Maria E Jönsson

Uppsala University, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden

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Publications (28)77.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported very high concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the effluent from a treatment plant receiving wastewater from about 90 bulk drug manufacturers near Hyderabad, India. The main objective of the present study was to examine how high dilutions of this effluent affect mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family genes and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in exposed wildlife, using the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as a model. In gill filaments exposed to diluted effluent ex vivo, EROD activity was strongly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. In a subsequent in vivo study, groups of fish were exposed (24h) to three concentrations of effluent, 0.8%, 1.6% or 3.2%. In this experiment, EROD in gills was induced 27-, 52- or 60-fold, respectively. Accordingly, CYP1A mRNA was markedly up-regulated in gill, liver and brain of fish exposed to all three effluent concentrations. Expression of mRNA for CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 was induced in gills at all concentrations while effects on these genes in liver and brain were weak or absent. The results of a time course study suggested that most CYP1-inducing substances in the effluent were readily metabolised or excreted, because the induced EROD activity and mRNA expression decreased when the fish were transferred to clean water. Considering that CYP1 enzymes play important roles in biotransformation of endogenous and foreign compounds, the observed dual effect of the effluent on CYP1 catalytic activity and mRNA expression suggests that multiple physiological functions could be affected in exposed wildlife.
    Chemosphere 10/2012; 90(3). DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.09.023 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR(2)) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependance of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC50 values of 1.4 to 2.0nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos(3) failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 10/2012; 265(2). DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2012.09.023 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) genes are biomarkers for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists and may be involved in some of their toxic effects. CYP1s other than the CYP1As are poorly studied in birds. Here we characterize avian CYP1B and CYP1C genes and the expression of the identified CYP1 genes and AHR1, comparing basal and induced levels in chicken and quail embryos. We cloned cDNAs of chicken CYP1C1 and quail CYP1B1 and AHR1. CYP1Cs occur in several bird genomes, but we found no CYP1C gene in quail. The CYP1C genomic region is highly conserved among vertebrates. This region also shares some synteny with the CYP1B region, consistent with CYP1B and CYP1C genes deriving from duplication of a common ancestor gene. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed similar tissue distribution patterns for CYP1A4, CYP1A5, CYP1B1, and AHR1 mRNA in chicken and quail embryos, with the highest basal expression of the CYP1As in liver, and of CYP1B1 in eye, brain, and heart. Chicken CYP1C1 mRNA levels were appreciable in eye and heart but relatively low in other organs. Basal transcript levels of the CYP1As were higher in quail than in chicken, while CYP1B1 levels were similar in the two species. 3,3',4,5,5'-Pentachlorobiphenyl induced all CYP1s in chicken; in quail a 1000-fold higher dose induced the CYP1As, but not CYP1B1. The apparent absence of CYP1C1 in quail, and weak expression and induction of CYP1C1 in chicken suggest that CYP1Cs have diminishing roles in tetrapods; similar tissue expression suggests that such roles may be met by CYP1B1. Tissue distribution of CYP1B and CYP1C transcripts in birds resembles that previously found in zebrafish, suggesting that these genes serve similar functions in diverse vertebrates. Determining CYP1 catalytic functions in different species should indicate the evolving roles of these duplicated genes in physiological and toxicological processes.
    PLoS ONE 12/2011; 6(12):e28257. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028257 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) mRNA induction patterns in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were explored for use in environmental monitoring of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists. The cDNAs of stickleback CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 were cloned and their basal and induced expression patterns were determined in the brain, gill, liver and kidney. Also, their induction time courses were compared after waterborne exposure to a transient (indigo) or a persistent (3,3',4,4',5-pentacholorbiphenyl PCB 126) AHR agonist. The cloned stickleback CYP1s exhibited a high amino acid sequence identity compared with their zebrafish orthologs and their constitutive tissue distribution patterns largely agreed with those reported in other species. PCB 126 (100 nM) induced different CYP1 expression patterns in the four tissues, suggesting tissue-specific regulation. Both indigo (1 nM) and PCB 126 (10 nM) induced a strong CYP1 expression in gills. However, while PCB 126 gave rise to a high and persistent induction in gills and liver, induction by indigo was transient in both organs. The number of putative dioxin response elements found in each CYP1 gene promoter roughly reflected the induction levels of the genes. The high responsiveness of CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 observed in several organs suggests that three-spined stickleback is suitable for monitoring of pollution with AHR agonists.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 02/2011; 154(1):42-55. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpc.2011.02.005 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Xenopus tropicalis genome shows a single gene in each of the four cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) subfamilies that occur in vertebrates, designated as CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1D1. We cloned the cDNAs of these genes and examined their expression in untreated tadpoles and in tadpoles exposed to waterborne aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), β-naphthoflavone (βNF), or indigo. We also examined the effects of PCB126 on expression of genes involved in stress response, cell proliferation, thyroid homeostasis, and prostaglandin synthesis. PCB126 induced CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 but had little effect on CYP1D1 (77-, 1.7-, 4.6- and 1.4-fold induction versus the control, respectively). βNF induced CYP1A and CYP1C1 (26- and 2.5-fold), while, under conditions used, indigo tended to induce only CYP1A (1.9-fold). The extent of CYP1 induction by PCB126 and βNF was positively correlated to the number of putative dioxin response elements 0-20 kb upstream of the start codons. No morphological effect was observed in tadpoles exposed to 1 nM-10 μM PCB126 at two days post-fertilization (dpf) and screened 20 days later. However, in 14-dpf tadpoles a slight up-regulation of the genes for PCNA, transthyretin, HSC70, Cu-Zn SOD, and Cox-2 was observed two days after exposure to 1 μM PCB126. This study of the full suite of CYP1 genes in an amphibian species reveals gene- and AHR agonist-specific differences in response, as well as a much lower sensitivity to CYP1 induction and short-term toxicity by PCB126 compared with in fish larvae. The single genes in each CYP1 subfamily may make X. tropicalis a useful model for mechanistic studies of CYP1 functions.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 10/2010; 250(2):170-83. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2010.10.010 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) gene family comprises four subfamilies in fish: CYP1A, CYP1B, CYP1C, and CYP1D. Only two CYP1 genes, CYP1A1 and CYP1A3, are so far known in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The present study aimed to identify other CYP1 subfamily genes in rainbow trout, to establish methods for quantitative mRNA expression analysis of these genes, and to determine their basal and induced mRNA expression in gills and liver. Another goal was to examine their mRNA expression in environmentally exposed fish. We cloned four new transcripts, denoted rbCYP1B1, rbCYP1C1, rbCYP1C2, and rbCYP1C3. Levels of these and the previously known rbCYP1A transcripts were determined by real-time PCR in unexposed fish, fish exposed to the potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), and fish caged in various waters in the Uppsala region (Sweden). The mRNA expression patterns observed in unexposed rainbow trout (basal levels) were markedly similar to those reported for orthologous genes in other species. All six transcripts were induced by PCB126 in gills and liver, suggesting all genes to be AhR regulated. The caged fish showed clear rbCYP1 induction in gills at all monitoring sites (up to 70-fold the basal level), whereas the liver responses were weak; induction (up to 5-fold) was recorded only at the Uppsala municipal sewage treatment plant outlet. Gill filament EROD activity was induced at all caging sites. Most interestingly, the rbCYP1 gene response patterns in gills differed among caging sites and among subfamilies. The EROD induction seemed to only reflect induction of rbCYP1A transcription. Response patterns of multiple CYP1 genes in gills and liver could provide an improved monitoring strategy. Such patterns could be used to characterize complex mixtures of AhR agonists and antagonists in aquatic environments.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 03/2010; 98(4):311-21. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.03.003 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation damages cell molecules, and has been suggested to up-regulate mammalian cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) genes through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediated mechanism. In this study, embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to UV to determine the effects on expression of CYP1 and stress response genes in vivo in these fish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed for varying times to UV on two consecutive days, with exposure beginning at 24 and 48h post-fertilization (hpf). Embryos exposed for 2, 4 or 6h twice over 2 days to UVB (0.62 W/m(2); 8.9-26.7 kJ/m(2)) plus UVA (2.05 W/m(2); 29.5-144.6 kJ/m(2)) had moderately (2.4+/-0.8-fold) but significantly up-regulated levels of CYP1A. UVA alone had no effect on CYP1A expression. Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) transcript levels were induced (2.1+/-0.2 and 2.3+/-0.5-fold, respectively) in embryos exposed to two 6-h pulses of 0.62 W/m(2) UVB (26.8 kJ/m(2)). CYP1A was induced also in embryos exposed to higher intensity UVB (0.93 W/m(2)) for two 3-h or two 4-h pulses (20.1 or 26.8 kJ/m(2)). CYP1B1, SOD1 and PCNA expression was induced by the two 3-h pulses of the higher intensity UVB, but not after two 4-h pulses of the higher intensity UVB, possibly due to impaired condition of surviving embryos, reflected in a mortality of 34% at that UVB dose. A single 8-h long exposure of zebrafish larvae (8dpf) to UVB at 0.93 W/m(2) (26.8 kJ/m(2)) significantly induced CYP1A and CYP1B1 expression, but other CYP1 genes (CYP1C1, CYP1C2 and CYP1D1) showed no significant increase. The results show that UVB can induce expression of CYP1 genes as well stress response genes in developing zebrafish, and that UVB intensity and duration influence the responses.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 02/2010; 98(1):74-82. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.01.008 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    Kai Gao, Ingvar Brandt, Maria E Jönsson
    Dioxin (Organohalogen Compounds); 08/2009
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    ABSTRACT: The tryptophan photooxidation product 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) has been proposed as a physiological ligand for the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which it binds with high-affinity, inducing expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). We investigated whether the response to FICZ is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates by measuring FICZ binding to two zebrafish AHRs (AHR1B and AHR2) and its ability to induce zebrafish CYP1 genes (CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, CYP1C2, and CYP1D1) in vivo. Exposure of zebrafish embryos (48 h-post-fertilization; hpf) to 10 nM FICZ for 6h caused strong induction of CYP1A mRNA and a statistically significant but modest induction of CYP1B1 and CYP1C1. Neither CYP1C2 nor CYP1D1 expression was induced by FICZ under the conditions of dose, time or developmental stage examined here. CYP1A induction was significantly greater after 6 h than after 12 h of exposure to FICZ, suggesting a rapid degradation of inducer. The 6-h EC(50) values for induction of CYP1A and CYP1B1 by FICZ were 0.6 and 0.5 nM compared to 72-h EC(50) values of 2.3 and 2.7 nM for PCB126, indicating that in zebrafish embryos FICZ is a more potent inducer than PCB126. FICZ at 10 nM was able to completely displace binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-1,6[3H]-dibenzo-p-dioxin to in vitro-expressed zebrafish AHR2 and AHR1B. Inhibition of AHR2 translation in zebrafish embryos by an AHR2-specific morpholino antisense oligonucleotide decreased the induction of CYP1A and CYP1B1 by FICZ and by PCB126. Together, these results demonstrate that FICZ is a potent AHR agonist in zebrafish, inducing expression of multiple CYP1 genes largely through AHR2. Evolutionary conservation of the response to FICZ is consistent with a possible role as an endogenous signaling molecule acting through the AHR.
    Chemico-biological interactions 08/2009; 181(3):447-54. DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2009.07.003 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum bifunctional hydroxymethylpterin pyrophosphokinase-dihydropteroate synthase (pfHPPK-DHPS) is a crucial enzyme in the de novo folate biosynthesis pathway. The crystal structure is not yet available for this enzyme, however, homology model of the enzyme reported previously revealed the presence of parasite-specific insertions. Alignment of pfHPPK-DHPS with HPPK and DHPS sequences from other microorganisms reveals two insertions relative to the corresponding enzyme in other organisms, i.e. HPPK-1 and HPPK-2. The former encompasses amino acid residues 66-162, while the latter covers residues 213-311. In order to investigate the roles of the two insertions, we constructed a number of mutants in which parts of these two insertions were deleted. Characterization of the mutationally altered proteins revealed that deletions of residues 74-80 in the HPPK-1 sequence of the pfHPPK-DHPS, but not that of the monofunctional pfHPPK, decreased the HPPK activity. A longer deletion (residues 74-86) in the HPPK-1 sequence of the bifunctional pfHPPK-DHPS completely inactivated both HPPK and DHPS activities. However, deletion in the HPPK-2 sequence from residues 247-306 did not disrupt the activities of HPPK and DHPS, but the kinetic properties of the recombinant proteins were slightly changed. The importance of HPPK-1 sequence on the catalytic activities of HPPK and DHPS in the bifunctional pfHPPK-DHPS could have implications for development of inhibitors targeting the non-catalytic region of this chemotherapeutically important enzyme.
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 08/2009; 168(2):135-42. DOI:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2009.07.005 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymes in the cytochrome P450 1 family oxidize many common environmental toxicants. We identified a new CYP1, termed CYP1D1, in zebrafish. Phylogenetically, CYP1D1 is paralogous to CYP1A and the two share 45% amino acid identity and similar gene structure. In adult zebrafish, CYP1D1 is most highly expressed in liver and is relatively highly expressed in brain. CYP1D1 transcript levels were higher at 9h post-fertilization than at later developmental times. Treatment of zebrafish with potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) did not induce CYP1D1 transcript expression. Morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of AHR2, which mediates induction of other CYP1s, did not affect CYP1D1 expression. Zebrafish CYP1D1 heterologously expressed in yeast exhibited ethoxyresorufin- and methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities. Antibodies against a CYP1D1 peptide specifically detected a single electrophoretically-resolved protein band in zebrafish liver microsomes, distinct from CYP1A. CYP1D1 in zebrafish is a CYP1A-like gene that could have metabolic functions targeting endogenous compounds.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 02/2009; 482(1-2):7-16. DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2008.12.002 · 3.04 Impact Factor
  • Maria E. Jönsson, Björn Brunström, Ingvar Brandt
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    ABSTRACT: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a common model species in fish toxicology, and the zebrafish gill is potentially useful in screening waterborne pollutants. We have previously developed a gill-based ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay, and proposed gill EROD activity as a biomarker for exposure to waterborne aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists. In this study we modified the gill EROD assay for use in zebrafish. We used immunohistochemistry to localize CYP1A induction, and microautoradiography to localize irreversible binding of the prototypic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in zebrafish gills. Gill filament and liver microsomal EROD activities were measured after waterborne exposure of zebrafish and rainbow trout to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or β-naphthoflavone (βNF). The results showed considerably lower relative EROD induction by βNF (1 μM) in zebrafish than in rainbow trout, both in gills (13-fold versus 230-fold compared to control) and in liver (5-fold versus 320-fold compared to control). The induced hepatic EROD activity was similar in the two species, whereas the basal activity was considerably higher in zebrafish than in rainbow trout. In zebrafish gills, βNF enhanced DMBA adduct formation and CYP1A immunostaining. Ellipticine blocked DMBA adduct formation and EROD activity following βNF exposure but had no effect on CYP1A immunostaining. A notable finding was that the localization of DMBA adducts differed from that of CYP1A protein in βNF-induced fish; CYP1A immunoreactivity was evenly distributed in the gills whereas DMBA adduction was confined to the leading edges of the filaments and the gill rakers, i.e., structures being highly exposed to DMBA-containing inhaled water. The results show that the modified method is suitable for determination of gill EROD activity in zebrafish, although rainbow trout seems more sensitive. They also imply that the sites of DMBA adduct formation in zebrafish gills are markedly influenced by kinetic factors.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 01/2009; 91(1-91):62-70. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2008.10.010 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was evaluated as a monitoring tool for waterborne cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inducers using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in urban area waters in Sweden. To compare the CYP1A induction response in different tissues, EROD activity was also analyzed in liver and kidney microsomes. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize CYP1A protein in gill and kidney. In two separate experiments fish were caged at sites with fairly high expected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. In the first experiment, gill EROD activities were analyzed in fish exposed for 1-21 days in a river running through Uppsala. The reference site was upstream of Uppsala. In the second, gill, liver and kidney EROD activities were analyzed in fish exposed for 1-5 days in fresh or brackish waters of Stockholm and in a reference lake 60km north of Stockholm. Fish exposed for 5 days followed by 2 days of recovery in tap water in the laboratory were also examined. The gill consistently showed a higher EROD induction compared with the liver and the kidney. After 1 day of caging, gill EROD activity was markedly induced (6-17-fold) at all sites examined. Induction in gill was pronounced (5-7-fold) also in fish caged at the reference sites. In the 21-day exposure study gill EROD activity remained highly induced throughout the experiment (26-fold at most) and the induced CYP1A protein was exclusively confined to the gill secondary lamellae. In the 5-day exposure experiment, EROD activity peaked after 1 day and then declined in both gill and liver, while CYP1A immunostaining in the gill remained intense over the 5-day period. In the kidney, CYP1A staining was weak or absent. We conclude that gill EROD activity is a more sensitive biomarker of exposure to waterborne CYP1A inducers than EROD activity in liver and kidney.
    Aquatic Toxicology 12/2007; 85(1):1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.07.013 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Halogenated agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), such as 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), cause developmental toxicity in fish. AHR dependence of these effects is known for TCDD but only presumed for PCB126, and the AHR-regulated genes involved are known only in part. We defined the role of AHR in regulation of four cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) genes and the effect of PCB126 on cell cycle genes (i.e., PCNA and cyclin E) in zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos. Basal and PCB126-induced expression of CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 was examined over time as well as in relation to cell cycle gene expression and morphological effects of PCB126 in developing zebra fish. The four CYP1 genes differed in the time for maximal basal and induced expression, i.e., CYP1B1 peaked within 2 days postfertilization (dpf), the CYP1Cs around hatching (3 dpf), and CYP1A after hatching (14-21 dpf). These results indicate developmental periods when the CYP1s may play physiological roles. PCB126 (0.3-100nM) caused concentration-dependent CYP1 gene induction (EC50: 1.4-2.7nM, Lowest observed effect concentration [LOEC]: 0.3-1nM) and pericardial edema (EC50: 4.4nM, LOEC: 3nM) in 3-dpf embryos. Blockage of AHR2 translation significantly inhibited these effects of PCB126 and TCDD. PCNA gene expression was reduced by PCB126 in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that PCB126 could suppress cell proliferation. Our results indicate that the four CYP1 genes examined are regulated by AHR2 and that the effect of PCB126 on morphology in zebra fish embryos is AHR2 dependent. Moreover, the developmental patterns of expression and induction suggest that CYP1 enzymes could function in normal development and in developmental toxicity of PCB126 in fish embryos.
    Toxicological Sciences 12/2007; 100(1):180-93. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfm207 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cytochrome P4501C (CYP1C) gene subfamily was recently discovered in fish, and zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP1C1 transcript has been cloned. Here we cloned the paralogous CYP1C2, showing that the amino acid sequence is 78% identical to CYP1C1, and examined gene structure and expression of CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2. Xenobiotic response elements were observed upstream of the coding regions in all four genes. Zebrafish adults and embryos were exposed (24 h) to 100 nM 3,3',4,4',5-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126) or 20 ppm acetone and subsequently held in clean water for 24 h (adults) or 48 h (embryos). All adult organs examined (eye, gill, heart, liver, kidney, brain, gut, and gonads) and embryos showed basal expression of the four genes. CYP1A was most strongly expressed in liver, whereas CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 were most strongly expressed in heart and eye. CYP1B1 and the CYP1C genes showed an expression pattern similar to one another and to mammalian CYP1B1. In embryos CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 tended to have a higher basal expression than CYP1A and CYP1B1. PCB126 induced CYP1A in all organs, and CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 in all organs except gonads, or gonads and brain, respectively. CYP1C2 induction was significant only in the liver. However, in embryos all four genes were induced strongly by PCB126. The results are consistent with CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, as well as CYP1A and CYP1B1, being regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. While CYP1A may have a protective role against AHR agonists in liver and gut, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 may also play endogenous roles in eye and heart and possibly other organs, as well as during development.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 06/2007; 221(1):29-41. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2007.02.017 · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • Maria Jönsson, Göte Swedberg
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    ABSTRACT: Efflux pumps encoded by mef genes are among the most common mechanisms of resistance to macrolides. These genes are often located on horizontally transferable elements such as transposons. We present data indicating conjugative transfer of the mef(E) gene from viridans streptococci to the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. The mef(E) gene is located on the previously described MEGA (macrolide efflux genetic assembly) element. Of 110 isolates tested, 85% of those that carried the mef(A/E) gene carried it on MEGA, and in all cases of conjugal transfer of the mef(E) gene it was carried on MEGA. It therefore appears reasonable to draw the conclusion that this element is important in the lateral transfer of macrolide resistance between streptococci.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 09/2006; 28(2):101-3. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.02.023 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of copper on beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF)-induced ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill filaments (after in vivo exposure) and in gill cells cultured as both primary cultures and as polarised epithelia, i.e. with water in the apical compartment and culture medium in the basolateral compartment. In the in vivo study betaNF and copper were added to the water, in primary cultures both chemicals were added to the culture medium and in cultured epithelia copper was added to the apical water whilst betaNF was added to the basolateral culture medium. In primary cultures this investigation was repeated with and without foetal bovine serum (FBS) supplementation of the culture media. Gill barrier properties, specifically polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000) permeability (i.e. paracellular permeability), sodium efflux and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were also investigated in cultured gill cell epithelia after apical treatment with copper. Two micromolar copper had no effect on EROD activity in gill filaments in vivo irrespective of whether EROD was induced by 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 microM betaNF. Similarly, 0.5-100 microM copper had no effect on EROD induction in cultured epithelia. In primary cultures copper did reduce EROD induction but the effective concentration was dependent on whether the cells were supplemented with FBS, i.e. EROD activity was reduced by all copper concentrations of 5 and above if FBS was included, but only by 1000 microM if FBS was omitted. In cultured epithelia PEG-4000 permeability increased, whilst sodium efflux and TER were unaffected following treatment with 75 microM copper. Based on these results we conclude that the branchial monooxygenase system is a less sensitive target for copper than the barrier properties of the gill. Indeed, these data suggest the apical membrane of the gill epithelial cells minimises the uptake of waterborne copper and therefore protects the intracellular environment, including the CYP1A system. This could enable the freshwater fish gill to retain their potential of first-pass metabolism of waterborne organic compounds whilst simultaneously being exposed to waterborne copper.
    Aquatic Toxicology 09/2006; 79(1):78-86. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.05.006 · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Maria Jönsson, Göte Swedberg
    Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 04/2005; 140(1):123-5. DOI:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2004.11.016 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of clarithromycin treatment on resistance development in the commensal throat flora. Alpha-haemolytic streptococci and Neisseria spp. were isolated from patients receiving clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. The treatment resulted in an immediate increase in the number of macrolide-resistant streptococci, which remained for one year after treatment, but declined to background level three years later. The most prevalent resistance gene was mef(A). Neisseria spp. were less affected by the treatment: the number of resistant isolates increased in only in one case during treatment. In conclusion, a one-week standard therapy with clarithromycin selects for an increased prevalence of macrolide-resistant streptococci that persisted for more than one year.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 02/2005; 25(1):68-74. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2004.08.011 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction on cell-specific benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) adduct formation was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gills. Fish preexposed to beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF) or caged in a polluted river were exposed to waterborne 3H-benzo[a]pyrene (3H-BaP). The 3H-benzo[a]pyrene adducts in the gill filaments were localized by autoradiography and CYP1A protein by immunohistochemistry. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured using a gill filament-based ex vivo assay. Branchial 3H-BaP binding and EROD activity were enhanced by exposure to betaNF or to the river water, and completely blocked by the CYP1A inhibitor ellipticine. The predominant sites of adduct formation were in epithelium of the secondary lamellae and in epithelium of the efferent edge of the gill filament. In betaNF-exposed fish, the strongest CYP1A immunoreactivity was observed in differentiating cells and in pillar cells. In fish caged in the polluted river, strong CYP1A immunoreactivity was found in most cells in the secondary lamellae, whereas the primary lamellae were almost devoid of immunoreactivity. Our results reveal a discrepancy between the localization of CYP1A protein and BaP adducts in the gill. Consequently, other factors, such as bioavailability of waterborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the target cells, are important for the localization of PAH adducts in the gill.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 05/2004; 23(4):874-82. DOI:10.1897/03-211 · 2.83 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

501 Citations
77.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2012
    • Uppsala University
      • • Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology
      • • The Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU)
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2007–2010
    • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
      • Department of Biology
      Falmouth, Massachusetts, United States