[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over recent decades, the prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased markedly in developed and developing countries, and the impact of obesity on health throughout the lifespan has led to urgent calls for action. Family-based weight management interventions that emphasize healthy lifestyle changes can lead to modest improvements in weight status of children with obesity. However, these interventions are generally short in duration, reported in the context of randomized controlled trials and there are few reports of outcomes of these treatment approaches in the clinical setting. Answering these questions is critical for improving the care of children with obesity accessing outpatient health services for weight management. In response, the CANadian Pediatric Weight management Registry (CANPWR) was designed with the following three primary aims:1. Document changes in anthropometric, lifestyle, behavioural, and obesity-related co-morbidities in children enrolled in Canadian pediatric weight management programs over a three-year period;2. Characterize the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of change in anthropometric and obesity-related co-morbidities;3. Examine the individual-, family-, and program-level determinants of program attrition.Methods/design: This prospective cohort, multi-centre study will include children (2 - 17 years old; body mass index >=85th percentile) enrolled in one of eight Canadian pediatric weight management centres. We will recruit 1,600 study participants over a three-year period. Data collection will occur at presentation and 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-months follow-up. The primary study outcomes are BMI z-score and change in BMI z-score over time. Secondary outcomes include anthropometric (e.g., height, waist circumference,), cardiometabolic (e.g., blood pressure, lipid profile, glycemia), lifestyle (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary activity), and psychosocial (e.g., health-related quality of life) variables. Potential determinants of change and program attrition will include individual-, family-, and program-level variables.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe obesity (SO) in pediatrics has become increasing prevalent in recent decades.The objective of our study was to examine differences in demographic, anthropometric, cardiometabolic, and lifestyle variables in children and youth with SO versus their less overweight/obese (OW/OB) peers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES
To determine the prevalence of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) in children and examine the demographic, adiposity, and lifestyle predictors of MHO status.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
This cross-sectional study included 8-17-year-olds with a BMI ≥85th percentile who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary pediatric weight management clinic from 2005-2010. Demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and cardiometabolic data were retrieved by retrospective medical record review. Participants were dichotomized as either MHO or metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) according to two separate classification systems based on: 1) insulin resistance (IR); and 2) cardiometabolic risk (CR) factors (blood pressure, serum lipids, and glucose). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of MHO using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs.RESULTSThe prevalence of MHO-IR was 31.5% (n = 57 of 181) and MHO-CR was 21.5% (n = 39 of 181). Waist circumference (OR 0.33 [CI: 0.18-0.59]; P = 0.0002) and dietary fat intake (OR 0.56 [CI: 0.31-0.95]; P = 0.04) were independent predictors of MHO-IR; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR 1.80 [95% CI 1.24-2.62]; P = 0.002) was the strongest independent predictor of MHO-CR.CONCLUSIONS
Up to one in three children with obesity can be classified as MHO. Depending on the definition, adiposity and lifestyle behaviors both play important roles in predicting MHO status. These findings can inform for whom health services for managing pediatric obesity should be prioritized, especially in circumstances when boys and girls present with CR factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:To examine the longitudinal associations between different physical activity intensities and cardiometabolic risk factors among a sample of Canadian youth.Methods:The findings are based on a 2-year prospective cohort study in a convenience sample of 315 youth aged 9 to15 years at baseline from rural and urban schools in Alberta, Canada. Different intensities (light, moderate, vigorous) of physical activity were objectively-assessed with Actical accelerometers. The main outcome measures were body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, and systolic blood pressure at 2-year-follow-up and conditional BMI z-score velocity. A series of linear regression models were conducted to investigate the associations after adjusting for potential confounders.Results:At follow-up, cardiorespiratory fitness increased (Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4=43.3 vs 50.2; Ptrend<0.01) and waist circumference decreased (Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4=79.0 vs 72.6; Ptrend=0.04; boys only) in a dose-response manner across quartiles of baseline vigorous-intensity physical activity. A similar trend was observed for systolic blood pressure (Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4=121.8 vs 115.3; Ptrend=0.07; boys only). Compared to quartile 1 of vigorous-intensity physical activity, BMI z-score at follow-up and conditional BMI z-score velocity were significantly lower in the quartile two and three (P<0.05). Waist circumference at follow-up also decreased (Quartile 1 vs Quartile 4=75.3 vs 73.8; Ptrend=0.04) across quartiles of baseline moderate-intensity physical activity.Conclusions:Time spent in vigorous-intensity PA was associated with several positive health outcomes two years later. These findings suggest that high-intensity activities in youth help to reduce the risk for several chronic diseases.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 26 July 2013. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.135.
International journal of obesity (2005) 07/2013; · 5.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of pediatric obesity has made preventing chronic diseases through healthy lifestyle behaviours a priority within pediatrics. Examining the association between diet and insulin sensitivity (IS) in youth may provide important insights for tailoring preventative dietary interventions. The objective of this study was to explore the associations among anthropometry, diet, and IS in 10- to 14-year-olds. In this cross-sectional study, the primary outcome measure was IS, measured noninvasively using a (13)C glucose breath test. Exposure variables included body mass index (BMI) z score and several dietary variables, including glycemic index (GI), glycemic load, and fiber, magnesium, vegetable and fruit, and fat intakes, all of which were derived from a validated, Web-based 24-h recall tool. Multiple regression analyses were performed for boys and girls separately. In total, 378 students (227 girls) aged 12.1 ± 1.2 years were studied. In this sample ∼24% of youth were considered overweight or obese (BMI z score = 0.41 ± 0.93). Multiple regression analyses showed that BMI z score was negatively and independently associated with (13)C insulin sensitivity score ((13)CISS) in both boys and girls (boys: β = -0.501; girls: β = -0.446; both p < 0.001). GI was negatively and independently related to (13)CISS in boys (β = -0.195, p < 0.05) but not in girls. Other dietary variables were not associated with IS. In addition to BMI z score, a low GI diet predicted (13)CISS in boys but not in girls. This finding suggests that interventions that reduce BMI (in both sexes) and include a low GI diet among boys may improve IS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few Canadian children are meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines for optimal growth and health. There is little information describing the patterns of PA among Canadian youth, so it is difficult to determine where the deficits occur. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of youth and windows of time characterized by low PA and high sedentary behaviour. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 626 youth (aged 10-15 years) in 2 Canadian provinces. The primary exposure variables included geographic setting (rural vs. urban), sex, and days of the week (weekend days vs. weekdays). The primary outcome measures were minutes of light PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior, assessed with accelerometry. Compared with weekdays, MVPA was ∼30% lower on weekend days (55.8 ± 23.0 min vs. 38.7 ± 26.7 min; p < 0.001), whereas light PA was ∼15% higher. Significantly more youth achieved an average of >60 min of MVPA on weekdays than on weekend days (46% vs. 22%; p < 0.001). Sex-specific differences in MVPA were more pronounced on weekdays than on weekend days (∼13 vs ∼8 min per day; p < 0.01). Youth in rural settings achieved ∼9 fewer minutes of MVPA daily than youth in urban settings (p < 0.001). In youth 10 to 15 years of age, daily MVPA is lower and light PA is higher on weekend days than on weekdays. Girls and students living in rural areas were particularly vulnerable to low levels of MVPA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: What is already known about this subjectChildhood obesity plays a fundamental role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes in adulthood.Clinical guidelines for the early management of CVD in children are poorly defined. Traditional cholesterol biomarkers such as low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol usually fall within the normal range in pre‐pubertal children with obesity.Remnant lipoproteins are overproduced by the intestine during obesity and type‐2 diabetes in adults and are an independent risk factor for CVD.What this study addsPre‐pubertal children with obesity have elevated (3‐fold) remnant lipoprotein concentration (assessed as apolipoprotein B48) relative to non‐obese controls, suggesting impaired metabolism of these atherogenic lipoproteins and potential increased CVD risk.Fasting apolipoprotein B48 is positively and significantly correlated with lipid biomarkers including triglyceride, total cholesterol and total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol in pre‐pubertal children with obesity.Objectives
Current clinical guidelines to assess paediatric cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk heavily rely on cholesterol parameters that are generally normal for obese children. Remnant lipoproteins have emerged as a critical CVD risk factor particularly in adults with normolipidemia. We assessed remnant lipoprotein concentration (measured by apolipoprotein [apo] B48) and its relationship with other traditional CVD risk biomarkers in pre‐pubertal children with obesity. Methods
Pre‐pubertal children (n = 78) with obesity (n = 39, 9.9 ± 0.3 years old) as well as sex‐matched normal‐weight controls (n = 39, 9.8 ± 0.3 years) were assessed for anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting plasma biochemical parameters for remnant lipoprotein, lipid and glucose/insulin metabolism, and inflammatory status. ResultsChildren with obesity had striking 2‐fold higher apoB48‐containing remnant lipoproteins concentrations relative to normal‐weight peers; the magnitude of elevation in the remnant lipoproteins is comparable to the levels previously reported for adults with established CVD and type‐2 diabetes. Fasting apoB48 was positively correlated with fasting triglyceride concentration in children with obesity (r = 0.51, P r = 0.45, P Conclusion
Elevated apoB48‐containing remnant lipoprotein is a stronger biomarker for paediatric CVD risk compared to traditional cholesterol parameters and may be associated with early adaptation of the intestine during obesity. Further investigation of abnormalities associated with the secretion and/or clearance of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins during the postprandial state may yield insight into our understanding of and therapeutic targets for managing risk for CVD in children with obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: What is already known about this subject Childhood obesity plays a fundamental role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Clinical guidelines for the early management of CVD in children are poorly defined. Traditional cholesterol biomarkers such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol usually fall within the normal range in pre-pubertal children with obesity. Remnant lipoproteins are overproduced by the intestine during obesity and type-2 diabetes in adults and are an independent risk factor for CVD. What this study adds Pre-pubertal children with obesity have elevated (3-fold) remnant lipoprotein concentration (assessed as apolipoprotein B48) relative to non-obese controls, suggesting impaired metabolism of these atherogenic lipoproteins and potential increased CVD risk. Fasting apolipoprotein B48 is positively and significantly correlated with lipid biomarkers including triglyceride, total cholesterol and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in pre-pubertal children with obesity. OBJECTIVES: Current clinical guidelines to assess paediatric cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk heavily rely on cholesterol parameters that are generally normal for obese children. Remnant lipoproteins have emerged as a critical CVD risk factor particularly in adults with normolipidemia. We assessed remnant lipoprotein concentration (measured by apolipoprotein [apo] B48) and its relationship with other traditional CVD risk biomarkers in pre-pubertal children with obesity. METHODS: Pre-pubertal children (n = 78) with obesity (n = 39, 9.9 ± 0.3 years old) as well as sex-matched normal-weight controls (n = 39, 9.8 ± 0.3 years) were assessed for anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting plasma biochemical parameters for remnant lipoprotein, lipid and glucose/insulin metabolism, and inflammatory status. RESULTS: Children with obesity had striking 2-fold higher apoB48-containing remnant lipoproteins concentrations relative to normal-weight peers; the magnitude of elevation in the remnant lipoproteins is comparable to the levels previously reported for adults with established CVD and type-2 diabetes. Fasting apoB48 was positively correlated with fasting triglyceride concentration in children with obesity (r = 0.51, P < 0.001) and their normal-weight peers (r = 0.45, P < 0.01). Traditional CVD biomarkers including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed no difference between groups and remained within the normal range for a paediatric population. CONCLUSION: Elevated apoB48-containing remnant lipoprotein is a stronger biomarker for paediatric CVD risk compared to traditional cholesterol parameters and may be associated with early adaptation of the intestine during obesity. Further investigation of abnormalities associated with the secretion and/or clearance of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins during the postprandial state may yield insight into our understanding of and therapeutic targets for managing risk for CVD in children with obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Hyperinsulinemia and altered lipid and lipoprotein metabolism induced by fast-food diets may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that a high saturated fat (SFA) meal would evoke prolonged postprandial lipemia and hyperinsulinemia, increased inflammation, and altered lipoprotein expression in obese children with NAFLD when compared with healthy children. Methods: We prospectively studied 31 children (NAFLD, 13.1 ± 2.6 years, n = 11; age-matched obese, 14.3 ± 1.7 years, n = 9; lean, 13.6 ± 2.6 years, n = 11) following consumption of a high SFA (18.8%) meal. Prior to and at 1, 3, and 6 hours after meal consumption, blood was collected for analysis of alanine aminotransferase (ALT); aspartate aminotransferase (AST); γ-glutamyltransferase; leptin; C-reactive protein; (fasting) insulin; glucose; triglycerides (TGs); total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; adiponectin; nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs); inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10); apolipoproteins-B48, B100, and CIII; and fatty acid (FA) composition of TG fractions. Results: Children with NAFLD had significantly higher fasting levels of ALT (87 ± 54 U/L), AST (52 ± 33.5 U/L), and apolipoprotein-CIII (20.6 ± 11.3 mg/dL) with postprandial hyperinsulinemia (iAUC insulin: 225 ± 207 [NAFLD] vs 113 ± 73 [obese] vs 47 ± 19.9 [lean] mU/L-h; P < .001); suppression of NEFA (iAUC-NEFA: 1.7 ± 0.9 [NAFLD] vs 0.6 ± 0.3 [obese] vs 1 ± 0.7 [lean] mEq/L-h); and prolonged elevations in apolipoprotein-B48 3-6 hours after meal consumption when compared with obese and lean controls (P < .05). Conclusion: A meal high in saturated fat evokes postprandial dyslipemia, hyperinsulinemia, and altered lipoprotein expression in obese children with and without NAFLD.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 12/2012; · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing at alarming rates in obese children. The study aim was to describe body composition/somatotype and its interrelationships to biomarkers of liver disease, insulin resistance, and lipid and cytokine expression in youth with NAFLD. Methods: Somatotype and body composition of children (7-18 years) diagnosed with NAFLD (n= 18) were compared with obese (n = 11) and lean children (n = 17). Anthropometric variables assessed included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHTR), and multiple skinfold thicknesses. Fat mass (FM) and somatotype analysis were measured using validated methodologies. Fasting liver biochemistries (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], γ-glutamyltransferase [GGT]), insulin, glucose, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL) factors 6/10, apolipoproteins B-100/B-48 and C-III, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results: BMI z score, WC, FM, and somatotype did not differ between NAFLD and obese groups; however, lean children were lighter/leaner across all anthropometric measures (P < .001). Children with NAFLD had a higher sum-of-trunk to sum-of-extremity ratio (1.6 ± 0.4) than did obese (1.3 ± 0.2) and lean (1.1 ± 0.5) children (P < .001). Markers of central visceral (WC/WHTR) and subcutaneous fat (subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac skinfolds) were associated with elevated plasma concentrations of insulin, HOMA-IR, ALT, GGT, and AST and lower HDL cholesterol and IL-10 (P < .001). Conclusion: Comprehensive assessment of body composition, including measurement of surrogate markers of subcutaneous and visceral fat, provides information regarding metabolic dysregulation and liver disease risk in obese children with NAFLD.
Nutrition in Clinical Practice 10/2012; · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To determine the association between physical activity (PA) intensities and cardiometabolic risk factors in youth. DESIGN Cross-sectional study using data from the 2008 Healthy Hearts Prospective Cohort Study of Physical Activity and Cardiometabolic Health in Youth. SETTING Rural and urban communities in Alberta, Canada. PARTICIPANTS A convenience sample of 605 youth aged 9 to 17 years. Youth were on average aged 12.1 years, 248 were boys (41%), and 157 were overweight or obese (26%). MAIN EXPOSURE Actical accelerometer-measured PA intensity. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES The primary outcome was body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) z score. Secondary outcome measures included waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [[Vdot]O2max]). RESULTS Body mass index z score, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure decreased and [Vdot]O2max increased in a dose-response manner across tertiles of vigorous PA (adjusted P < .001). No significant differences in cardiometabolic risk factors were seen across tertiles of moderate or light PA in multivariable analyses. Achieving more than 7 minutes of vigorous PA daily was associated with a reduced adjusted odds ratio of overweight status (0.56; 95% CI, 0.33-0.95) and elevated systolic blood pressure (0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.79). The odds of overweight status and elevated blood pressure decreased with increasing time and intensity of PA. CONCLUSIONS Only vigorous PA was consistently associated with lower levels of waist circumference, body mass index z score, systolic blood pressure, and increased cardiorespiratory fitness in youth. These findings underscore the importance of vigorous PA in guidelines for children and adolescents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Allostatic load (AL), a novel measure of the physiologically dysregulated response of the body to stress, represents a biomarker of chronic stress exposure. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-adolescent children with high AL are more susceptible to asthma as adolescents. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: This was a prospective evaluation of children recruited at age 7-10 in the nested case-control arm of the Study of Asthma, Genes and Environment (SAGE) and followed until ages 11-14. AL was measured using eight biomarkers: fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, cortisol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and waist-to-hip ratio. AL, created from the sum of biomarkers in a high risk quartile, was related to prevalence and incidence asthma using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 352 participants followed until 11-14 years, prevalent asthma was 4 times more likely in boys with high (>3) versus low (≤2) AL after adjusting for current asthma/atopy, age, ethnicity, parental history of asthma, and overweight status. Similar results were observed in the analysis of new-onset asthma in boys (adjusted OR: 4.35, 95% CI: 1.19-15.9). In girls, there were no associations between AL and asthma. In the analysis of a subset of biomarkers, combinations of total cholesterol, glucose, and cortisol were associated with similar or greater risk of asthma prevalence or onset in boys. CONCLUSION: AL and its biomarkers are associated with an increased likelihood of asthma in adolescent boys. The observed association between AL and asthma may be attributable to a combined subset of AL biomarkers.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2012; · 11.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need to develop and evaluate weight management interventions to address childhood obesity. Recent research suggests that interventions designed for parents exclusively, which have been named parents as agents of change (PAC) approaches, have yielded positive outcomes for managing pediatric obesity. To date, no research has combined a PAC intervention approach with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to examine whether these combined elements enhance intervention effectiveness. This paper describes the protocol our team is using to examine two PAC-based interventions for pediatric weight management. We hypothesize that children with obesity whose parents complete a CBT-based PAC intervention will achieve greater reductions in adiposity and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle behaviours, and psychosocial outcomes than children whose parents complete a psycho-education-based PAC intervention (PEP).
This study is a pragmatic, two-armed, parallel, single-blinded, superiority, randomized clinical trial. The primary objective is to examine the differential effects of a CBT-based PAC vs PEP-based PAC intervention on children's BMI z-score (primary outcome). Secondary objectives are to assess intervention-mediated changes in cardiometabolic, lifestyle, and psychosocial variables in children and parents. Both interventions are similar in frequency of contact, session duration, group facilitation, lifestyle behaviour goals, and educational content. However, the interventions differ insofar as the CBT-based intervention incorporates theory-based concepts to help parents link their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours; these cognitive activities are enabled by group leaders who possess formal training in CBT. Mothers and fathers of children (8-12 years of age; BMI ≥85th percentile) are eligible to participate if they are proficient in English (written and spoken) and agree for at least one parent to attend group-based sessions on a weekly basis. Anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle behaviours, and psychosocial health of children and parents are assessed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, 6-, and 12-months follow-up.
This study is designed to extend findings from earlier efficacy studies and provide data on the effect of a CBT-based PAC intervention for managing pediatric obesity in a real-world, outpatient clinical setting.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01267097.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Knowledge translation (KT) aims to close the research-practice gap in order to realize and maximize the benefits of research within the practice setting. Previous studies have investigated KT strategies in nursing and medicine; however, the present study is the first systematic review of the effectiveness of a variety of KT interventions in five allied health disciplines: dietetics, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and speech-language pathology. METHODS: A health research librarian developed and implemented search strategies in eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, PASCAL, EMBASE, IPA, Scopus, CENTRAL) using language (English) and date restrictions (1985 to March 2010). Other relevant sources were manually searched. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, performed data extraction, and performed quality assessment. Within each profession, evidence tables were created, grouping and analyzing data by research design, KT strategy, targeted behaviour, and primary outcome. The published descriptions of the KT interventions were compared to the Workgroup for Intervention Development and Evaluation Research (WIDER) Recommendations to Improve the Reporting of the Content of Behaviour Change Interventions. RESULTS: A total of 2,638 articles were located and the titles and abstracts were screened. Of those, 1,172 full-text articles were reviewed and subsequently 32 studies were included in the systematic review. A variety of single (n = 15) and multiple (n = 17) KT interventions were identified, with educational meetings being the predominant KT strategy (n = 11). The majority of primary outcomes were identified as professional/process outcomes (n = 25); however, patient outcomes (n = 4), economic outcomes (n = 2), and multiple primary outcomes (n = 1) were also represented. Generally, the studies were of low methodological quality. Outcome reporting bias was common and precluded clear determination of intervention effectiveness. In the majority of studies, the interventions demonstrated mixed effects on primary outcomes, and only four studies demonstrated statistically significant, positive effects on primary outcomes. None of the studies satisfied the four WIDER Recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Across five allied health professions, equivocal results, low methodological quality, and outcome reporting bias limited our ability to recommend one KT strategy over another. Further research employing the WIDER Recommendations is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective KT interventions in allied health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and associated health risks disproportionately affect Aboriginal (First Nations) children in Canada. The purpose of this research study was to elicit First Nations children's perceptions of food, activity, and health to inform a community-based obesity prevention strategy. Fifteen 4th- and 5th-Grade students participated in one of three focus group interviews that utilized drawing and pile-sorting activities. We used an ecological lens to structure our findings. Analyses revealed that a variety of interdependent sociocultural factors influenced children's perceptions. Embedded within a cultural/traditional worldview, children indicated a preference for foods and activities from both contemporary Western and traditional cultures, highlighted family members as their main sources of health information, and described information gaps in their health education. Informed by children's perspectives, these findings offer guidance for developing an obesity prevention strategy for First Nations children in this community.
Qualitative Health Research 07/2012; 22(7):986-96. · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this integrative review, we examined contemporary literature in pediatric weight management to identify characteristics that contribute to the relationship between families and health professionals and describe how these qualities can inform healthcare practices for obese children and families receiving weight management care. We searched literature published from 1980 to 2010 in three electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL). Twenty-four articles identified family-health professional relationships were influenced by the following: health professionals' weight-related discussions and approaches to care; and parents' preferences regarding weight-related terminology and expectations of healthcare delivery. There was considerable methodological heterogeneity in the types of reports (i.e. qualitative studies, review articles, commentaries) included in this review. Overall, the findings have implications for establishing a positive clinical relationship between families and health professionals, which include being sensitive when discussing weight-related issues, using euphemisms when talking about obesity, demonstrating a non-judgmental and supportive attitude and including the family (children and parents) in healthcare interactions. Experimental research, clinical interventions and longitudinal studies are needed to build on the current evidence to determine how best to establish a collaborative partnership between families and health professionals and whether such a partnership improves treatment adherence, reduces intervention attrition and enhances pediatric weight management success.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several factors influence children's ability to report accurate information about their dietary intake. To date, one understudied area of dietary assessment research relates to children's ability to estimate portion sizes of food. The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to examine food portion size estimation accuracy in 7- to 18-year-old children with obesity. Two within-subject experiments (Experiment 1: n=28, Experiment 2: n=27) were conducted in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, during 2007-2008. Three types of portion size measurement aids (PSMAs) (eg, measuring cups and spoons, household objects [full and half-sized], and modeling clay) were counterbalanced in a Latin Square design for participants to estimate four types of foods (ie, solid, liquid, amorphous pieces, and amorphous masses). Analyses of variance conducted on percent of signed and absolute errors yielded significant PSMA type×food type interactions (P<0.01) in both experiments. Across all food types, for Experiments 1 and 2, measuring cups and spoons produced the least accurate estimates with respect to absolute error (54.2% and 53.1%, respectively), whereas modeling clay produced the most accurate estimates (40.6% and 33.2%, respectively). Half sizes of household objects also yielded enhanced accuracy (47.9% to 37.2%). Finally, there were significant differences in accuracy between amorphous pieces (eg, grapes) vs amorphous masses (eg, mashed potatoes; P<0.01), indicating that there are qualitative differences in how different amorphous foods are estimated. These data are relevant when collecting food intake data from children with obesity and indicate that different PSMAs may be needed to optimize food portion size estimation accuracy for different food types.
Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 02/2012; 112(2):302-7. · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: School-based recreational opportunities for youth from low-income inner-city neighbourhoods are often lacking. School programs represent an ideal location for promoting youth development in low-income areas because they can provide safe, supervised, and structured activities. Such activities should include not only physical education (PE) programs, but other extra-curricular activities such as intramural sports and school sport teams. Because we were interested in how these programs were associated with youth development, we used the concept of positive youth development (PYD) to guide this study.Purpose: This case study examined school staff members’ and children's perceptions of school PE, intramural sports, and sport teams with a view to establish factors that facilitated or impeded PYD.Method: Data were collected via individual interviews with eight teachers and 59 children from an inner-city school that had a mission to promote positive behaviors consistent with PYD. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to a categorical aggregation analysis procedure.Results: Findings showed factors that facilitated or impeded PYD varied across different contexts. In PE, the importance of a specialist PE teacher and establishing clear boundaries during lessons while providing children with perceptions of choice were important. Children enjoyed intramural sports, but there were few attempts to create an appropriate developmental atmosphere during these sessions. In fact, intramural sports were associated with negative student interactions. Coaches of the sport teams used techniques to promote social interactions and respect. Most notable student outcomes associated with PYD related to fostering empathy and social connections.Conclusion: These findings showed differences in contextual factors across the PE/sport programs that helped promote or impeded PYD. These differences revealed some practical suggestions for promoting PYD, which include focusing on the developmental orientation of PE classes, the fun of intramurals, and the ‘life skills’ focus of the sport teams. Furthermore, we suggest an integrated, school-wide approach is required to help promote PYD.
Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 01/2012; 17(1):97-113. · 0.76 Impact Factor