews with health professionals/policymakers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Most interviewees were male, non-white, with a low educational background, unemployed and/or living on less than $245 a month (minimun wage). In the last 6 months, 61.8% of interviewees snorted cocaine, 64.7% at least once a week. Half of the interviewees had a stable partner and 38.3% of those with occasional partners never/almost never using condoms. Addiction treatment seeking was found to be associated with: being white (OR:5.5), high-school degree (OR:8.7), and employment (OR:5.7). Hepatitis treatment seeking was high (80.9%), and access to low-threshold, user-friendly health services was key for treatment seeking behaviors (OR:3.6). Missed opportunities for hepatitis treatment seem to be associated with structural (uneven political/financial support to hepatitis programs) and patient-related barriers (severe addiction and non-adherence). Those most in need were less likely to access treatment, calling for renewed strategies, in order to curb hepatitis among impoverished drug users and their sexual partners.
    Ciencia & saude coletiva 12/2011; 16(12):4777-86. DOI:10.1590/S1413-81232011001300026
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    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article on p. e1013 in vol. 5.].
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 08/2011; 5(8). DOI:10.1371/annotation/fc90a4dd-99a7-4c48-9dee-0494a0180038 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing leprosy among the contacts of newly-diagnosed leprosy patients. A total of 6,158 contacts and 1,201 leprosy patients of the cohort who were diagnosed and treated at the Leprosy Laboratory of Fiocruz from 1987 to 2007 were included. The contact variables analyzed were sex; age; educational and income levels; blood relationship, if any, to the index case; household or non-household relationship; length of time of close association with the index case; receipt of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BGG) vaccine and presence of BCG scar. Index cases variables included sex, age, educational level, family size, bacillary load, and disability grade. Multilevel logistic regression with random intercept was applied. Among the co-prevalent cases, the leprosy-related variables that remained associated with leprosy included type of household contact, [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.73] and consanguinity with the index case, (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.42-2.51). With respect to the index case variables, the factors associated with leprosy among contacts included up to 4 years of schooling and 4 to 10 years of schooling (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.54-4.79 and 2.40, 95% CI: 1.30-4.42, respectively) and bacillary load, which increased the chance of leprosy among multibacillary contacts for those with a bacillary index of one to three and greater than three (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.19-2.17 and OR: 4.07-95% CI: 2.73, 6.09), respectively. Among incident cases, household exposure was associated with leprosy (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.29-2.98), compared with non-household exposure. Among the index case risk factors, an elevated bacillary load was the only variable associated with leprosy in the contacts. Biological and social factors appear to be associated with leprosy among co-prevalent cases, whereas the factors related to the infectious load and proximity with the index case were associated with leprosy that appeared in the incident cases during follow-up.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 03/2011; 5(3):e1013. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001013 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The contribution of Mycobacterium bovis to the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) in man is likely to be underestimated due to its dysgonic growth characteristics and because of the absence of pyruvate in most used media is disadvantageous for its primary isolation. In Brazil Mycobacterium culture, identification and susceptibility tests are performed only in TB reference centers, usually for selected cases. Moreover, solid, egg-based, glycerol-containing (without pyruvate supplementation) Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) or Ogawa media are routinely used, unfavouring M. bovis isolation. To determine the importance of M. bovis as a public health threat in Brazil we investigated 3046 suspected TB patients inoculating their clinical samples onto routine L-J and L-J pyruvate enriched media. A total of 1796 specimens were culture positive for Mycobacterium spp. and 702 TB cases were confirmed. Surprisingly we did not detect one single case of M. bovis in the resulting collection of 1674 isolates recovered from M. bovis favourable medium analyzed by conventional and molecular speciation methods. Also, bacillary DNA present on 454 sputum smears from 223 TB patients were OxyR genotyped and none was recognized as M. bovis. Our data indicate that M. bovis importance on the burden of human TB in Brazil is marginal.
    Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 01/2011; 91(1):14-21. DOI:10.1016/j.tube.2010.10.003 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Host genetic factors play an important role in the HIV epidemic dynamics, and have been considered in studies assessing susceptibility/resistance to HIV-1 infection as well as clinical evolution. Class I and Class II HLA alleles have been associated with the heterogeneity of HIV-1 infection susceptibility, as protective or risk factors for HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, a 32-base pair deletion in the HIV-1 CCR5 gene-coding region confers resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygous individuals for the deleted allele. In this study, DNA samples from HIV-1 infected and uninfected injecting drug users (IDUs) from Rio de Janeiro were PCR amplified to determine CCR5 genotypes based on the presence of the CCR5Delta32 mutation and typed for the HLA-B locus, in an attempt to assess possible associations between these genetic factors and susceptibility/resistance to HIV-1 infection. The distribution of CCR5 genotypes between the two IDU groups did not differ. The homozygous mutant genotype Delta32/Delta32 was not found in this study. Except for HLA-B*45 (4.0% vs. 3.0%; p=0.04) and for B*51 (12.1% vs. 4.4%; p=0.002), no statistically significant differences were made evident when analyzing the frequencies of each HLA-B allele between Caucasian and non-Caucasian IDUs. The most frequent HLA-B alleles were B*15; B*35; B*44 and B*51. Although some differences in the allele frequencies could be observed between the two IDU groups, none of these was statistically significant. Therefore, no putative association between these genetic markers and susceptibility/resistance to HIV-1 infection could be made evident in the present study. So far, the assessment of genetic markers among the IDU population has been restricted to North American, European, and Asian studies and this report represents a pioneer descriptive study of the distribution of CCR5 genotypes and HLA-B alleles in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 08/2009; 9(4):638-42. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2009.03.007 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. A substantial decline of HIV prevalence has been observed in injection drug users (IDUs) from Rio de Janeiro, in recent years. Differential characteristics and behaviors of new (injecting for =6 y) injectors may help to understand recent changes and to implement appropriate preven-tion strategies. Methods. Between October 1999 and December 2001, 609 active/ex-IDUs were recruited from different communities, interviewed, and tested for HIV. Contingency table analysis and t-tests were used to assess differences between new and long-term injectors. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HIV serostatus for long-term and new injectors. Results. HIV prevalence was 11.7% for 309 long-term injectors (95% CI 8.1–15.3) and 4.3% for 300 new injectors (95% CI 2.0–6.6). New injectors reported having engaged in treatment and having received syringes from needle exchange programs (NEPs) more frequently than long-term injectors in the last 6 months, but sharing behaviors remained frequent and even increased vis-à-vis long-term injectors. For male new injectors, “sexual intercourse with another man” was found to be the sole significant risk factor for HIV infection (Adj OR = 8.03; 95% CI 1.52–42.48). Among male long-term injectors, “to have ever injected with anyone infected with HIV” (Adj OR = 3.91; 95% CI 1.09–14.06) and to have “ever been in prison” (Adj OR = 2.56; 95% CI 1.05–6.24) were found to be significantly associated with HIV infection. Discussion. New injectors are seeking help in drug treatment centers or needle exchange programs. They differ from long-term injectors in terms of their risk factors for HIV infection and have lower prevalence levels for HIV. Such differences may help to understand the recent dynamics of HIV/AIDS in this population and highlight the need to reinforce new injectors’ help-seeking behavior and to reduce current unacceptably high levels of unprotected sex and syringe sharing in new injectors despite attendance of prevention/treatment programs.
    Substance Use &amp Misuse 07/2009; 40(1). · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, a declining prevalence of HCV infection has been described in injecting drug users (IDUs) in different countries. This study is the first to assess temporal trends in drug-injecting patterns, HCV infection rates and viral genotype distribution in 770 Brazilian IDUs, recruited by two cross-sectional studies (1994-1997 and 1999-2001). A substantial decline in the prevalence of HCV infection was found over the years (75% in 1994 vs. 20.6% in 2001, P<0.001) that may be a consequence of the significant reduction in the overall frequencies of drug injection and needle-sharing, as well as the participation of IDUs in initiatives aimed at reducing drug-related harm. No trend was found in terms of viral genotype distribution. Despite the favourable scenario, preventive measures must be maintained, especially in vulnerable subgroups such as young or new injectors, where risky behaviours through direct and indirect sharing practices remain common.
    Epidemiology and Infection 07/2009; 137(7):970-9. DOI:10.1017/S0950268808001970 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to study how structural determinants and the role of injecting drug users (IDUs) as a bridging population to the general population affected the AIDS subepidemic in southern Brazil during 1986–2000. Data from 288 southernmost Brazilian municipalities were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling and inputs from a Geographic Information System, a multilevel model was constructed. The dependent variable was the logged AIDS standardized incidence rate (among the heterosexual population aged 15–69-years-old); independent variables included indicators for education, water provision, sewage, and garbage collection, per capita income, Gini coefficient (on income), Human Development Index, indicators of accessibility, and AIDS rate among IDUs. Significant predictors included AIDS rate among IDUs, distance from/to highways/railways, the Human Development Index and the ratio of residents who have access to sanitary installations. Poverty (as measured by socioeconomic indicators) and bridging from IDUs contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS in Brazilian southern municipalities.
    Health & Place 06/2009; 15(2-15):514-519. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.09.011 · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • 12/2008: pages 629-654;
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    Francisco I Bastos · Cynthia B Cunha · Mariana A Hacker
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    ABSTRACT: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major determinant of population disease burden worldwide. The objective of the study was to assess self-reported morbidity associated to STIs according to gender. The study data were obtained from a 2005 study consisting of a multistage probabilistic sample of 5,040 respondents, aged 16-65 years, living in urban areas in Brazil. These data were compared with those from a previous 1998 study. Bivariate analyses were carried out using Pearson's chi-square test and simple linear regression followed by logistic regression. In both men and women, the variables: previous HIV testing, personal belief in unfaithful love, and number of sexual partners in a lifetime were significantly associated to STIs. In women only, the covariates: low family income, living in the Center-West, Southeast and South regions, and reporting of physical violence were independently associated to STIs. In men, the variables associated were: age group (35 years or more), living in the South region and in the state of São Paulo, and self-perceived HIV infection risk. Signs and symptoms associated to STIs have strong gender differences in the general population and education interventions should be specifically targeted to either men or women.
    Revista de Saúde Pública 06/2008; 42 Suppl 1:98-108. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    Francisco I Bastos · Neilane Bertoni · Mariana A Hacker
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    ABSTRACT: To assess alcohol and drug use in a representative sample of the urban Brazilian population and their correlation with sexual and reproductive health. Data from a national population-based survey with a complex sampling, performed in 2005 was used. A total of 5,040 individuals from both genders, in the age group from 16 to 65 years old, were interviewed. Issues regarding drug and alcohol use and sexual behavior were assessed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. Alcohol was the most frequently used substance, with reports of regular use in the lives of 18% of interviewees. Use of illegal drugs was mentioned by 9% of the interviewees especially marijuana and snorted cocaine; injected drugs use was not frequent. There was a decrease in snorted cocaine use and an increase in marijuana use (in the last 12 months), compared to results of a similar survey conducted in 1998. History of sexual abuse was a risk factor for drug use and regular alcohol use. Interviewees mentioning the role of religion in their background, being White, and female were less likely to use alcohol in a regular way, which is especially prevalent among elderly males.Leisure activities and absence of current religious practice were associated with drug use. The regular or irregular alcohol use is prevalent in the urban Brazilian population, whereas injected drug use is rare. Over the last decade there was a decline in cocaine use. A history of sexual abuse was central to later use of alcohol and drugs.
    Revista de Saúde Pública 06/2008; 42 Suppl 1:109-17. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102008000800013 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    Francisco I Bastos · Cynthia B Cunha · Mariana A Hacker
    Revista de Saúde Pública 01/2008; 42. DOI:10.1590/S0034-89102008000800012 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adherence is integral to improving and maintaining the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. Two-hundred HIV-positive adults recruited from teaching hospitals and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Rio de Janeiro City were assessed on socio-demographic factors, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and psychosocial factors hypothesized to be associated with ART. Predictors of non-adherence were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Self-reported medication adherence was high (82% had adherence >90%). Non-adherence was associated with personal factors (i.e. sexual orientation, self-efficacy), physical factors (i.e. loss of appetite) and interpersonal factors (i.e. doctor-patient relationship). Adherence in Brazil is as good, if not better, than that seen in the US and western Europe, which is noteworthy since the sample was derived predominantly from public healthcare settings. It is possible that the connection to NGOs in Rio de Janeiro City played a helpful role in achieving high levels of adherence in this sample of people living with HIV and AIDS. Recommendations, based on study findings, include enhancing and sustaining supportive services for NGOs, promoting patient self-efficacy and behavioral skills for adherence, increasing social network support and having healthcare providers directly address patients' medication beliefs, attitudes and experience with side effects.
    AIDS Care 07/2007; 19(6):740-8. DOI:10.1080/09540120600842516 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    Mariana A Hacker · Angela Kaida · Robert S Hogg · Francisco I Bastos
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    ABSTRACT: A review was carried out of papers published between 1996 and 2006, documenting the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in Brazil. Papers indexed in the MEDLINE and SciELO databases were retrieved using different combinations of keywords related to the management and care of AIDS in the post-HAART era: opportunistic diseases and co-infections, adherence to therapy, survival in the pre- and post-HAART eras, adverse events and side-effects, emergence and possible transmission of resistant viral strains, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and issues related to access to care and equity. The review documents the dramatic changes in HIV/AIDS disease progression in the post-HAART era, including an increase in survival and quality of life and a pronounced decrease in the episodes of opportunistic diseases. Notwithstanding such major achievements, new challenges have emerged, including slow evolving co-infections (such as hepatitis C, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders), the emergence of viral resistance, with consequences at the individual level (virological failure) and the community level (primary/secondary resistance at the population level), and impacts on the cost of new therapeutic regimens.
    Cadernos de Saúde Pública 02/2007; 23 Suppl 3:S345-59. DOI:10.1590/S0102-311X2007001500003 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA sequencing of a pol gene fragment from drug-naive injecting drug users samples obtained at two time points of the Brazilian AIDS epidemic (Pre-HAART era: 1994 to early 1997, n = 27; post-HAART era: 1999-2001, n = 38) was undertaken to assess HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance mutations and subtyping profiles. Genotypic analysis revealed the presence of PR primary L90M, D30N, M46I, and V82A mutations in 7.9% of the post-HAART group, and a high frequency of secondary mutations (84.2%). Nucleoside RT-associated mutations were observed in 13.2%. In the pre-HAART group, a higher frequency of RT mutations was observed (22.2%) and no PR primary mutations were found, in agreement with the introduction of protease inhibitors (PIs) in therapy during the same period. The identification of 7.9% of drug-naive injecting drug users already bearing RT/PR primary resistance mutations in the post-HAART era group constitutes a major concern in terms of dissemination of drug resistant viruses. The resistance mutations profile of the individuals may reflect the context of antiretroviral treatment in Brazil at the sample collection periods (1994-1997 and 1999-2001). In spite of the differences observed in the drug resistance profiles, similar frequencies of subtype B (63.0 vs. 73.7%), F (22.2 vs. 10.5%), and recombinant B/F (14.8 vs. 15.8%) viruses were found, respectively, in the pre- and post-HAART groups.
    Journal of Medical Virology 06/2006; 78(6):764-9. DOI:10.1002/jmv.20621 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    Francisco Inácio Bastos · Mariana A Hacker
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    ABSTRACT: Items from the UNGASS Draft Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001) are analyzed. The Brazilian experience of new methods for testing and counseling among vulnerable populations, preventive methods controlled by women, prevention, psychosocial support for people living with HIV/AIDS, and mother-child transmission, is discussed. These items were put into operation in the form of keywords, in systematic searches within the standard biomedicine databases, also including the subdivisions of the Web of Science relating to natural and social sciences. The Brazilian experience relating to testing and counseling strategies has been consolidated through the utilization of algorithms aimed at estimating incidence rates and identifying recently infected individuals, testing and counseling for pregnant women, and application of quick tests. The introduction of alternative methods and new technologies for collecting data from vulnerable populations has been allowing speedy monitoring of the epidemic. Psychosocial support assessments for people living with HIV/AIDS have gained impetus in Brazil, probably as a result of increased survival and quality of life among these individuals. Substantial advances in controlling mother-child transmission have been observed. This is one of the most important victories within the field of HIV/AIDS in Brazil, but deficiencies in prenatal care still constitute a challenge. With regard to prevention methods for women, Brazil has only shown a halting response. Widespread implementation of new technologies for data gathering and management depends on investments in infrastructure and professional skills acquisition.
    Revista de Saúde Pública 05/2006; 40 Suppl:42-51. · 1.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

381 Citations
54.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2013
    • Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
      • Institute of Communication and Scientific and Technological Information in Health (ICITC)
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 2006
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2004
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States