[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluoroquinolones, rapidly gaining prominence in treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SMP), are noted for their potency and tolerability. However, SMP may rapidly acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones. We evaluated associations of clinical factors with acquisition of levofloxacin resistance (LFr) in SMP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacilli is an emerging threat worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CRE).
American journal of infection control. 06/2014; 42(6):621-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Less costly but still accurate methods for monitoring HIV treatment response are needed. We prospectively evaluated if a qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification assay for virologic monitoring could maintain accuracy while reducing costs in Seoul, South Korea. We conducted the first prospective study comparing a qualitative PCR amplification of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) versus a commercial real time PCR assay (i.e. viral load) for virologic monitoring of 150 patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) between November 2011 and August 2012 at an urban hospital in Seoul, South Korea. A total of 215 blood plasma samples from 150 patients receiving ART for more than 6 months were evaluated. Using the individual viral load assay, 12 of 215 (5.6%) plasma samples had more than 500 HIV RNAcopies/mL. The qualitative PCR amplification assay detected individual samples with ≥ 500 HIV RNA copies/mL with 100% sensitivity. The specificities of the qualitative PCR amplification of HIV-1 RT assay were 94.1%, 93.6%, and 93.2% compared to the real time PCR at 500, 1000, and 5000 threshold of HIV RNA copies/mL, respectively, and $24,940 USD would have been saved for 150 patients during 10 months. The qualitative PCR amplification of HIV-1 RT assay might be a useful approach to effectively monitor patients receiving ART and save resources.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 04/2014; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation.
We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures.
Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together.
This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90080. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacilli is an emerging threat worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CRE).
We conducted a matched case-control study comprising 57 cases of acquisition of CRE and 114 controls (1:2 matched) selected from patients with a culture of carbapenem-susceptible E coli between January 2006 and December 2010 at a 2000-bed tertiary care center in South Korea.
On univariate analysis, previous use of carbapenem (P < .01), fluoroquinolone (P < .01), and glycopeptide (P < .01), as well as length of hospital stay (P < .05), were significantly associated with CRE acquisition. On multivariate analysis, previous use of carbapenem (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-14.46; P = .01) and previous use of fluoroquinolone (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.14-6.99; P = .03) were independent risk factors.
At this institute, the antibiotic selective pressure of carbapenems and fluoroquinolones was shown to be an important risk factor for the acquisition of CRE.
American Journal of Infection Control. 01/2014; 42(6):621–625.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Bacteremia with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii with carbapenem resistance is an important healthcare-associated infection that increases morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to assess the annual incidence and clinical characteristics of such bacteremia and to identify the risk factors for infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Methods: A retrospective cohort and case-control study was conducted in 483 HSCT recipients between January 2005 and December 2011 at a single tertiary center. Thirty-eight control HSCT patients without evidence of post-transplant infection were matched with 19 patients with bacteremia due to MDR A. baumannii in a 2:1 ratio. Results: The total incidence of carbapenem-resistant-MDR A. baumannii bacteremia was 0.52 cases/10,000 patient-days. In most cases (17 of 19, 89.5%), bacteremia developed after engraftment. Pneumonia was the origin of bacteremia in all patients. Eighteen (94.7%) patients with bacteremia and 3 (8.3%) without bacteremia died. In multivariate regression analyses, the duration between admission and HSCT (odds ratio (OR) 2.19 per 1-day increase, p = 0.030) and a history of care in an intensive care unit after HSCT (OR 32.2, p = 0.021) were independent risk factors for the development of carbapenem-resistant-MDR A. baumannii bacteremia. Conclusions: We report that carbapenem-resistant-MDR A. baumannii bacteremia in HSCT recipients is a fatal infectious complication and mainly develops after engraftment.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a potentially morbid and costly complication of surgery. While gastrointestinal surgery is relatively common in Korea, few studies have evaluated SSI in the context of gastric surgery. Thus, we performed a prospective cohort study to determine the incidence and risk factors of SSI in Korean patients undergoing gastric surgery.
A prospective cohort study of 2,091 patients who underwent gastric surgery was performed in 10 hospitals with more than 500 beds (nine tertiary hospitals and one secondary hospital). Patients were recruited from an SSI surveillance program between June 1, 2010, and August 31, 2011 and followed up for 1 month after the operation. The criteria used to define SSI and a patient's risk index category were established according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. We collected demographic data and potential perioperative risk factors including type and duration of the operation and physical status score in patients who developed SSIs based on a previous study protocol.
A total of 71 SSIs (3.3%) were identified, with hospital rates varying from 0.0 - 15.7%. The results of multivariate analyses indicated that prolonged operation time (P = 0.002), use of a razor for preoperative hair removal (P = 0.010), and absence of laminar flow in the operating room (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for SSI after gastric surgery.
Longer operation times, razor use, and absence of laminar flow in operating rooms were independently associated with significant increased SSI risk after gastric surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: There have been various efforts to identify less costly but still accurate methods for monitoring the response to HIV treatment. We evaluated a pooling method to determine if this could improve screening efficiency and reduce costs while maintaining accuracy in Seoul, South Korea. Methods: We conducted the first prospective study of pooled nucleic acid testing (NAT) using a 5 minipool + algorithm strategy versus individual viral load testing for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) between November 2011 and August 2012 at an urban hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The viral load assay used has a lower level of detection of 20 HIV RNA copies/ml, and the cost per assay is US$ 136. The 5 minipool +algorithm strategy was applied and 43 pooled samples were evaluated. The relative efficiency and accuracy of the pooled NAT were compared with those of individual testing. Results: Using the individual viral load assay, 15 of 215 (7%) plasma samples had more than 200 HIV RNA copies/ml. The pooled NAT using the 5 minipool + algorithm strategy was applied to 43 pooled samples; 111 tests were needed to test all samples when virologic failure was defined at HIV RNA ≥ 200 copies/ml. Therefore, 104 tests were saved over individual testing, with a relative efficiency of 0.48. When evaluating costs, a total of US$ 14,144 was saved for 215 individual samples during 10 months. The negative predictive value was 99.5% for all samples with HIV RNA ≥ 200 copies/ml. Conclusions: The pooled NAT with 5 minipool + algorithm strategy seems to be a very promising approach to effectively monitor patients receiving ART and to save resources.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of humoral immune response to nosocomial pathogens and functional status in elderly patients with sepsis is not clear. We evaluated the humoral immune to nosocomial pathogens and the effect of functional dependencies on clinical outcomes among elderly patients with sepsis. This study prospectively enrolled patients aged ≥65 years with sepsis from September 2011 to May 2012 at a 2000-bed university hospital. The data including CD4 and CD8 T-cell count, functional status by measuring basic activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were collected for all patients. In addition, the collected blood samples were analyzed for serum antibody levels against nosocomial pathogens using an ELISA. During the study period, 72 patients (38 males) treated with sepsis were enrolled. The all-cause in-hospital mortality rate was 16.7% (12/72). The mean CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio was significantly lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors (1.08±0.72 vs. 1.93±1.42, P=0.003). Serum antibody titers to Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Enterococcus faecalis were statistically higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors. On multivariate analysis, the IADL score was independently predictive of mortality in elderly patients with sepsis (odds ratio 1.410, 95% confidence interval 1.007-1.975, P=0.046). These results suggest that IADL scores could be used as predictors to identify elderly patients with a poor prognosis of nosocomial infections.
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 08/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has extended the life expectancy of persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently an increasing concern for HIV-infected persons. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study to evaluate and compare the 10-y cardiovascular risk of HIV-infected Koreans who had been receiving HAART for over 6 months and age- and sex-matched uninfected persons who visited a health promotion center, by calculating Framingham risk scores (FRS). Results: The average 10-y risk for cardiovascular events (FRS) was 7.07% (2-45) in the HIV group and 6.87% (1-37) in the control group (p = 0.77), corresponding to the very low risk group. Among HIV patients, the FRS was above 10% (low to moderate cardiovascular risk) in 19.9% of the patients, and above 20% (high risk) in 1.7% of the patients. In the healthy control group, the FRS was above 10% in 16.8% and above 20% in 2.7% (p = 0.57). The FRS was not significantly different for HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitor (PI)-based HAART and those treated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based HAART (7.26 ± 6.3 and 6.81 ± 4.4, respectively, p = 0.69). Conclusions: The predicted cardiovascular risk of HIV-infected Koreans on HAART by FRS equation was low and similar to that of age- and sex-matched healthy control persons. However, the possibility remains that actual cardiovascular events could be underestimated. The next step for predicting the cardiovascular risk is to calculate the Data Collection of Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) equation risks.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of HIV drug-resistance mutations among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve and experienced patients in South Korea. A total of 50 ART-naïve and 34 ART-experienced Korean HIV-1 infected patients who visited an urban hospital from February 2007 to March 2011 were included. Most patients (86.9%) were infected with clade B HIV-1. Six (12%) ART-naïve and 22 (64.7%) ART-experienced patients had HIV strains with resistance mutations. Among ART-naïve patients, V179D was the most common mutation, being found in five ART naïve patients. Among ART-experienced patients, M184V was the most common mutation. Eight of 34 ART-experienced patients had thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs). The prevalence of drug-resistant HIV-1 in ART-naïve patients was higher than in previous reports, and 50% of patients with virologic failure harbored strains with multiple resistance mutations. HIV drug-resistance testing should be recommended to guide therapy of ART-naïve patients in South Korea.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 08/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly improved the survival rate in HIV-infected individuals, but it contributes to the development of various metabolic complications. Klotho is a novel antiaging gene that encodes a protein with pleiotropic functions, including an emerging role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The protective effect of higher plasma klotho levels against CVD was recently observed in non HIV-infected adults. We aimed to assess whether plasma secreted α-klotho is associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients receiving cART. We prospectively examined the association of circulating plasma α-klotho in 120 HIV-infected patients who had received cART for ≥ 6 months with intima-media thickness (IMT) in the carotid artery and other metabolic variables. The subclinical carotid atherosclerosis was defined as increased mean-IMT level of ≥ 75th percentile for the matched age, sex and race and/or the presence of carotid plaque. Thirty-four (28.3%) of 120 had subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. The higher plasma levels of α-klotho had protective effect against subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (OR 0.006, p = 0.034) in multivariate regression analysis. Plasma α-klotho levels had a significantly negative correlation with fasting glucose levels (r = -0.216, p=0.018) and mean-IMT (r = -0.258, p = 0.004) in multiple stepwise regression analyses. The optimal cutoff values of plasma α-klotho levels for the greatest sensitivity and specificity was calculated as 2.83 log10[pg/mL] (sensitivity, 48.7%; specificity, 90.5%). These results show that plasma klotho levels were inversely associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients receiving cART.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 08/2013; · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gram-negative bacteremia is common in elderly patients and, compared with younger patients, mortality rates in bacteremic elderly patients are high. ESBL-producing organisms were one of the most important risk factors associated with mortality. In addition, older age is one of risk factors for colonization or infection with ESBL-producing organisms. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate risk factors of all-cause 28-day mortality in elderly patients with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) bacteremia. Patients aged 65 years or older, who had one or more blood cultures positive for E. coli and K. pneumoniae and who were hospitalized between January 2006 and December 2010 at a tertiary-care teaching hospital, were included. 191 bacteremic elderly patients were eligible for the study. The all-cause 28-day mortality rate was 24.6% (47/191). In multivariate analysis, prior antimicrobial therapy (p=0.014) and an elevated SOFA score (p<0.001) were independent risk factors for increased mortality, while urinary tract infection (UTI) was an independent determinant for non-mortality (p=0.011). In the current study, prior antimicrobial therapy within 30 days, an elevated SOFA score and nonurinary source of infection were significantly associated with adverse outcomes in elderly patients with ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteremia.
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 08/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: HIV-infected patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be mediated in part by inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of carotid plaque, and clinical factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT) in HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Clinical and cardiometabolic factors as well as cIMT were prospectively measured in 145 HIV-infected participants who had received combined antiretroviral therapy for ≥6 months. The mean value of the bilateral average cIMT level was used as Mean-IMT in the analysis, and the greatest value among the measured cIMT levels was used as Max-IMT. Results: Among 145 patients, 34 (23.4%) had carotid plaque. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed three independent risk factors of carotid plaque: old age [odds ratio (OR) 6.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-34.88; p=0.040], hypertension (OR 12.62, 95% CI 1.72-92.49; p=0.013) and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16; p=0.039). Levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate were inversely associated with Mean-IMT (r=-0.379, p<0.001) and Max-IMT (r=-0.389, p<0.001). Stepwise multivariate regression analyses revealed that age, total cholesterol and fasting glucose were positively correlated with cIMT, independent of other risk factors. Conclusion: The presence of hypertension, old age and a higher level of LDL-C were independent risk factors of carotid plaque among HIV-infected subjects.
Yonsei medical journal 07/2013; 54(4):990-998. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Severe sepsis is associated with an unacceptably high rate of mortality. Recent studies revealed elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic and vascular permeability factor, in patients with sepsis. There was also an association between VEGF levels and sepsis severity. Here we investigate the effects of an anti-VEGF antibody (Bevacizumab, Bev) in an experimental model of sepsis. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and endotoxemia models of sepsis were used. HUVECs were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or Bev, harvested, and cytokine mRNA levels determined using a semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokine were also determined in HUVECs supernatants. In addition, the effects of Bev on mortality in the CLP and endotoxemia models of sepsis were evaluated. RESULTS: Treatment with Bev and LPS significantly decreased the expression and the level of inflammatory cytokines in HUVECs relative to LPS alone. In CLP and endotoxemia models, survival benefits were evident in mice given 0.1 mg/kg of Bev relative to the CLP or LPS alone (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively), and in 6 h post-treated mice relative to the CLP alone for the effect of different time of Bev (P = 0.033). In addition, Bev treatment inhibited LPS-induced vascular leak in the lung, spleen, and kidney in the murine endotoxemia model (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VEGF antibody may be a promising therapeutic agent due to its beneficial effects on the survival of sepsis by decreasing inflammatory responses and endothelial permeability.
Critical care (London, England) 05/2013; 17(3):R97. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to recognize the state of vitamin D among healthy infants aged 1 to 6 months in South Korea, and also to identify the risk factors affecting the level of vitamin D.
A total of 117 infants were enrolled in this study for 12 months, from March 1, 2011 to February 29, 2012. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were measured and data including birth weight, body weight, sex, feeding pattern, delivery mode, siblings and maternal age and occupation were collected. Data was mainly analyzed with independent t-test model.
We determined that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D<20 ng/mL [50 mmol/L]) was 48.7% in the population investigated. Particularly in breastfed infants, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was strikingly high (90.4%). The mean serum level of 25(OH)D in breastfed infants was lower than that of formula fed infants (9.35 ng/mL vs. 28.79 ng/mL). Also female infants showed lower mean serum level of 25(OH)D than male. Mean serum values of calcium and phosphorus had positive correlation with vitamin D state (P<0.001).
Vitamin D deficiency was found to be very common in infants aged 1 to 6 months in South Korea, and breast feeding was the most critical risk factor of vitamin D deficiency. Therefore we suggest to start vitamin D supplementation in South Korea, as soon as possible, to all infants, including breastfed and female infants.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2013; 56(5):205-10.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a concern across the worldwide. METHODS: Antibiotic stewardship and hand hygiene programs were reinforced in a 2,000-bed tertiary hospital in South Korea where the methicillin resistance rate of Staphylococcus aureus is about 65%. The computerized prescription restriction was implemented in August 2008. "Hand hygiene program," consistent with World Health Organization guideline, was reinforced in December 2008. We assessed the effect of the infection control programs on the incidence of MRSA bloodstream infection (BSI) from January 2006 through November 2011. RESULTS: Incidence of MRSA BSI was reduced from 0.171 per 1,000 patient-days in 2009 to 0.116 per 1,000 patient-days in 2011 (P = .009). Monthly mean antibiotic consumption decreased from 690.54 ± 28.33 defined daily dose per 1,000 patients-days in 2008 to 652.47 ± 20.77 (P = .015) in 2011. The rates of performance in hand hygiene increased from 43% in 2008 to 83% in 2011 (P = .043). CONCLUSION: Although we did not implement all components of "MRSA bundle," efforts to reinforce antibiotic stewardship and hand hygiene program for 3 years had beneficial effects on the decrease in MRSA BSI in this institute with high rate of MRSA.
American journal of infection control 03/2013; · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using transient elastography (Fibroscan®) can identify individuals with potential underlying liver disease. We evaluated the prevalence of abnormal LSM values as assessed using LSM and its predictors in HIV-infected asymptomatic patients receiving combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) without HBV/HCV coinfection.
We prospectively recruited 93 patients who had consistently been undergoing cART for more than 12 months at Severance Hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from June to December 2010. LSM values >5.3 kPa were defined as abnormal.
Thirty-nine (41.9%) had abnormal LSM values. On multivariate correlation analysis, the cumulative duration of boosted and unboosted protease inhibitors (PIs) were the independent factors which showed a negative and positive correlation to LSM values, respectively (β = -0.234, P = 0.023 and β = 0.430, P<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the cumulative exposure duration of boosted-PIs and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels were selected as the independent predictors which showed a negative and positive correlation with abnormal LSM values, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 0.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.889-0.997; P = 0.039 and OR, 1.032; 95% CI, 1.004-1.060; P = 0.023).
The high percentage of HIV-infected asymptomatic patients receiving cART without HBV/HCV coinfection had abnormal LSM values. The cumulative exposure duration of boosted-PIs and γ-GT level were independent predictors which showed a negative and positive correlation with abnormal LSM values, respectively.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e52720. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is an important long term complication in chronic asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), because it can contribute to morbidity and mortality via cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, a predictive marker for early detection of metabolic syndrome may be necessary to prevent CVD in HIV-infected subjects. Retinol-binding protein- 4 (RBP-4) has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome in various non-HIV-infected populations. We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate whether serum RBP-4 levels are correlated with metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected subjects receiving HAART. In total, 98 HIV-infected Koreans who had been receiving HAART for at least 6 months were prospectively enrolled. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, and serum RBP-4 concentrations were measured using human RBP-4 sandwich enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay. Serum RBP-4 levels were significantly higher in HIV-infected subjects receiving HAART with metabolic syndrome (n=33, 33.9±7.7 μg/mL) than in those without it (n=65, 29.9±7.2 μg/mL) (p=0.012). In multivariate linear regression analysis, the number of components of metabolic syndrome presented and waist circumference were independently, significantly correlated with RBP-4 (p=0.018 and 0.030, respectively). In conclusion, we revealed a strong correlation between RBP-4 and the number of components of metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected subjects receiving HAART.
Yonsei medical journal 11/2012; 53(6):1211-5. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The effects of tuberculosis (TB) on the kinetics of CD4(+) T cells among HIV-infected individuals with early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after TB therapy initiation are poorly characterized. We conducted a case-control study with 15 HIV-TB-coinfected patients who initiated TB treatment and early cART, and 30 controls without TB who had similar CD4(+) T cell counts and viral loads at the time of starting cART. We compared the rate of CD4(+) T cell increase for 5 years after cART. The time to CD4(+) T cell increase >250 cells/mm(3) was significantly slower in HIV-TB-coinfected patients (p=0.015, by log rank test). HIV-TB-coinfected patients had significantly lower median CD4(+) T cell counts at 5 years after cART (p=0.048). The difference in CD4(+) T cell increase was observed only during the first 6 months after cART initiation (p=0.002). These data suggest that TB slows the rate of CD4(+) T cell recovery at an early period after cART. The effects of TB on the long-term immunity of HIV-infected patients should be further evaluated.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 08/2012; · 2.18 Impact Factor