[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study tested the hypothesis that the Janus kinase 2, Src tyrosine kinases and mitogen activated protein kinase interact to regulate lordosis behavior induced by leptin in ovariectomized, estrogen-primed rats. The role of protein kinase A and protein kinase C in lordosis facilitation by leptin was also assessed. In experiment 1, intracerebroventricular administration of leptin to ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats significantly stimulated lordosis behavior at 1, 2 and 4 hrs post injection tests. In experiment 2, the Janus kinase 2 inhibitor AG490, the Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, and the mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059 were administered into the right lateral ventricle before leptin. The lordosis quotient and the lordosis score induced by leptin were significantly decreased by each of these kinase inhibitors. In experiment 3, we examined the effects of RpcAMPS and bisindolylmaleimide, protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors on the lordosis elicited by leptin administration. Lordosis behavior induced by leptin was significantly decreased by both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors at 1 hr post-leptin injection. The results confirm that multiple intracellular pathways participate in the expression of lordosis behavior in estrogen-primed rats elicited by leptin.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 06/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The progesterone receptor (PR) is a dual function protein that acts in the nucleus as a transcriptional factor and at the cytoplasm as a scaffold for the Src-MAPK signaling pathway. Several agents lacking affinity for the PR, such as 5β-reduced progestins, GnRH or prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) facilitate estrous behavior in ovariectomized (ovx), estrogen-primed rats yet their action is blocked by the antiprogestin RU486. We hypothesize that these agents act by using the PR-Src-mitogen activated protein kinase alternative pathway. To test this hypothesis we used PP2, a specific inhibitor of the Src kinase family. Intraventricular infusion of 30μg of PP2, 30min before behavioral testing, significantly attenuated estrous behaviors induced in estradiol benzoate (E(2)B)-primed rats by 5β-dihydroprogesterone (5β-DHP), 5β-pregnan-3β-ol-20-one (5β,3β-Pgl), GnRH, PGE(2) and by manual flank/vaginocervical stimulation. These results suggest that the Src signaling system, by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases, participates in the facilitation of estrous behavior in E(2)B-primed rats induced by agents lacking affinity for the PR.
Hormones and Behavior 09/2012; · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of leptin facilitates lordosis behavior in ad libitum-fed, estrogen-primed rats. The cellular mechanism involved in this response is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that the nitric oxide-guanylyl cyclase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway is involved in the facilitation of lordosis behavior induced by the central administration of leptin. We tested the importance of the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway for lordosis stimulation by either icv infusion of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) or a nitric oxide-dependent, soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) 30 min before leptin administration (1 μg). This dose of leptin reliably induced lordosis behavior in ovariectomized estradiol benzoate treated rats. The lordosis induced by leptin at 1 and 2h after infusion was significantly reduced by the previous injection of either L-NAME or by ODQ. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the PKG inhibitor (KT5823) 30 min before leptin infusion, also significantly inhibited the lordosis behavior induced by leptin at 1 and 2h after hormone administration. These data support the hypothesis that the nitric oxide/cGMP/PKG pathway is involved in the facilitation of lordosis by leptin in estrogen-primed female rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progesterone exerts a variety of actions in the brain through the interaction with its receptors (PR) which have two isoforms with different function and regulation: PR-A and PR-B. Progesterone may modulate neurotransmission by regulating the expression of neurotransmitters synthesizing enzymes or their receptors in several brain regions. The role of PR isoforms in this modulation is unknown. We explored the role of PR isoforms in the regulation of tryptophan (TPH) and tyrosine (TH) hydroxylase, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) expression in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats. Two weeks after ovariectomy, animals were subcutaneously injected with 5 μg of estradiol benzoate (EB), and 40 h later, progesterone (P) was intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected. Each animal received two ICV injections of 1 μg/μl (4 nmol) of PR-B and total PR (PR-A+PR-B) sense or antisense (As) oligonucleotides (ODNs). First injection was made immediately before sc EB injection, and 24h later animals received the second one. Twenty-four hours after P administration, rats were euthanized and brains removed to measure the expression of PR-A and PR-B, TPH, TH and GAD by Western blot. We observed that sense ODNs modified neither PR isoforms nor enzymes expression in the hypothalamus, whereas PR A+B antisense (PR A+B As) clearly decreased the expression of both PR isoforms in this region. ICV administration of PR-B As only decreased PR-B isoform expression with no significant effects on PR-A expression. A differential protein expression of TPH, TH and GAD was observed after PR isoforms antisense administration. PR-B As administration decreased the expression of TPH (65% with respect to control). In contrast, PR A+B As and PR-B As administration increased (51.6% and 34.4%, respectively) TH expression. The administration of PR A+B As and PR-B As diminished GAD expression (33.4% and 41.6%, respectively). Our findings indicate that PR isoforms play a differential role in the regulation of the content of TPH, TH and GAD in the rat hypothalamus.
Neurochemistry International 06/2011; 59(5):671-6. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of genital stimulation, either by vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) using a calibrated vaginal probe combined with manual flank stimulation (FS), or by mounts performed by the male, on the hypothalamus and preoptic area concentration of the progesterone receptors A (PR-A) and B (PR-B) was assessed in ovariectomized (ovx) estrogen-primed rats. VCS/FS or stimulation provided by male mounts, even without intromission, significantly decreased PR-B concentration in the hypoythalamus. Down regulation of PR produced by genital stimulation was quantitatively similar to that elicited by progesterone (P) administration. Bilateral or unilateral transection of the pelvic or the pudendal nerves prevented down regulation elicited by VCS/FS. Repeated VCS/FS elicited lordosis behavior in most ovx estrogen primed rats, but the lordosis intensity was lower than that observed in response to P. P administered to ovx estrogen primed rats, induced sequential inhibition, i.e., failure to display estrous behavior in response to a second P injection (24h after the initial P injection). VCS/FS failed to elicit sequential inhibition, since rats responded with normal estrous behavior to the second injection of P. This suggests that down regulation by VCS, by contrast with P, failed to inhibit the subpopulation of PR involved in the facilitation of estrous behavior by P.
Brain research bulletin 05/2011; 85(3-4):201-6. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dose response curves for leptin facilitation of estrous behavior (lordosis and proceptivity) were made by infusing the peptide into the lateral ventricle (icv) of ovariectomized (ovx), ad libitum-fed rats injected 40h previously with 5μg of estradiol benzoate. Leptin doses of 1 and 3μg produced significant lordosis quotient at 60min post-injection, with maximal lordosis being displayed at 120min. Yet the intensity of lordosis was weak, and a high incidence of rejection behaviors was found. Moreover, leptin did not induce significant proceptive behaviors at any dose. The leptin doses of 1 and 3μg were selected for determining whether antide, a GnRH-1 receptor antagonist, or the progestin receptor antagonist RU486 could modify the lordosis response to leptin. Icv injection of either antide or RU486 1h before leptin significantly depressed leptin facilitation of lordosis. The results suggest that leptin stimulates lordosis by releasing GnRH, which in turn activates GnRH-1 and progestin receptors. The physiological role of leptin in the control of estrous behavior remains to be determined.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypothesis that the Src/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the facilitation of the lordosis and proceptive behaviors induced by progesterone (P) and its ring A-reduced metabolites in ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats. Intraventricular (icv) infusion of PP2 (7.5, 15 and 30 microg), a Src kinase inhibitor, significantly depressed P-dependent estrous behavior (lordosis and proceptivity) in estradiol-primed rats. Icv infusion of 30 microg of PP2 also significantly attenuated estrous behavior induced by the ring A-reduced P metabolites 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5 alpha-DHP) and 5 alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (allopregnanolone). PP2 did not inhibit estrous behavior induced by administration of high doses of estradiol alone to ovariectomized rats. We also assessed if the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is one of the neural sites at which progestins activate Src signaling to facilitate estrous behavior. Bilateral administration of 15 microg of PP2 into the VMH inhibited the stimulation of both lordosis and proceptive behaviors elicited by subcutaneous P administration to estradiol-primed rats. These results suggest that progestins act through Src/Raf/MAPK signaling to initiate estrous behaviors in estrogen-primed rats. This event is one component of the cellular pathways leading to the display of estrous behaviors induced by P and its ring A-reduced metabolites in female rats.
Hormones and Behavior 03/2010; 58(2):223-9. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progesterone and its ring A reduced metabolites regulate female sexual behavior through the direct or indirect activation of progesterone receptor (PR) which has two isoforms with different function and regulation: PR-A and PR-B. The contribution of each PR isoform to the regulation of lordosis in rats is unknown. We explored the role of PR isoforms in lordosis display induced by progesterone and two of its ring A reduced metabolites: 5alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (5alpha-DHP), and 5beta,3beta-pregnan-20-one (5beta,3beta-Pgl) in adult ovariectomized rats. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the animals were injected subcutaneously with 5 microg of estradiol benzoate (EB), and 40 h later, progestins were injected intracerebroventricularly. PR-B and total PR (PR-A + PR-B) sense or antisense oligonucleotides were administered intracerebroventricularly immediately before EB injection and 24 h later. Lordosis was evaluated 30, 120 and 240 min after progestin administration. Western blot analysis of both PR isoforms was performed in the hypothalamus and preoptic area 24 h after lordosis tests. All progestins induced maximal lordosis 120 min after administration, and antisense oligonucleotides against both PR isoforms inhibited lordosis in all animals. PR-B antisense oligonucleotides also inhibited lordosis induced by progesterone and 5alpha-DHP although with less efficacy than total PR antisense oligonucleotides, but the former inhibited lordosis induced by 5beta,3beta-Pgl in a similar manner as total PR antisense oligonucleotides. In the hypothalamus and preoptic area, the content of both PR isoforms or PR-B alone was diminished by the administration of total or PR-B antisense oligonucleotides, respectively. These results suggest that the PR-B isoform is essential for the display of the lordosis behavior in rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that GnRH, PGE2 and db-cAMP act via the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP and MAPK pathways to facilitate estrous behavior (lordosis and proceptivity) in estradiol-primed female rats. Estradiol-primed rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of pharmacological antagonists of NO synthase (L-NAME), NO-dependent soluble guanylyl cyclase (ODQ), protein kinase G (KT5823), or the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 15 min before icv administration of 50 ng of GnRH, 1 microg of PGE2 or 1 microg of db-cAMP. Icv infusions of GnRH, PGE2 and db-cAMP enhanced estrous behavior at 1 and 2 h after drug administration. Both L-NAME and ODQ blocked the estrous behavior induced by GnRH, PGE2 and db-cAMP at some of the times tested. The protein kinase G inhibitor KT5823 reduced PGE2 and db-cAMP facilitation of estrous behavior but did not affect the behavioral response to GnRH. In contrast, PD98059 blocked the estrous behavior induced by all three compounds. These data support the hypothesis that the NO-cGMP and ERK/MAPK pathways are involved in the lordosis and proceptive behaviors induced by GnRH, PGE2 and db-cAMP. However, cGMP mediation of GnRH-facilitated estrous behavior is independent of protein kinase G.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brief vaginocervical stimulation using a glass rod (VCS) combined with manual flank-perineal stimulation (FS) rapidly (within 5 min) induced both receptive and proceptive behavioural responses to males in ovariectomised, oestrogen-primed rats. This receptive-proceptive response to males, resulting from a single brief (5-s duration) instance of manual VCS + FS, declined markedly within 4 h. However, the decline was prevented if the females were mounted by males immediately after the manual VCS + FS and 2 h later. We tested the participation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A system and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) system in the response to VCS + FS by infusing either 100 ng of Rp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothiate triethylamonium salt (a protein kinase A blocker) or 3.3 microg of PD98059 (a MAPK blocker) i.c.v. 15 min prior to VCS + FS. Both inhibitors blocked the ability of VCS + FS to induce the proceptive-receptive responses to males at all testing intervals. In experiment 2, systemic administration of 5 mg of RU486 1 h before VCS + FS also blocked the ability of VCS + FS to induce the proceptive-receptive responses to males. The present findings suggest that both VCS + FS and mating stimuli provided by males release neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that trigger the protein kinase A and the MAPK signalling systems, which interact with the progestin receptor to rapidly (within 5 min) induce proceptive-receptive behaviour in females.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology 01/2009; 20(12):1361-7. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dose-response curves for lordosis and proceptive behaviors were obtained for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP), by infusing them in the right lateral ventricle (i.c.v.) of ovariectomized (OVX) estradiol benzoate (E2B; 2 microg) treated rats. Two dose levels, one producing the maximal effect and the other one producing a submaximal response (approximately ED50) were selected for testing the capacity of Rp-cAMPS, a kinase A blocker, to modify the behavioral response to the three compounds. I.c.v. injections of Rp-cAMPS, significantly depressed both lordosis and proceptive responses induced by LHRH, PGE2 and db-cAMP. The results show that these agents use the cAMP-kinase A signaling pathway to elicit their stimulating effect on estrous behavior in the rat.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 02/2007; 86(1):169-75. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dose response curves for lordosis behavior was obtained for progesterone (P) and its two ring A-reduced metabolites: 5alpha-pregnanedione (alpha-DHP) and 5alpha,3alpha-pregnanolone (5alpha,3alpha-Pgl) by infusing these progestins in the right lateral ventricle (rlv) of ovariectomized (ovx) estradiol-treated rats (2 microg estradiol benzoate; EB), 40 h before intracerebro-ventricular (icv) injection. Effective doses 50 (ED50) revealed that ring A-reduced progestins were more potent than P itself to induce lordosis behavior. Two dose levels, one producing the maximal effect and the other one producing a submaximal response (ED50-ED60), were selected for testing the capacity of RpAMPS, a kinase A blocker, and H7, a kinase C blocker, to modify the response to the three progestins. rlv injection of RpAMPS significantly depressed the lordosis response to the two dose levels of P and alpha-DHP but failed to significantly inhibit that of 5alpha,3alpha-Pgl. The administration of H7 prevented the effect of both 5alpha-reduced progestins without affecting the response to P. The results suggest that P and its ring A-reduced metabolites stimulate lordosis behavior through different cellular mechanisms: P acting mainly through the cAMP-kinase system; alpha-DHP through both kinase A and kinase C signaling pathways and 5alpha,3alpha-Pgl through the kinase C system.
Hormones and Behavior 04/2006; 49(3):398-404. · 3.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As sex steroids modify the number and distribution of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor subunits, we investigated the potential modulation of anesthesia, induced by agents acting on the GABAA receptor, by estrogen and androgen.
To assess possible effects of sex and hormonal condition (i.e., intact vs castrate; estradiol vs testosterone treatment) on the anesthetic effect of a GABAA agonist, THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4,-c]pyridin-3-ol hydrochloride), and an allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor: 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-pregnan-20-one (epipregnanolone).
The potencies of THIP and epipregnanolone for inducing loss of the righting response were compared between: (a) female and male rats; (b) intact and castrated animals of each sex; (c) untreated castrates and castrates given estradiol or testosterone.
Sex and endocrine condition influenced sensitivity to i.v. THIP for the induction of anesthesia. ED50 values were: gonadectomized females, 80 mg/kg>intact males, 50 mg/kg>proestrous females, 35 mg/kg>gonadectomized males, 28 mg/kg. Estradiol benzoate (EB; 3 microg/day for 5 days) significantly increased THIP sensitivity in gonadectomized females: THIP+EB: ED50=26 mg/kg vs THIP+sesame oil: ED50=94 mg/kg, while testosterone propionate (TP; 10 mg injected 24 h before THIP) decreased THIP sensitivity in orchidectomized males when compared with vehicle-injected animals (ED50=72 mg/kg vs 22 mg/kg, respectively).
Results suggest that estrogen increases the density or availability of GABAA receptor subtypes on which THIP acts, while testosterone exerts the opposite effect. Neither sex nor gonadal condition influenced the anesthetic action of epipregnanolone as a similar potency was found in intact and in gonadectomized males and females.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrous behavior in rodents is triggered by the binding of progesterone (P) to its intracellular receptor (PR). Non-steroidal agents (i.e., gonadotropin-releasing hormone, noradrenaline, dopamine and others), acting at the membrane, can facilitate estrous behavior in estrogen-primed rats. This action is mediated through the generation of second messengers (cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, calcium) which, in turn, phosphorylate through diverse kinase systems (protein kinases A, G or C) either the PR or associated effector proteins linking the PR to the trans-activation machinery. P or its metabolites also activate cyclic AMP-signaling pathways by acting directly on the membrane or by modulating neurotransmitter release. Molecular processes resulting from second messenger signaling pathways and those from the progesterone-RP interaction synergize to elicit a full behavioral response.
Scandanavian Journal of Psychology 08/2003; 44(3):221-9. · 1.52 Impact Factor